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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656458/how-ecological-communities-respond-to-artificial-light-at-night
#1
REVIEW
Dirk Sanders, Kevin J Gaston
Many ecosystems worldwide are exposed to artificial light at night (ALAN), from streetlights and other sources, and a wide range of organisms has been shown to respond to this anthropogenic pressure. This raises concerns about the consequences for major ecosystem functions and their stability. However, there is limited understanding of how whole ecological communities respond to ALAN, and this cannot be gained simply by making predictions from observed single species physiological, behavioral, or ecological responses...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653169/nanoencapsulation-of-lemon-essential-oil-in-chitosan-hicap-system-part-1-study-on-its-physical-and-structural-characteristics
#2
Shirin Hasani, Seyed Mahdi Ojagh, Mohammad Ghorbani
Lemon essential oils (LEOs) as a bioactive compound with health beneficial potential are used as safe additives in foods, medicine and nutritional supplements. However, it is a chemical compound which is sensitive to light, thermal condition and oxidation. To overcome these challenge encapsulation could be an adequate technique to protect them from degradation and evaporation. In this study, nanocapsules based on chitosan (CS) and modified starch (Hicap) with LEOs as an active ingredient was prepared by freeze-drying...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653049/the-influence-of-cationic-phosphatidylcholine-derivative-on-monolayer-and-bilayer-artificial-bacterial-membranes
#3
Marzena Mach, Karolina Węder, Katarzyna Hąc-Wydro, Michał Flasiński, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Kinga Wójcik, Pawel Wydro
An increasing number of bacterial infections and the rise in antibiotic resistance of a number of bacteria speciesforces to search for new antibacterial compounds. The latter facts motivate the investigations presented herein and aimed at studying the influence of a cationic lipid:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPOPC) on model (mono,- and bilayer) membranes. The monolayer experiments involved the analysis of the interactions of EPOPC with bacterial membrane lipids in one component and mixed systems as well as Brewster Angle Microcopy studies...
April 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652485/exploiting-potential-inversion-for-photoinduced-multielectron-transfer-and-accumulation-of-redox-equivalents-in-a-molecular-heptad
#4
Julia Nomrowski, Oliver S Wenger
Photoinduced multielectron transfer and reversible accumulation of redox equivalents is accomplished in a fully integrated molecular heptad composed of four donors, two photosensitizers, and one acceptor. The second reduction of the dibenzo[1,2]dithiin acceptor occurs more easily than the first by 1.3 V, and this potential inversion facilitates the light-driven formation of a two-electron reduced state with a lifetime of 66 ns in deaerated CH3 CN. The quantum yield for formation of this doubly charge-separated photoproduct is 0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649758/association-between-nighttime-artificial-light-pollution-and-sea-turtle-nest-density-along-florida-coast-a-geospatial-study-using-viirs-remote-sensing-data
#5
Zhiyong Hu, Hongda Hu, Yuxia Huang
Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648951/design-of-a-lightweight-soft-robotic-arm-using-pneumatic-artificial-muscles-and-inflatable-sleeves
#6
Preston Ohta, Luis Valle, Jonathan King, Kevin Low, Jaehyun Yi, Christopher G Atkeson, Yong-Lae Park
As robots begin to interact with humans and operate in human environments, safety becomes a major concern. Conventional robots, although reliable and consistent, can cause injury to anyone within its range of motion. Soft robotics, wherein systems are made to be soft and mechanically compliant, are thus a promising alternative due to their lightweight nature and ability to cushion impacts, but current designs often sacrifice accuracy and usefulness for safety. We, therefore, have developed a bioinspired robotic arm combining elements of rigid and soft robotics such that it exhibits the positive qualities of both, namely compliance and accuracy, while maintaining a low weight...
