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(Artificial OR supplemental) AND light*

Li Yang, Zhanhua Wang, Guoxia Fei, Hesheng Xia
This study focuses on developing a facile approach to prepare biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels containing polydopamine particles (PDAPs) with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered shape memory and self-healing capability. The PVA-PDAPs composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties can be achieved after freezing/thawing treatment, and the formation of physically cross-linked networks from the hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) between PVA and PDAPs. Due to the excellent photothermal effect of polydopamine, the composited hydrogel can achieve rapid shape recovery and efficient self-healing properties under NIR light exposure in a short time...
October 13, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Nicholas Ivanov, Jimmy Vuong, Peter B Gray
Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
Anne Marie Z Jukic, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Pamela L Lutsey
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is synthesized in the skin with exposure to sunlight, or ingested from dietary supplements or food. There has been a dramatic increase in research on vitamin D, linking it with health outcomes as varied as reproductive function, infection, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Vitamin D has generated much excitement, in part because it is an ideal intervention: low levels may be common and can be remedied with widely-available supplements. Determination of vitamin D status is complex, and has advanced dramatically in the past five years...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yue He, Chengfei Wu, Jiahong Li, Hongli Li, Zhenghua Sun, Hao Zhang, Paul de Vos, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders. No specific pharmacological or nutritional therapy is available but highly needed. Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet. The current study aimed to examine and compare modulatory effects of ITFs with different degrees of fermentability on pancreatic-gut immunity and barrier function during experimentally induced AP in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Sadeeq Ur Rahman, Michael Stanton, Pat G Casey, Angela Spagnuolo, Giuliano Bensi, Colin Hill, Kevin P Francis, Mark Tangney, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen that is widely used as a model organism for the analysis of infection biology. In this context, there is a current need to develop improved reporters for enhanced bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of the pathogen in infection models. We have developed a click beetle red luciferase (CBR-luc) based vector (pPL2CBR(opt)) expressing codon optimized CBR-luc under the control of a highly expressed Listerial promoter (PHELP) for L. monocytogenes and have compared this to a lux-based system expressing bacterial luciferase for BLI of the pathogen using in vitro growth experiments and in vivo models...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Selene Casella, Fang Huang, David Mason, Guo-Yan Zhao, Giles N Johnson, Conrad W Mullineaux, Lu-Ning Liu
The structural dynamics and flexibility of cell membranes play fundamental roles in the functions of the cell, i.e. signaling, electron transduction, and physiological adaptation. The cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane represents a model membrane that can conduct both oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration simultaneously. Here, we conducted direct visualization of the global organization and mobility of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes from a model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, using high-resolution atomic force, confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
Tatsuki Morimoto, Osamu Ishitani
The photophysical and photochemical properties of transition metal complexes have attracted considerable attention because of their recent applications as photocatalysts in artificial photosynthesis and organic synthesis, as light emitters in electroluminescent (EL) devices, and as dyes in solar cells. The general control methods cannot be always used to obtain transition metal complexes with photochemical properties that are suitable for the above-mentioned applications. In the fields of solar energy conversion, strong metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption of redox photosensitizers and/or photocatalysts in the visible region with long wavelength is essential...
October 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Martin Winter, Andreas Tholey, Arnt Kristen, Christoph Röcken
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases caused by extracellular accumulation of fibrillar polypeptide aggregates. So far, diagnosis is performed by Congo red staining of tissue sections in combination with polarization microscopy. Subsequent identification of the causative protein by immunohistochemistry harbors some difficulties regarding sensitivity and specificity. Mass spectrometry-based approaches have been demonstrated to constitute a reliable method to supplement typing of amyloidosis, but still depend on Congo red staining...
October 10, 2017: Proteomics
Elio Kechichian, Khaled Ezzedine
Vitamin D plays a key role in skeletal and cardiovascular disorders, cancers, central nervous system diseases, reproductive diseases, infections, and autoimmune and dermatological disorders. The two main sources of vitamin D are sun exposure and oral intake, including vitamin D supplementation and dietary intake. Multiple factors are linked to vitamin D status, such as Fitzpatrick skin type, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Patients with photosensitive disorders tend to avoid sun exposure, and this practice, along with photoprotection, can put this category of patients at risk for vitamin D deficiency...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Noga Kronfeld-Schor, Marcel E Visser, Lucia Salis, Jan A van Gils
Animals should time activities, such as foraging, migration and reproduction, as well as seasonal physiological adaptation, in a way that maximizes fitness. The fitness outcome of such activities depends largely on their interspecific interactions; the temporal overlap with other species determines when they should be active in order to maximize their encounters with food and to minimize their encounters with predators, competitors and parasites. To cope with the constantly changing, but predictable structure of the environment, organisms have evolved internal biological clocks, which are synchronized mainly by light, the most predictable and reliable environmental cue (but which can be masked by other variables), which enable them to anticipate and prepare for predicted changes in the timing of the species they interact with, on top of responding to them directly...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Brant P Hasler
In modern society, we are increasingly disconnected from natural light/dark cycles and beset by round-the-clock exposure to artificial light. Light has powerful effects on physical and mental health, in part via the circadian system, and thus the timing of light exposure dictates whether it is helpful or harmful. In their compelling paper, Obayashi and colleagues offer evidence that light at night can prospectively predict an elevated incidence of depressive symptoms in older adults. Strengths of the study include the longitudinal design and direct, objective assessment of light levels, as well as accounting for multiple plausible confounders during analyses...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alexander P Demchenko, Vladimir I Tomin, Pi-Tai Chou
This paper provides a systematic review and analysis of different phenomena that violate a basic principle, Kasha's rule, when applied to photochemical reactions. In contrast to the classical route of ultrafast transition to the lowest energy excited state and photochemical reaction starting therein, in some cases, these reactions proceed directly from high-energy excited states. Nowadays, this phenomenon can be observed for a number of major types of excited-state reactions: harvesting product via intersystem crossing; photoisomerizations; bond-breaking; and electron, proton, and energy transfers...
