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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#1
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898837/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns-between-nonhyperhydric-and-hyperhydric-peach-leaves
#2
Yakup Bakir, Vahap Eldem, Gokmen Zararsiz, Turgay Unver
Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894039/biochar-amendment-for-integrated-composting-and-vermicomposting-of-sewage-sludge-the-effect-of-biochar-on-the-activity-of-eisenia-fetida-and-the-obtained-vermicompost
#3
Krystyna Malińska, Małgorzata Golańska, Rafaela Caceres, Agnieszka Rorat, Patryk Weisser, Ewelina Ślęzak
Sewage sludge derived biochar (SSDB) was used as a supplementary material for municipal sewage sludge (SS) and wood chips mixtures (WC) treated by combined composting and vermicomposting. SSDB added to the mixture before composting resulted in significantly higher reproduction rate: on week 4 the number of cocoons increased by 213% when compared to the mixture with no biochar. On week 6 the average number of juveniles increased 11-fold in the mixture with biochar added before composting and 5-fold in the mixtures with biochar added after composting when compared to the mixture with no biochar...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873109/bioavailability-and-health-risk-assessment-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-thriasio-plain-near-athens-greece
#4
Vasileios Antoniadis, Evangelia E Golia, Sabry M Shaheen, Jörg Rinklebe
Elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are usually found in areas of intense industrial activity. Thriasio Plain is a plain near Athens, Greece, where most of the heavy industry of the country has been situated for decades, but it also is a residential and horticultural area. We aimed at measuring the levels of PTEs in soils and indigenous plant species and assessing the health risk associated with direct soil ingestion. Samples of soils at roadsides and growing plants were collected from 31 sites of that area...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866604/impact-of-bio-nanogold-on-seed-germination-and-seedling-growth-in-pennisetum-glaucum
#5
Asra Parveen, Bi Bi Zainab Mazhari, Srinath Rao
Nanotechnology is leading towards the development of low cost applications to improve the cultivation and growth of plants. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture will leads to a significant effect on food industry along with opening a new area of research in agroecosystem. In this paper gold nanoparticles were biosynthesized with Cassia auriculata leaf extract at room temperature and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of synthesized bio-nanogold on an important food and biofuel producing plant Pennisetum glaucum...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833819/salivary-microbiomes-of-indigenous-tsimane-mothers-and-infants-are-distinct-despite-frequent-premastication
#6
Cliff S Han, Melanie Ann Martin, Armand E K Dichosa, Ashlynn R Daughton, Seth Frietze, Hillard Kaplan, Michael D Gurven, Joe Alcock
BACKGROUND: Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833808/non-target-effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-on-common-toad-larvae-bufo-bufo-amphibia-and-associated-algae-are-altered-by-temperature
#7
Fabian Baier, Edith Gruber, Thomas Hein, Elisabeth Bondar-Kunze, Marina Ivanković, Axel Mentler, Carsten A Brühl, Bernhard Spangl, Johann G Zaller
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826310/evaluation-of-supercritical-extracts-of-algae-as-biostimulants-of-plant-growth-in-field-trials
#8
Izabela Michalak, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Agnieszka Dmytryk, Radosław Wilk, Mateusz Gramza, Edward Rój
The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825485/growth-promotion-of-lactuca-sativa-in-response-to-volatile-organic-compounds-emitted-from-diverse-bacterial-species
#9
Paola Fincheira, Herbert Venthur, Ana Mutis, Maribel Parada, Andrés Quiroz
Agrochemicals are currently used in horticulture to increase crop production. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use is a relevant issue for environmental and legal aspects. Alternative tools for reducing fertilizers and synthetic phytohormones are being investigated, such as the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as growth inducers. Some soil bacteria, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, stimulate Arabidopsis and tobacco growth by releasing VOCs, but their effects on vegetables have not been investigated...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819200/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-homalodisca-vitripennis-hemiptera-cicadellidae
#10
D W Waite, D Li, M D'Souza, D Gunawardana
The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is an invasive pest organism, which is found throughout Central America and has recently invaded a few countries in the Pacific Islands. As a carrier of the highly virulent plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, it is of great economic significance to horticulture and is estimated to cost Californian vineyards over US$100 million per year in control and losses. New Zealand is currently free from this pest, but its recent spread through the Pacific has raised concerns of it establishing in New Zealand, potentially as a result of introduction through human travel...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818663/grafting-a-technique-to-modify-ion-accumulation-in-horticultural-crops
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Imtiaz, Qiusheng Kong, Fei Cheng, Waqar Ahmed, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815007/agroindustrial-compost-as-a-peat-alternative-in-the-horticultural-industry-of-ecuador
