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H-H Zhang, M-J Luo, Q-W Zhang, P-M Cai, A Idrees, Q-E Ji, J-Q Yang, J-H Chen
Phenoloxidase (PO) plays a key role in melanin biosynthesis during insect development. Here, we isolated the 2310-bp full-length cDNA of PPO1 from Zeugodacus tau, a destructive horticultural pest. qRT-polymerase chain reaction showed that the ZtPPO1 transcripts were highly expressed during larval-prepupal transition and in the haemolymph. When the larvae were fed a 1.66% kojic acid (KA)-containing diet, the levels of the ZtPPO1 transcripts significantly increased by 2.79- and 3.39-fold in the whole larvae and cuticles, respectively, while the corresponding PO activity was significantly reduced; in addition, the larval and pupal durations were significantly prolonged; pupal weights were lowered; and abnormal phenotypes were observed...
June 22, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Nunzio Fiorentino, Valeria Ventorino, Sheridan L Woo, Olimpia Pepe, Armando De Rosa, Laura Gioia, Ida Romano, Nadia Lombardi, Mauro Napolitano, Giuseppe Colla, Youssef Rouphael
Microbial inoculants such as Trichoderma -based products are receiving great interest among researchers and agricultural producers for their potential to improve crop productivity, nutritional quality as well as resistance to plant pathogens/pests and numerous environmental stresses. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Trichoderma -based biostimulants under suboptimal, optimal and supraoptimal levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization in two leafy vegetables: Iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Federica Brunoni, Karin Ljung, Catherine Bellini
The evolution of terrestrial plant life was made possible by the establishment of a root system, which enabled plants to migrate from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. During evolution, root organization has gradually progressed from a very simple to a highly hierarchical architecture. Roots are initiated during embryogenesis and branch afterwards through lateral root formation. Additionally, adventitious roots can be formed post-embryonically from aerial organs. Induction of adventitious roots forms the basis of the vegetative propagation via cuttings in horticulture, agriculture and forestry...
June 19, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Marina García-Llorente, Radha Rubio-Olivar, Inés Gutierrez-Briceño
Green care is an innovative approach that combines simultaneously caring for people and caring for land through three elements that have not been previously connected: (1) multifunctional agriculture and recognition of the plurality of agricultural system values; (2) social services and health care; and (3) the possibility of strengthening the farming sector and local communities. The current research provides a comprehensive overview of green care in Europe as a scientific discipline through a literature review ( n = 98 studies)...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohit Sharma, Shiwani Guleria, Kirti Singh, Anjali Chauhan, Saurabh Kulshrestha
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi belongs to the division Ascomycota and was first described as Fusisporium . Innumerable members of this genus act as pathogens, endophytes and saprophytes and can be recovered from plants and soils worldwide. Many of these members are known to be phytopathogens. It is among the most diverse and widely dispersed phyto-pathogenic fungi which cause economically important blights, rots, wilts and cankers of many ornamental, field, horticultural and forest crops both in agricultural commodities and natural ecosystems...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Abdullah A Al-Ghamdi, Hosam O Elansary
Salinity is one of the major agricultural problems that may threat food security and limit the agricultural lands expansion worldwide. Exploring novel tools controlling saline conditions and increase valuable secondary metabolites in the horticultural crops might have outstanding results that serve humanity in the current century. The current study explores the effects of weekly seaweed extracts (7 mL  L-1 ) and/or 5-aminolevulinic acid (3, 5 and 10 ppm) sprays on Asparagus aethiopicus plants subjected to saline stress conditions (2000 and 4000 ppm) for 6 weeks in two consecutive seasons of 2016 and 2017...
June 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yu Xiu, Guodong Wu, Wensi Tang, Zhengfeng Peng, Xiangpan Bu, Longjun Chao, Xue Yin, Jiannan Xiong, Haiwu Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhao, Jing Ding, Lvyi Ma, Huafang Wang, Johannes van Staden
Paeonia ostii var. lishizhenii, a well-known medicinal and horticultural plant, is indigenous to China. Recent studies have shown that its seed has a high oil content, and it was approved as a novel resource of edible oil with a high level of α-linolenic acid by the Chinese Government. This study measured the seed oil contents and fatty acid components of P. ostii var. lishizhenii and six other peonies, P. suffruticosa, P. ludlowii, P. decomposita, P. rockii, and P. lactiflora Pall. 'Heze' and 'Gansu'. The results show that P...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Loissi Kalakodio, Moussa Bakayoko, Adiara Kalagodio, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Jean Pierre Muhoza, El Moctar Ismaila
Biochar, coal produced by pyrolysis and used as an amendment, has several advantages and has proven to be a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture. However, the current manufacturing methods, the conditions of pyrolysis and the biomasses used produce biochars of very variable qualities which can differently affect the productivity of the ground and the outputs of plants. Currently, no study makes it possible to elucidate the influence of the physicochemical properties of the biochars on the structure and the microbial diversity of the soil...
June 13, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Pushpendra Kumar, Shruti Sethi, R R Sharma, Manish Srivastav, Dinesh Singh, Eldho Varghese
Plum is a perishable fruit with a very short shelf life of 3-4 days. Several studies have suggested the possible use of edible coatings on maintaining quality and prolonging storage life of fresh horticultural produce. Hence, different edible coatings, namely, lac-based (2:3), Semperfresh™ (1:3) and Niprofresh® (1:5) were selected to observe their efficacy on quality retention of 'Santa Rosa' plums. The effects of these coatings on the physical, physiological and biochemical attributes were studied under cold storage conditions (2 ± 1 °C and 85-90% relative humidity)...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Michael F Fay
With c. 28,000 species, orchids are one of the largest families of flowering plants, and they are also one of the most threatened, in part due to their complex life history strategies. Threats include habitat destruction and climate change, but many orchids are also threatened by unsustainable (often illegal and/or undocumented) harvest for horticulture, food or medicine. The level of these threats now outstrips our abilities to combat them at a species-by-species basis for all species in such a large group as Orchidaceae; if we are to be successful in conserving orchids for the future, we will need to develop approaches that allow us to address the threats on a broader scale to complement focused approaches for the species that are identified as being at the highest risk...
