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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223880/tomato-plants-use-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-pathways-to-cope-with-moderate-uv-a-b-irradiation-a-contribution-to-the-use-of-uv-a-b-in-horticulture
#1
N Mariz-Ponte, R J Mendes, S Sario, J M P Ferreira de Oliveira, P Melo, C Santos
Plants developed receptors for solar UV-A/B radiation, which regulate a complex network of functions through the plant's life cycle. However, greenhouse grown crops, like tomato, are exposed to strongly reduced UV radiation, contrarily to their open-field counterparts. A new paradigm of modern horticulture is to supplement adequate levels of UV to greenhouse cultures, inducing a positive mild stress necessary to stimulate oxidative stress pathways and antioxidant mechanisms. Protected cultures of Solanum (cv MicroTom) were supplemented with moderate UV-A (1h and 4h) and UV-B (1min and 5min) doses during the flowering/fruiting period...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214445/auxin-enhances-grafting-success-in-carya-cathayensis-chinese-hickory
#2
R M Saravana Kumar, Liu Xiao Gao, Hu Wei Yuan, Dong Bin Xu, Zhao Liang, Shen Chen Tao, Wen Bin Guo, Dao Liang Yan, Bing Song Zheng, Johan Edqvist
Application of auxin to root stock and scion increases the success rate of grafting in Chinese hickory. The nuts of the Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis) tree are considered both delicious and healthy. The popularity and high demand result is that the hickory nuts are of very high economical value for horticulture. This is particularly true for the Zhejiang province in eastern China where this tree is widely cultivated. However, there are several difficulties surrounding the hickory cultivation, such as for example long vegetative growth, tall trees, labour-intensive nut picking, and slow variety improvements...
December 6, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209349/regulation-of-fig-ficus-carica-l-fruit-color-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-the-flavonoid-biosynthetic-pathway
#3
Ziran Wang, Yuanyuan Cui, Alexander Vainstein, Shangwu Chen, Huiqin Ma
Combined metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out with fig cultivar Green Peel and its color mutant "Purple Peel." Five and twenty-two metabolites were identified as having significantly different contents between fruit peels of the two cultivars at young and mature stages, respectively. Cyanidin O-malonylhexoside demonstrated a 3,992-fold increase in the mature purple peel, the first identification of a major cyanidin in fig fruit; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin O-malonylhexoside O-hexoside and cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside were upregulated 100-fold, revealing the anthocyanins underlying the purple mutation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198200/selecting-native-perennial-plants-for-ecological-intensification-in-mediterranean-greenhouse-horticulture
#4
E Rodríguez, M González, D Paredes, M Campos, E Benítez
Natural control by predators and parasitoids provides an important and often unnoticed ecosystem service to agricultural landscapes by reducing pest populations in crops. The current model of horticultural intensification in south-eastern Spain produces high yields but has also resulted in a landscape almost completely covered by plastic. Promoting natural areas among greenhouses could enhance biodiversity, by being beneficial insects, and reduce pest pressure outdoors. The first step is to ascertain how pests and their natural enemies (NEs) use Mediterranean vegetation for selecting the best plants for pest suppression outdoors...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190278/can-narrow-bandwidth-light-from-uv-a-to-green-alter-secondary-plant-metabolism-and-increase-brassica-plant-defenses-against-aphids
#5
Ole Rechner, Susanne Neugart, Monika Schreiner, Sasa Wu, Hans-Michael Poehling
Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181647/the-role-of-plant-hormones-during-grafting
#6
Amrit K Nanda, Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely informative in science for studying and identifying the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its increasing use in horticulture and science, how plants undertake the process of grafting remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180830/mycosphaerellaceae-chaos-or-clarity
#7
S I R Videira, J Z Groenewald, C Nakashima, U Braun, R W Barreto, P J G M de Wit, P W Crous
The Mycosphaerellaceae represent thousands of fungal species that are associated with diseases on a wide range of plant hosts. Understanding and stabilising the taxonomy of genera and species of Mycosphaerellaceae is therefore of the utmost importance given their impact on agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Based on previous molecular studies, several phylogenetic and morphologically distinct genera within the Mycosphaerellaceae have been delimited. In this study a multigene phylogenetic analysis (LSU, ITS and rpb2) was performed based on 415 isolates representing 297 taxa and incorporating ex-type strains where available...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176988/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-flowering-and-ripening-periods-in-apple