April 2018: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643029/-a-machine-learning-model-based-on-initial-gut-microbiome-data-for-predicting-changes-of-bifidobacterium-after-prebiotics-consumption
#7
Yue-Mei Luo, Fei-Tong Liu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Wen-Li Tang, Yue-Lian Yang, Xi-Lan Tan, Hong-Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of prebiotics supplementation for 9 days on gut microbiota structure and function and establish a machine learning model based on the initial gut microbiota data for predicting the variation of Bifidobacterium after prebiotic intake. METHODS: With a randomized double-blind self-controlled design, 35 healthy volunteers were asked to consume fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 days (16 g per day)...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642705/durian-shaped-cds-znse-core-mesporous-shell-nanocrystals-for-enhanced-and-sustainable-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution
#8
Zichao Lian, Masanori Sakamoto, Yoichi Kobayashi, Naoto Tamai, Jun Ma, Tsuneaki Sakurai, Shu Seki, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Mingwei Lai, Mitsutaka Haruta, Hiroki Kurata, Toshiharu Teranishi
In artificial photosynthesis, the establishment of design guidelines for nanostructures to maximize the photocatalytic performance remains a great challenge. In contrast to the intense research into band-offset tuning for photocatalysts, the relationship between nanostructures and photo-induced carrier dynamics has still been insufficiently explored. Herein, we synthesized durian-shaped CdS@ZnSe core@mesporous-shell nanocrystals ( d-CdS/ZnSe NCs) and investigate the carrier dynamics in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642552/three-dimensional-registration-for-handheld-profiling-systems-based-on-multiple-shot-structured-light
#9
Shirazi Muhammad Ayaz, Danish Khan, Min Young Kim
In this article, a multi-view registration approach for the 3D handheld profiling system based on the multiple shot structured light technique is proposed. The multi-view registration approach is categorized into coarse registration and point cloud refinement using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Coarse registration of multiple point clouds was performed using relative orientation and translation parameters estimated via homography-based visual navigation. The proposed system was evaluated using an artificial human skull and a paper box object...
April 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642455/efficient-visible-light-communication-transmitters-based-on-switching-mode-dc-dc-converters
#10
Juan Rodríguez, Diego G Lamar, Daniel G Aller, Pablo F Miaja, Javier Sebastián
Visible light communication (VLC) based on solid-state lighting (SSL) is a promising option either to supplement or to substitute existing radio frequency (RF) wireless communication in indoor environments. VLC systems take advantage of the fast modulation of the visible light that light emitting diodes (LEDs) enable. The switching-mode dc-to-dc converter (SMCdc-dc ) must be the cornerstone of the LED driver of VLC transmitters in order to incorporate the communication functionality into LED lighting, keeping high power efficiency...
April 7, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630152/lamellar-ichthyosis-in-a-female-neonate-without-a-collodion-membrane
#11
Kevin Chao, Maria Aleshin, Zachary Goldstein, Scott Worswick, Marcia Hogeling
The term, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), describes a group of rare genetic skin diseases of cornification involving hyperkeratotic scaling at birth. The defective skin barrier function may lead to dehydration, body temperature instability, and high susceptibility to infections. In most cases of ARCI, neonates are born with a collodion membrane covering the body, often presenting with ectropion and eclabium. We report a premature female neonate presenting with hyperkeratotic scaling at birth without a collodion membrane...
February 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628737/-in-vitro-study-of-white-spot-lesion-maxilla-and-mandibular-teeth
#12
Alizae Marny Mohamed, Kiong Hung Wong, Wan Jen Lee, Murshida Marizan Nor, Haizal Mohd Hussaini, Tanti Irawati Rosli
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration on colour changes and surface roughness of artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) on maxillary and mandibular premolar. Materials and methods: Sixty (60) extracted sound Maxilla (Mx) and Mandibular (Mn) premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups (test and control). Artificial WSLs were produced on buccal surface of teeth and were immersed in artificial saliva for 8 weeks. Colour components (L∗ , a∗ , b∗ ) and surface roughness (Sa∗ ) were assessed on 40 teeth using colour difference meter RD-100 and Alicona® Infinite Focus profilometer respectively...