#12
Irene Gavilanes-Terán, Janneth Jara-Samaniego, Julio Idrovo-Novillo, Ma Angeles Bustamante, Ma Dolores Pérez-Murcia, Aurelia Pérez-Espinosa, Marga López, Concepción Paredes
This work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using different agroindustrial composts in the production of horticultural seedlings, thereby replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species differing in salt sensitivity - tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Malpica) (the least sensitive), courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Mastil F1) (moderately sensitive) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Largo de Reus Pairal) (the most sensitive) - were grown in nine media containing three composts, prepared by co-composting vegetable waste (flower, broccoli or tomato waste) with laying hen manure and sawdust, as well as peat in various ratios...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814359/whole-transcriptome-selection-and-evaluation-of-internal-reference-genes-for-expression-analysis-in-protocorm-development-of-dendrobium-officinale-kimura-et-migo
#13
Hongqiang An, Qiankun Zhu, Wei Pei, Jing Fan, Yi Liang, Yihui Cui, Nan Lv, Wanjun Wang
Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers' interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate reference genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder). The results showed that a few reference genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 reference genes were ASS and APH1L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792944/uptake-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-halogenated-flame-retardants-by-crop-plants-grown-in-biosolids-amended-soils
#14
Irene Navarro, Adrián de la Torre, Paloma Sanz, Miguel Ángel Porcel, Javier Pro, Gregoria Carbonell, María de Los Ángeles Martínez
The bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was examined in three horticultural crops and earthworms. Two species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), were grown in field soil amended with a single application of biosolids (at agronomic rate for nitrogen), to represent the scenario using commercial biosolids as fertilizer, and the third crop, corn (Zea mays) was grown in spiked soil (~50mg PFOS/kg soil, ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil and a mixture of both, ~50mg PFOS and ~5mg Deca-BDE/kg soil) to represent a worst-case scenario...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775975/the-scourge-of-the-spurge-family-an-imitator-of-rhus-dermatitis
#15
Kimberly A Huerth, Jason E Hawkes, Laurence J Meyer, Douglas L Powell
The Euphorbiaceae family (commonly known as "spurge") is a large, diverse, and widely distributed family of plants that encompass around 300 genera and more than 8000 species. Their attractiveness and hearty nature have made them popular for both indoor ornamentation and outdoor landscaping. Despite their ubiquity, the potential to cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is often overlooked in favor of more notorious causes of phytodermatitis, namely, Toxicodendron species and nettles. We examined case reports spanning 40 years and discovered that spurge-induced ICD tends to befall children and middle-aged adults who unwittingly encounter the plant through play or horticulture, respectively...
November 2016: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767044/direct-analysis-and-quantification-of-metaldehyde-in-water-using-reactive-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#16
Simon Maher, Fred P M Jjunju, Deidre E Damon, Hannah Gorton, Yosef S Maher, Safaraz U Syed, Ron M A Heeren, Iain S Young, Stephen Taylor, Abraham K Badu-Tawiah
Metaldehyde is extensively used worldwide as a contact and systemic molluscicide for controlling slugs and snails in a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops. Contamination of surface waters due to run-off, coupled with its moderate solubility in water, has led to increased concentration of the pesticide in the environment. In this study, for the first time, rapid analysis (<~1 minute) of metaldehyde residues in water is demonstrated using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The observed precursor molecular ions of metaldehyde were confirmed from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments by studying the fragmentation patterns produced via collision-induced dissociation...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760721/virtual-water-and-water-self-sufficiency-in-agricultural-and-livestock-products-in-brazil
#17
Vicente de Paulo R da Silva, Sonaly D de Oliveira, Célia C Braga, José Ivaldo B Brito, Francisco de Assis S de Sousa, Romildo M de Holanda, João Hugo B C Campos, Enio P de Souza, Armando César R Braga, Rafaela S Rodrigues Almeida, Lincoln E de Araújo
Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757745/recovery-and-reuse-of-sludge-from-active-and-passive-treatment-of-mine-drainage-impacted-waters-a-review
#18
Tsiverihasina V Rakotonimaro, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Bruno Bussière, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Gérald J Zagury
The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753247/a-perspective-on-management-of-helicoverpa-armigera-transgenic-bt-cotton-ipm-and-landscapes
#19
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744490/the-historical-role-of-species-from-the-solanaceae-plant-family-in-genetic-research
#20
Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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