#8
Jorge Urrestarazu, Hélène Muranty, Caroline Denancé, Diane Leforestier, Elisa Ravon, Arnaud Guyader, Rémi Guisnel, Laurence Feugey, Sébastien Aubourg, Jean-Marc Celton, Nicolas Daccord, Luca Dondini, Roberto Gregori, Marc Lateur, Patrick Houben, Matthew Ordidge, Frantisek Paprstein, Jiri Sedlak, Hilde Nybom, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson, Michela Troggio, Luca Bianco, Riccardo Velasco, Charles Poncet, Anthony Théron, Shigeki Moriya, Marco C A M Bink, François Laurens, Stefano Tartarini, Charles-Eric Durel
Deciphering the genetic control of flowering and ripening periods in apple is essential for breeding cultivars adapted to their growing environments. We implemented a large Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) at the European level using an association panel of 1,168 different apple genotypes distributed over six locations and phenotyped for these phenological traits. The panel was genotyped at a high-density of SNPs using the Axiom®Apple 480 K SNP array. We ran GWAS with a multi-locus mixed model (MLMM), which handles the putatively confounding effect of significant SNPs elsewhere on the genome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172492/preparation-and-properties-of-a-novel-semi-ipns-slow-release-fertilizer-with-the-function-of-water-retention
#9
Yang Xiang, Xudong Ru, Jinguo Shi, Jiang Song, Haidong Zhao, Yaqing Liu, Dongdong Guo, Xin Lu
A new semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) slow-release fertilizer (SISRF) with water absorbency, based on kaolin-g-poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylic amide) (kaolin-g-P(AA-co-AM)) network and linear urea-formaldehyde oligomers (UF), was prepared by solution polymerization. Nutrients phosphorus and potassium were supplied by adding dipotassium hydrogen phosphate during the preparation process. The structure and properties of SISRF were characterized by various characterization methods. SISRF showed excellent water absorbency of 68 g/g in tap water...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170435/biofunctional-analysis-of-vitellogenin-and-vitellogenin-receptor-in-citrus-red-mites-panonychus-citri-by-rna-interference
#10
Muhammad Waqar Ali, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Shuang Xia, Hongyu Zhang
Panonychus citri is one of the most damaging pests of horticultural crops. Conventional control of this pest population through pesticides has led to the enhanced pest resistance. Management of P. citri population through RNAi, is still largely unknown. In oviparous organisms, fabrication and development of yolk protein play a vital role in the reproduction. Vitellin (Vn) is the source of eggs storage that helps in proper functioning of Vitellogenin (Vg) and Vitellogenin receptor (VgR). VgR is very compulsory protein for the development of Vg into oocytes...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163591/transcriptomic-and-hormonal-analyses-reveal-that-yuc-mediated-auxin-biogenesis-is-involved-in-shoot-regeneration-from-rhizome-in-cymbidium
#11
Yang Liu, Hai-Liang Zhang, He-Rong Guo, Li Xie, Rui-Zhen Zeng, Xiang-Qian Zhang, Zhi-Sheng Zhang
Cymbidium, one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium 'Xiaofeng' (CXF), which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense 'Qijianbaimo' (CSQ), which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157183/photobiology-eye-safety-for-horticultural-led-lighting-transmittance-performance-of-eyewear-protection-using-high-irradiant-monochromatic-leds
#12
Bo-Sen Wu, Mark G Lefsrud
Light emitting diodes have slowly gained market share as horticultural lighting systems in greenhouses due to their rapid improvement in color performances and light outputs. These advancements have increased the availability of the full spectrum of visible wavelengths and the corresponding irradiance outputs available to plants. However, light emitting diodes owners have limited information on the proper options for personal eyewear protection as the irradiance levels have increased. The objective of this study was to measure the light transmittance performance of 12 eyewear protection including welding goggles, safety goggles, polarized glasses and sunglasses across the human visible spectrum (380-740 nm) up to an irradiance level of 1500 W·m(-2) from high-irradiant light emitting diodes assemblies...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147812/geissoschizine-synthase-controls-flux-in-the-formation-of-monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids-in-a-catharanthus-roseus-mutant
#13
Yang Qu, Antje M K Thamm, Matthew Czerwinski, Sayaka Masada, Kyung Hee Kim, Graham Jones, Ping Liang, Vincenzo De Luca
A Catharanthus roseus mutant accumulates high levels of ajmalicine at the expense of catharanthine and vindoline. The altered chemistry depends on increased expression and biochemical activities of strictosidine β-glucosidase and ajmalicine synthase activities and reduced expression and biochemical activity of geissoschizine synthase. The Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] is a commercially important horticultural flower species and is a valuable source for several monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), such as the powerful antihypertensive drug ajmalicine and the antineoplastic agents, vinblastine and vincristine...