April 2018: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628065/modulating-emotion-perception-opposing-effects-of-inhibitory-and-excitatory-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#13
Swantje Notzon, Christian Steinberg, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). This stimulation is supposed to restore excitability of prefrontal cortex regions that exhibit diminished regulation of emotion-generative systems in MDD. Based on the valence lateralization hypothesis, inhibitory rTMS of the right dlPFC has also been applied in MDD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627754/long-term-dim-light-during-nighttime-changes-activity-patterns-and-space-use-in-experimental-small-mammal-populations
#14
Julia Hoffmann, Rupert Palme, Jana Anja Eccard
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625463/taurine-depletion-causes-iprgc-loss-and-increases-light-induced-photoreceptor-degeneration
#15
Diego García-Ayuso, Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Wahiba Hadj-Said, Mélanie Marie, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Serge Picaud, María P Villegas-Pérez
Purpose: To examine if light exposure exacerbates retinal neuronal loss induced by taurine depletion. Methods: Albino rats received β-alanine in the drinking water to induce taurine depletion. One month later, half of the animals were exposed to white light (3000 lux) continuously for 48 hours and the rest remained in normal environmental conditions. A control group of animals nontreated with β-alanine also was prepared, and half of them were exposed to light using the same protocol...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624184/self-powered-vision-electronic-skin-basing-on-piezo-photodetecting-ppy-pvdf-pixel-patterned-matrix-for-mimicking-vision
#16
Wuxiao Han, Linlin Zhang, Haoxuan He, Hongmin Liu, Lili Xing, Xinyu Xue
The development of multifunctional electronic-skin that establishes human-machine interfaces, enhances perception abilities or has other distinct biomedical applications is the key to the realization of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a new self-powered (battery-free) flexible vision electronic-skin has been realized from pixel-patterned matrix of piezo-photodetecting PVDF/Ppy film. The electronic-skin under applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric voltage, and the outputting signal can be significantly influenced by UV illumination...
April 6, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623967/low-voltage-driven-soft-actuators
#17
Onnuri Kim, Seung Jae Kim, Moon Jeong Park
Soft actuators based on electroactive polymers (EAPs) are the core constituents of future soft robots owing to their fascinating properties such as lightweight, compactness, easy fabrication into various forms, and low cost. Ionic EAP actuators are particularly attractive owing to the low driving voltages (<3 V) as compared to those of electronic EAP actuators (usually kilovolts). This paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress in a range of EAP actuators by focusing on low voltage operation, in addition to the challenges and future strategies for their wide applicability in artificial muscles and various innovative soft robot technologies...
April 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620863/soft-and-flexible-bi-layer-tpu-foam-for-development-of-bio-inspired-artificial-skin
#18
Huan Li, Tridib Kumar Sinha, Jeong Seok Oh, Jin Kuk Kim
Inspired by epidermis-dermis composition of human skin, here we have simply developed a light-weight, robust, flexible and biocompatible single electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) based prototype of bi-layer artificial skin, by attaching one induction electrode with unfoamed skin layer of microcellular thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) foam, which shows high performance object manipulation (by responding differently towards different objects, viz., Al-foil, balloon, cotton-glove, human-finger, glass, rubber-glove, artificial leather, polyimide, PTFE, paper and wood), due to electrification and electrostatic induction during contact with the objects having different chemical functionalities...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619309/stimuli-directed-dynamic-reconfiguration-in-self-organized-helical-superstructures-enabled-by-chemical-kinetics-of-chiral-molecular-motors
#19
Jian Sun, Ruochen Lan, Yanzi Gao, Meng Wang, Wanshu Zhang, Ling Wang, Lanying Zhang, Zhou Yang, Huai Yang
Dynamic controllability of self-organized helical superstructures in spatial dimensions is a key step to promote bottom-up artificial nanoarchitectures and functional devices for diverse applications in a variety of areas. Here, a light-driven chiral overcrowded alkene molecular motor with rod-like substituent is designed and synthesized, and its thermal isomerization reaction exhibits an increasing structural entropy effect on chemical kinetic analysis in anisotropic achiral liquid crystal host than that in isotropic organic liquid...
February 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619189/machine-learning-for-quantum-dynamics-deep-learning-of-excitation-energy-transfer-properties
#20
Florian Häse, Christoph Kreisbeck, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
Understanding the relationship between the structure of light-harvesting systems and their excitation energy transfer properties is of fundamental importance in many applications including the development of next generation photovoltaics. Natural light harvesting in photosynthesis shows remarkable excitation energy transfer properties, which suggests that pigment-protein complexes could serve as blueprints for the design of nature inspired devices. Mechanistic insights into energy transport dynamics can be gained by leveraging numerically involved propagation schemes such as the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM)...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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