October 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Fabiana C Saddi, Stephen Peckham
This supplement of the Journal of Ambulatory Care Management on the Brazilian National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care (PMAQ) reveals a relevant gap in the Brazilian literature on pay for performance/PMAQ, and is therefore an opportunity to bring contributions from global health and public policy to the debate. We discuss the relevant gap in the light of developments in evaluation and policy analysis. We afterward present the state of knowledge regarding global health and public policy in pay for performance, giving attention to diverse themes, methods, types of analyses, theoretical contributions, and limitations...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Qiao Jiang, Qing Liu, Yuefeng Shi, Zhen-Gang Wang, Pengfei Zhan, Jianbing Liu, Chao Liu, Hui Wang, Xinghua Shi, Li Zhang, Jiashu Sun, Baoquan Ding, Minghua Liu
In response to environmental variations, living cells need to arrange the conformational changes of macromolecules to achieve the specific biofunctions. Inspired by natural molecular machines, artificial macromolecular assemblies with controllable nanostructures and environmentally responsive functions can be designed. By assembling macromolecular nanostructures with noble metal nanoparticles, environmental information could be significantly amplified and modulated. However, manufacturing dynamic plasmonic nanostructures that are efficiently responsive to different stimuli is still a challenging task...
October 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Xin-Zheng Nie, Sha Chen, Xiao-Xu Zhang, Bin-Yang Dai, Li-Chun Qian
A feeding trial was conducted for nine weeks to investigate the effects of partially replacing Ca(H2PO4)2 with neutral phytase on the growth performance, phosphorus utilization, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, bone and carcass mineral composition, and digestive-enzyme-specific activity in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The diets prepared with 0.8%, 0%, and 1.8% Ca(H2PO4)2 (1%=1 g/100 g) supplements were regarded as the P1E0, negative control (NC), and positive control (PC) groups, respectively; the other three experimental diets were prepared with the addition of 200, 300, and 500 U/kg of neutral phytase, respectively, based on the P1E0 group...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Sun Ha Lim, Jongwon Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular dementia (VaD) caused by reduced blood supply to the brain manifests as white matter lesions accompanying demyelination and glial activation. We previously showed that arabinoxylan consisting of arabinose and xylose, and arabinose itself attenuated white matter injury in a rat model of VaD. Here, we investigated whether larch arabinogalactan (LAG) consisting of arabinose and galactose could also reduce white matter injury. MATERIALS/METHODS: We used a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), in which the bilateral common carotid arteries were exposed and ligated permanently with silk sutures...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
Yu-En Shih, Yu-Chih Lin, Tse-Yu Chung, Mei-Chun Liu, Guan-Heng Chen, Chia-Chang Wu, Jason T C Tzen
Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil bodies was induced when they were mixed with oolong tea infusion or its major polyphenolic compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of 100μM as observed in light microscopy...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Yahya A Derua, Susan F Rumisha, Bernard M Batengana, Demetrius A Max, Grades Stanley, William N Kisinza, Leonard E G Mboera
INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic nematode infection transmitted by mosquitoes and in sub-Saharan Africa it is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease was targeted for global elimination by 2020 using repeated community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) distributed in endemic areas. However, recently, there has been a growing recognition of the potential role of including vector control as a supplement to MDA to achieve elimination goal. This study was carried out to determine mosquito abundance and transmission of bancroftian filariasis on Mafia Islands in Tanzania as a prerequisite for a search for appropriate vector control methods to complement the ongoing MDA campaign...
October 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pierre Delplace, J B Marston, Antoine Venaille
Topology sheds new light on the emergence of unidirectional edge waves in a variety of physical systems, from condensed matter to artificial lattices. Waves observed in geophysical flows are also robust to perturbations, which suggests a role for topology. We show a topological origin for two celebrated equatorially trapped waves known as Kelvin and Yanai modes, due to the Earth's rotation that breaks time-reversal symmetry. The non-trivial structure of the bulk Poincaré wave modes encoded through the first Chern number of value 2 guarantees existence for these waves...
October 5, 2017: Science
Victor M Saenger, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Mohit Adhikari, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
The brain is a network that mediates information processing through a wide range of states. The extent of state diversity is a reflection of the entropy of the network. Here we measured the entropy of brain regions (nodes) in empirical and modeled functional networks reconstructed from resting state fMRI to address the connection of entropy at rest with the underlying structure measured through diffusion spectrum imaging. Using 18 empirical and 18 modeled stroke networks, we also investigated the effect that focal lesions have on node entropy and information diffusion...
July 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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