November 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143146/screening-transferable-microsatellite-markers-across-genus-phalaenopsis-orchidaceae
#14
Ya-Zhu Ko, Huei-Chuan Shih, Chi-Chu Tsai, Hsing-Hua Ho, Pei-Chun Liao, Yu-Chung Chiang
BACKGROUND: Molecular identification based on microsatellite loci is an important technology to improve the commercial breeding of the moth orchid. There are more than 30,000 cultivars have been enrolled at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). In this study, genomic microsatellite primer sets were developed from Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana to further examine the transferability of across 21 Phalaenopsis species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were obtained using the magnetic bead enrichment method, with high transferability of the 21 species of the genus Phalaenopsis, especially in the subgenus Phalaenopsis...
November 15, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133839/genetic-relationships-and-evolution-of-old-chinese-garden-roses-based-on-ssrs-and-chromosome-diversity
#15
Jiongrui Tan, Jing Wang, Le Luo, Chao Yu, Tingliang Xu, Yuying Wu, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
Old Chinese garden roses are the foundation of the modern rose, which is one of the best-selling ornamental plants. However, the horticultural grouping and evolution of old Chinese garden roses are unclear. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to survey genetic diversity in old Chinese garden roses and genetic differentiation was estimated among different rose groups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to study the physical localization of 5 S rDNA genes and a karyotype analysis was performed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129982/antioxidant-capacity-and-major-phenol-compounds-of-horticultural-plant-materials-not-usually-used
#16
Stina C M Burri, Anders Ekholm, Åsa Håkansson, Eva Tornberg, Kimmo Rumpunen
Horticultural plant materials not usually used from onion, carrot, beetroot, sea buckthorn, black and red currants as well as a wastewater powder from olive oil production were analyzed for total phenols content (FC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), radical scavenging capacity (ABTS), and for major phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS. Antioxidant capacity and phenol content varied significantly between species and cultivars, with extracts of sea buckthorn leaves being superior. In different species, different phenolic compounds were closely associated with FRAP, ABTS and FC...
November 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127881/grapevine-immune-signaling-network-in-response-to-drought-stress-as-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#17
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
December 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120765/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-pyrimethanil-residues-on-pome-fruits-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#18
L Mandrile, A M Giovannozzi, F Durbiano, G Martra, A M Rossi
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) supported by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was applied to detect and quantify residues of pyrimethanil on pome fruits, a widely used fungicide in horticultural species. Spheroidal AuNPs with different size were fabricated and compared in this study. The analytical procedure was set up on a silicon dioxide flat substrate to standardize SERS methodology. A Raman mapping strategy was exploited to increase signal reproducibility and to minimize bias due to different local surface morphologies...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113062/effects-of-chitooligosaccharide-coating-combined-with-selected-ionic-polymers-on-the-stimulation-of-ornithogalum-saundersiae-growth
#19
Piotr Salachna, Monika Grzeszczuk, Marcin Soból
Recently, agricultural and horticultural sectors have shown an increased interest in the use of biopolymers and their derivatives as growth biostimulators. So far, coating is a little known method of applying the biostimulators. Our three-year study investigated coating the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae with chitooligosaccharide (COS), sodium alginate, carrageenan, gellan gum and xanthan gum. The coating method was based on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. The COS with 48,000 g mol(-1) molecular weight was contained by means of controlled free-radical degradation...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113048/the-application-of-em38-determination-of-soil-parameters-selection-of-soil-sampling-points-and-use-in-agriculture-and-archaeology
#20
REVIEW
Kurt Heil, Urs Schmidhalter
Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included...
November 4, 2017: Sensors
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