June 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Mari C López-Pérez, Fabián Pérez-Labrada, Lino J Ramírez-Pérez, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, América B Morales-Díaz, Susana González-Morales, Luis R García-Dávila, Jesús García-Mata, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza
Silicon is an essential nutrient for humans, additionally is beneficial for terrestrial plants. In plants Si enhances tolerance to different types of stress; in humans, it improves the metabolism and increases the strength of skeletal and connective tissues as well as of the immune system. Most of the Si intake of humans come from edible plants creating a double benefit: first, because the absorption of Si increases the antioxidants and other phytochemicals in plants, thereby increasing its functional value, and second because the higher concentration of Si in plants increases intake in human consumers...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ah-Reum Han, Sin-Ae Park, Byung-Eun Ahn
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effects of a plant cultivation-based horticultural therapy program for elderly people with mental health problems. DESIGN: Pre- and post-test design with experimental and control groups. SETTING: Twenty-eight elderly Korean people with mental health problems participated from April to June 2017 at a farm located in Suwon, South Korea. INTERVENTIONS: The participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 14) or horticultural therapy group (n = 14); the latter participated in once-weekly sessions of a previously designed 10-session horticultural therapy program...
June 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Michelle Baybutt, Mark Dooris, Alan Farrier
Globally, prisoners tend to come from marginalized and socially disadvantaged sections of the society and exhibit a high incidence of ill health, linked to social exclusion and multiple complex needs. Prisons therefore offer an important opportunity to tackle inequality and injustice, through promoting health, reducing reoffending and facilitating community reintegration.This paper reports on and critically discusses findings from an evaluative research study, which aimed to identify and explore impacts of prisoners' participation in an innovative social and therapeutic horticultural programme, 'Greener on the Outside for Prisons' (GOOP), delivered in prisons in North West England...
May 29, 2018: Health Promotion International
Domenico Cautela, Filomena Monica Vella, Domenico Castaldo, Bruna Laratta
Fennel crop has been traditionally used as spice in cooking and fragrances, and in folk medicine for its spectrum of useful properties. Mediterranean is the elective natural cultivation area for this plant with Italy being a leader producer. A limit of this production is due to the high amount of wastes derived still rich of phytochemicals, which are usually underused. Hence, the extraction and characterization of essential oil from residues of fennel horticultural market was investigated to understand the potential profit of their recycling...
May 30, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yuta Morii, Yusaku Ohkubo, Sanae Watanabe
Citizen science is a powerful tool that can be used to resolve the problems of introduced species. An amateur naturalist and author of this paper, S. Watanabe, recorded the total number of Limax maximus (Limacidae, Pulmonata) individuals along a fixed census route almost every day for two years on Hokkaido Island, Japan. L. maximus is an invasive slug considered a pest species of horticultural and agricultural crops. We investigated how weather conditions were correlated to the intensity of slug activity using for the first time in ecology the recently developed statistical analyses, Bayesian regularization regression with comparisons among Laplace, Horseshoe and Horseshoe+ priors for the first time in ecology...
May 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Claudia K Y Lai, Rick Y C Kwan, Shirley K L Lo, Connie Y Y Fung, Jordan K H Lau, Mimi M Y Tse
OBJECTIVE: Frail nursing home residents face multiple health challenges as a result of their frail status. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HT on the psychosocial well-being of frail and prefrail nursing home residents. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eleven participants were randomly allocated into the intervention [horticultural therapy (HT)] and control (social activities) conditions...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Anna Margenat, Víctor Matamoros, Sergi Díez, Núria Cañameras, Jordi Comas, Josep M Bayona
Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed...
May 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David Oscar Yawson, Isaac Benjamin Yao Kudu, Michael Osei Adu
This paper investigated the concentrations of eggs of three helminths (roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm) in the so-called black soils used for domestic and urban landscaping, home gardening and as growth medium for potted plants and pot experiments. The black soils are largely collected from active or abandoned waste dumpsites and fallowed or vegetated idle sites in the urban fringe or rural areas. Users buy black soils from dealers. Samples of black soils used for various purposes and at different places were collected for analysis of helminth eggs...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Eleanor C Lahr, Robert R Dunn, Steven D Frank
Photosynthesis is a fundamental process that trees perform over fluctuating environmental conditions. This study of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) characterizes photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in planted cultivars relative to wildtype trees. Red maple is common in cities, yet there is little understanding of how physiological processes affect the long-term growth, condition, and ecosystem services provided by urban trees. In the first year of our study, we measured leaf-level gas exchange and performed short-term temperature curves on urban planted cultivars and on suburban and rural wildtype trees...
2018: PloS One
Jinhua Zuo, Yunxiang Wang, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao
Cowpea is an important horticultural crop in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as well as parts of southern Europe and Central and South America. Chilling injury is a common physiological hazard of cowpea in cold chain logistics which reduce the cowpea pod's nutritional quality and product value. However, the molecular mechanism involved in chilling injury remains unclear in cowpea pods. RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq technologies were employed to decipher the miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles and their regulatory networks in cowpea pods involved in chilling stress...
May 21, 2018: Gene
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