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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232507/interfacial-deposition-of-ru-ii-bipyridine-dicarboxylate-complexes-by-ligand-substitution-for-applications-in-water-oxidation-catalysis
#1
Degao Wang, Seth L Marquard, Ludovic Troian-Gautier, Matthew V Sheridan, Benjamin D Sherman, Ying Wang, Michael S Eberhart, Byron H Farnum, Christopher J Dares, Thomas J Meyer
Water oxidation is a critical step in artificial photosynthesis and provides the protons and electrons used in reduction reactions to make solar fuels. Significant advances have been made in the area of molecular water oxidation catalysts with a notable breakthrough in the development of Ru(II) complexes that use a planar "bda" ligand (bda is 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate). These Ru(II)(bda) complexes show lower overpotentials for driving water oxidation making them ideal for light-driven applications with a suitable chromophore...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230545/influence-of-different-types-of-light-on-the-response-of-the-pulp-tissue-in-dental-bleaching-a-systematic-review
#2
Francine Benetti, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo Lemos, Marjorie de Oliveira Gallinari, Amanda Miyuki Terayama, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Rogério de Castilho Jacinto, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230378/species-diversity-and-drivers-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-in-a-semi-arid-mountain-in-china
#3
He Zhao, Xuanzhen Li, Zhiming Zhang, Yong Zhao, Jiantao Yang, Yiwei Zhu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role in complex ecosystems. However, the species diversity and composition of AMF communities remain unclear in semi-arid mountains. Further, it is not well understood if the characteristics of AMF community assemblies differ for different habitat types, e.g., agricultural arable land, artificial forest land, natural grassland, and bush/wood land. Here, using the high-throughput technology by Illumina sequencing on the MiSeq platform, we explored the species diversity and composition of soil AMF communities among different habitat types in a semi-arid mountain (Taihang Mountain, Mid-western region of China)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225658/intraspecific-eye-color-variability-in-birds-and-mammals-a-recent-evolutionary-event-exclusive-to-humans-and-domestic-animals
#4
Juan J Negro, M Carmen Blázquez, Ismael Galván
Background: Human populations and breeds of domestic animals are composed of individuals with a multiplicity of eye (= iris) colorations. Some wild birds and mammals may have intraspecific eye color variability, but this variation seems to be due to the developmental stage of the individual, its breeding status, and/or sexual dimorphism. In other words, eye colour tends to be a species-specific trait in wild animals, and the exceptions are species in which individuals of the same age group or gender all develop the same eye colour...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225174/photopolymerized-maleilated-chitosan-methacrylated-silk-fibroin-micro-nanocomposite-hydrogels-as-potential-scaffolds-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#5
Yingshan Zhou, Kaili Liang, Shuyan Zhao, Can Zhang, Jun Li, Hongjun Yang, Xin Liu, Xianze Yin, Dongzhi Chen, Weilin Xu, Pu Xiao
Hydrogels composed of natural materials exhibit great application potential in artificial scaffolds for cartilage repair as they can resemble the extracellular matrices of cartilage tissues comprised of various glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Herein, the natural polymers with vinyl groups, i.e. maleilated chitosan (MCS) and methacrylated silk fibroin (MSF) micro/nanoparticles, were firstly synthesized. The chemical structures of MCS and MSF micro/nanoparticles were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224082/generating-electric-current-by-bioartificial-photosynthesis
#6
Babu Halan, Jenny Tschörtner, Andreas Schmid
Abundant solar energy can be a sustainable source of energy. This chapter highlights recent advancements, challenges, and future scenarios in bioartificial photosynthesis, which is a new subset of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) and technologies. BES technologies exploit the catalytic interactions between biological moieties and electrodes. At the nexus of BES and photovoltaics, this review focuses on light-harvesting technologies based on bioartificial photosynthesis. Such technologies are promising because electrical energy is generated from sunlight and water without the need for additional organic feedstock...
December 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#7
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220989/biases-in-ocean-color-over-a-secchi-disk
#8
Jaime Pitarch
The oldest record of ocean color measurements consists of visual comparisons to a standardized color scale, the Forel-Ule scale (FU). Analysis of FU archived data allows the construction of a century-long time series. In situ protocols of FU measurements require the perceived color to be estimated over the water column above a Secchi disk (SD) at half of the depth where it goes out of sight, whereas satellites retrieve FU over the water column alone. I show in this article that these two methodologies lead to different FU readings and thus, merging both kinds of data will create artificial trends...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220151/integration-of-enzymes-in-polyaniline-sensitized-3d-inverse-opal-tio2-architectures-for-light-driven-biocatalysis-and-light-to-current-conversion
#9
Marc Riedel, Fred Lisdat
Inspired by natural photosynthesis, coupling of artificial light-sensitive entities with biocatalysts in a biohybrid format can result in advanced photobioelectronic systems. Herein, we report on the integration of sulfonated polyanilines (PMSA1) and PQQ glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) into inverse opal TiO2 (IO-TiO2) electrodes. While PMSA1 introduces sensitivity for visible light into the biohybrid architecture and ensures the efficient wiring between the IO-TiO2 electrode and the biocatalytic entity, PQQ-GDH provides the catalytic activity for the glucose oxidation and therefore feeds the light-driven reaction with electrons for an enhanced light-to-current conversion...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218562/hybrid-applications-of-solution-scattering-to-aid-structural-biology
#10
Alexander V Grishaev
Biomolecular applications of solution X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) started in late 1960s - early 1970s but were relatively limited in their ability to provide a detailed structural picture and lagged behind what became the two primary methods of experimental structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, improvements in both data analysis and instrumentation led to an explosive growth in the number of studies that used small-angle scattering (SAS) for investigation of macromolecular structure, often in combination with other biophysical techniques...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218341/templated-co-assembly-into-nanorods-of-polyanions-and-artificial-virus-capsid-proteins
#11
A Hernandez-Garcia, M A Cohen Stuart, R de Vries
Recombinant triblock polypeptides C-Sn-B, where C is a 400 amino acid long hydrophilic random coil block, Sn is a multimer of the silk-like octapeptide S = (GAGAGAGQ), and B = K12 is an oligolysine, have previously been shown to encapsulate double stranded DNA into rod-shaped, virus-like particles. In order to gain insight of the co-assembly process, and in order to be able to use these proteins for templating other types of nanorods, we here explore their co-assembly with a range of polyanionic templates: poly(acrylic acids) (PAA) of a wide range of lengths, poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) and the stiff anionic polysaccharide xanthan...
