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Marta Bassi, Cecilia Rassiga, Natalia Fumagalli, Giulio Senes
Horticulture was shown to represent a well-being source for older adults, encompassing the physical, mental and social domains. Aim of this pilot study was to contribute to extant literature through the investigation of the quality of experience associated with horticultural versus occupational activities. A group of 11 older residents of a nursing home were involved in a crossover study with a baseline measure. Participants attended weekly horticultural and occupational sessions for two six-week cycles. Experience Sampling Method was administered before the program and after each session, to assess participants' levels of happiness, concentration, sociability, involvement, challenges and stakes, and self-satisfaction...
February 12, 2018: Geriatric Nursing
Rangaswamy Madugundu, Khalid A Al-Gaadi, ElKamil Tola, Abdalhaleem A Hassaballa, Ahmed G Kayad
The crop Water Footprint (WF) can provide a comprehensive knowledge of the use of water through the demarcation of the amount of the water consumed by different crops. The WF has three components: green (WFg), blue (WFb) and grey (WFgr) water footprints. The WFg refers to the rainwater stored in the root zone soil layer and is mainly utilized for agricultural, horticultural and forestry production. The WFb, however, is the consumptive use of water from surface or groundwater resources and mainly deals with irrigated agriculture, industry, domestic water use, etc...
2018: PloS One
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Mitra Rahmati, José M Mirás-Avalos, Pierre Valsesia, Françoise Lescourret, Michel Génard, Gholam H Davarynejad, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Gilles Vercambre
Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen-Hong Chen, Xiao-Hua Jin, Yu-Min Shui
Begonia kingdon-wardii Tebbitt was rediscovered in 2014 from Myanmar after 67 years based on its last collection in 1937. Its previously unknown female flower and inaccurate morphology of leaf and ovary have been additionally described. This species belongs to Begonia sect. Sphenanthera (Hassk.) Warb. due to its dioecious habit, 3-locular ovary, berry fruits and thick placenta segments. Morphologically, it is similar to Begonia gulinqingensis S. H. Huang & Y. M. Shui in the leaf shape, placentation and fruit shape, but different in its dioecious plants, pliciform leaves, two-petalled female flowers and berry fruits...
2018: PhytoKeys
Michał Misiak, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski
People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles...
February 2, 2018: Appetite
Jonas K Olofsson, Donald A Wilson
Human olfaction is sensitive but poorly encoded by language. A new study comparing horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers suggests that the strength of odor language is dependent on life-style. This work may stimulate olfactory research at the crossroads between biology and culture.
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Eukaryotic virus-bacteria interactions have recently become an emerging topic of study due to multiple significant examples related to human pathogens of clinical interest. However, such omnipresent and likely important interactions for viruses and bacteria relevant to the applied and agricultural sciences have not been reviewed or compiled. The fundamental basis of this review is that these interactions have importance and deserve more investigation, as numerous potential consequences and applications arising from their discovery are relevant to the applied sciences...
February 2, 2018: Viruses
Ruifeng Liu, Richard L Printz, Erin C Jenkins, Tracy P O'Brien, Jerez A Te, Masakazu Shiota, Anders Wallqvist
Endosulfan was once the most commonly used pesticide in agriculture and horticulture. It is an environmentally persistent organochlorine compound with the potential to bioaccumulate as it progresses through the food chain. Its acute and chronic toxicity to mammals, including humans, is well known, but the molecular mechanisms of its toxicity are not fully understood. To gain insight to these mechanisms, we examined genome-wide gene expression changes of rat liver, heart, and kidney cells induced by endosulfan exposure...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Manreet Singh Bhullar, Ankit Patras, Agnes Kilanzo-Nthenge, Bharat Pokharel, Sudheer Kumar Yannam, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Che Pan, Hang Xiao, Michael Sasges
A continuous-flow UV reactor operating at 254nm wave-length was used to investigate inactivation of microorganisms including bacteriophage in coconut water, a highly opaque liquid food. UV-C inactivation kinetics of two surrogate viruses (MS2, T1UV) and three bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115) in buffer and coconut water were investigated (D10 values ranging from 2.82 to 4.54mJ·cm-2). A series of known UV-C doses were delivered to the samples...
January 2018: Food Research International
Kees van Leeuwen, Eli de Vries, Stef Koop, Kees Roest
Water is an abundant resource worldwide, but fresh and clean water is scarce in many areas of the world. Increases in water consumption and climate change will affect global water security even further in the near future. With increasing numbers of people living in metropolitan areas, water, energy, and materials need to be used carefully, reused and renewed. Resource scarcity is the driver behind the circular economy. The recovery of materials and energy can add significant new value streams and improve cost recovery and water quality...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Management
Yeonhwa Jo, Sen Lian, Hyosub Chu, Jin Kyong Cho, Su-Hyun Yoo, Hoseong Choi, Ju-Yeon Yoon, Seung-Kook Choi, Bong Choon Lee, Won Kyong Cho
Many recent studies have demonstrated that several known and unknown viruses infect many horticultural plants. However, the elucidation of a viral population and the understanding of the genetic complexity of viral genomes in a single plant are rarely reported. Here, we conducted metatranscriptome analyses using six different peach trees representing six individual peach cultivars. We identified six viruses including five viruses in the family Betaflexiviridae and a novel virus belonging to the family Tymoviridae as well as two viroids...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Micah E Stevens, Keith E Woeste, Paula M Pijut
Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), an economically valuable species. The inability of black walnut to reliably form adventitious roots limits propagation of superior genotypes...
January 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Péter Béla Molnár, Csengele Bognár, Anna Laura Erdei, Takeshi Fujii, Pál Vági, Júlia Katalin Jósvai, Zsolt Kárpáti
The European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis, Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) is an invasive pest of greenhouses in many countries, causing serious damages to horticultural plants. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis of the female gland extract revealed two antennally active peaks. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), one was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald); however, further analysis on different types of capillary columns indicated that the second active compound has two different isomers, (E)-13-octadecenal (E13-18:Ald) and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Cristina Esteras, Jose Luis Rambla, Gerardo Sánchez, M Pilar López-Gresa, M Carmen González-Mas, Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Jose María Bellés, Antonio Granell, M Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: Aroma profile and carotenoids content of melon flesh are two important aspects influencing the quality of this fruit that have been characterized using only selected genotypes. However, the extant variability of the whole species remains unknown. RESULTS: A complete view of the volatile/carotenoids profiles of melon flesh was obtained analyzing 71 accessions, representing the whole diversity of the species. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and HPLC were used to analyze 200 volatile compounds and 5 carotenoids...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Fabio Mencarelli, Andrea Bellincontro
BACKGROUND: Postharvest techniques are widely used for the handling and storage of fresh horticultural crops. Some of these crops are interesting for use with wine grapes to improve the quality of wine. In this review, we consider the postharvest techniques that are already commercially used in wine sector and others that may be significant in inducing or extracting the aroma from grapes to produce high-quality wines. RESULTS: Precooling consists of rapidly lowering the grape temperature, which allows the preservation/increase of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ogugua C Aworh
There are hundreds of traditional leafy vegetables and wild food plants of horticultural and nutritional significance in Africa. These lesser-known crops and wild food plants that are highly adapted to harsh growing conditions thrive with little care and are available when other sources of food fail or are out of season. They are rich in micronutrients and are often the cheapest sources of many essential vitamins and minerals in many localities. Many of them are very important functional foods in the traditional African diets and are rich in nutraceuticals including polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and flavonols that exert demonstrable antioxidant, free radical scavenging and enzyme inhibition activities and have antimicrobial properties that provide scientific justification and possible mechanisms for their use in the management of a wide range of ailments including diet-related, non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Asifa Majid, Nicole Kruspe
People struggle to name odors [1-4]. This has been attributed to a diminution of olfaction in trade-off to vision [5-10]. This presumption has been challenged recently by data from the hunter-gatherer Jahai who, unlike English speakers, find odors as easy to name as colors [4]. Is the superior olfactory performance among the Jahai because of their ecology (tropical rainforest), their language family (Aslian), or because of their subsistence (they are hunter-gatherers)? We provide novel evidence from the hunter-gatherer Semaq Beri and the non-hunter-gatherer (swidden-horticulturalist) Semelai that subsistence is the critical factor...
January 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Naoyuki Nakahama, Azusa Ito, Shingo Kaneko, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Azusa Hayano, Miho Murayama, Yuji Isagi
Microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Calanthe izu-insularis (Orchidaceae). This species is unique to the Izu Islands in Japan. Unfortunately, its population size has decreased because of excessive collection for horticultural purposes. In addition, although natural hybridization between C. izu-insularis and C. discolor var. discolor has been reported, morphological differences between C. izu-insularis and the hybridized individuals remain unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
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