December 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215778/declines-in-moth-populations-stress-the-need-for-conserving-dark-nights
#12
Frank van Langevelde, Marijke Braamburg-Annegarn, Martinus E Huigens, Rob Groendijk, Olivier Poitevin, Jurriën R van Deijk, Willem N Ellis, Roy H A van Grunsven, Rob de Vos, Rutger A Vos, Markus Franzén, Michiel F Wallis DeVries
Given the global continuous rise, artificial light at night is often considered a driving force behind moth population declines. Although negative effects on individuals have been shown, there is no evidence for effects on population sizes to date. Therefore, we compared population trends of Dutch macro-moth fauna over the period 1985-2015 between moth species that differ in phototaxis and adult circadian rhythm. We found that moth species that show positive phototaxis or are nocturnally active have stronger negative population trends than species that are not attracted to light or are diurnal species...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214918/effects-of-knee-orthosis-adjustment-on-biomechanical-performance-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis
#13
Andreas Brand, Isabella Klöpfer-Krämer, Mario Morgenstern, Inga Kröger, Björn Michel, Andreas Thannheimer, Janina Anna Müßig, Peter Augat
BACKGROUND: Valgus bracing in medial knee osteoarthritis aims to improve gait function by reducing the loading of the medial compartment. Orthosis composition and optimal adjustment is essential to achieve biomechanical and clinical effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To investigate biomechanical functionality during gait, pain relief and compliance in patients with knee osteoarthritis using a lightweight adjustable knee unloader orthosis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical trial...
December 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214051/cytochrome-b5-protects-photoreceptors-from-light-stress-induced-lipid-peroxidation-and-retinal-degeneration
#14
Xinping Chen, Hana Hall, Jeffrey P Simpson, Walter D Leon-Salas, Donald F Ready, Vikki M Weake
Lipid peroxides are generated by oxidative stress in cells, and contribute to ageing and neurodegenerative disease. The eye is at special risk for lipid peroxidation because photoreceptors possess amplified sensory membranes rich in peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids. Light-induced lipid peroxidation in the retina contributes to retinal degeneration, and lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the progression of age-associated ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213315/comprehensive-characterization-of-toxicity-of-fermentative-metabolites-on-microbial-growth
#15
Brandon Wilbanks, Cong T Trinh
Background: Volatile carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters are natural fermentative products, typically derived from anaerobic digestion. These metabolites have important functional roles to regulate cellular metabolisms and broad use as food supplements, flavors and fragrances, solvents, and fuels. Comprehensive characterization of toxic effects of these metabolites on microbial growth under similar conditions is very limited. Results: We characterized a comprehensive list of thirty-two short-chain carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters on microbial growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 under anaerobic conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211869/the-dark-side-of-light-traps
#16
Emily G McDermott, Bradley A Mullens
Light-baited suction traps are one of the most widely used tools for vector surveillance. Their popularity stems from ease of use even in remote locations, range and abundance of species caught, and low cost. The availability of smaller, portable models, like the CDC miniature light trap, have further increased their ubiquity in entomological field studies. However, when researchers have looked, light trap collections are usually biased in ways that may affect data interpretation for epidemiological studies...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210394/electron-and-excitation-energy-transfers-in-covalently-linked-donor-acceptor-dyads-mechanisms-and-dynamics-revealed-using-quantum-chemistry
#17
Lorenzo Cupellini, Samuele Giannini, Benedetta Mennucci
Photoinduced electron transfer (ET), hole transfer (HT), charge recombination (CR) and energy transfer (EET) are fundamental mechanisms, which occur in both natural and artificial light harvesting systems. Here, we present a computational strategy which determines ET, HT, CR and EET rates in a consistent way and merges them in a kinetic model to reproduce the net excited state dynamics. The effects of the solvent are included in all steps of the calculations making the present strategy a useful tool for a rational design of charge and energy transfer processes in complex systems...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210002/tolerance-of-the-eriophyid-mite-aceria-salsolae-to-uv-a-light-and-implications-for-biological-control-of-russian-thistle
#18
Patrick J Moran, M Irene Wibawa, Lincoln Smith
Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208228/pheromones-based-sexual-selection-in-a-rapidly-changing-world
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Henneken, Therésa M Jones
Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207294/placental-structure-and-function-in-different-breeds-in-horses
#20
M Robles, P M Peugnet, S A Valentino, C Dubois, M Dahirel, M-C Aubrière, F Reigner, D Serteyn, L Wimel, A Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
Ponies and sometimes draft horses are often used as experimental models for horses although size and metabolic parameters are known to vary between horse breeds. So far, there is little information about differences of placental structure and no information about differences of placental function between breeds. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in placental size, structure and function at birth in relation to foal size and weight in ponies, Saddlebred and draft horses. Pony, Saddlebred and draft horse pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination over 2 successive breeding seasons...
November 20, 2017: Theriogenology
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