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chromatin conformation capture

Stefan Grob, Ueli Grossniklaus
Nuclear organization and higher-order chromosome structure in interphase nuclei are thought to have important effects on fundamental biological processes, including chromosome condensation, replication, and transcription. Until recently, however, nuclear organization could only be analyzed microscopically. The development of chromatin conformation capture (3C)-based techniques now allows a detailed look at chromosomal architecture from the level of individual loci to the entire genome. Here we provide a robust Hi-C protocol, allowing the analysis of nuclear organization in nuclei from different wild-type and mutant plant tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Atsushi Matsuda, Haruhiko Asakawa, Tokuko Haraguchi, Yasushi Hiraoka
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a useful experimental system for studying the organization of chromosomes within the cell nucleus. S. pombe has a small genome that is organized into three chromosomes. The small size of the genome and the small number of chromosomes are advantageous for cytological and genome-wide studies of chromosomes; however, the small size of the nucleus impedes microscopic observations owing to limits in spatial resolution during imaging. Recent advances in microscopy, such as super-resolution microscopy, have greatly expanded the use of S...
October 21, 2016: Yeast
Soya Shinkai, Tadasu Nozaki, Kazuhiro Maeshima, Yuichi Togashi
The mammalian genome is organized into submegabase-sized chromatin domains (CDs) including topologically associating domains, which have been identified using chromosome conformation capture-based methods. Single-nucleosome imaging in living mammalian cells has revealed subdiffusively dynamic nucleosome movement. It is unclear how single nucleosomes within CDs fluctuate and how the CD structure reflects the nucleosome movement. Here, we present a polymer model wherein CDs are characterized by fractal dimensions and the nucleosome fibers fluctuate in a viscoelastic medium with memory...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Tsung-Han S Hsieh, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Anton Goloborodko, Oliver J Rando
We present Micro-C XL, an improved method for analysis of chromosome folding at mononucleosome resolution. Using long crosslinkers and isolation of insoluble chromatin, Micro-C XL increases signal-to-noise ratio. Micro-C XL maps of budding and fission yeast genomes capture both short-range chromosome fiber features such as chromosomally interacting domains and higher order features such as centromere clustering. Micro-C XL provides a single assay to interrogate chromosome folding at length scales from the nucleosome to the full genome...
October 10, 2016: Nature Methods
Martin Franke, Daniel M Ibrahim, Guillaume Andrey, Wibke Schwarzer, Verena Heinrich, Robert Schöpflin, Katerina Kraft, Rieke Kempfer, Ivana Jerković, Wing-Lee Chan, Malte Spielmann, Bernd Timmermann, Lars Wittler, Ingo Kurth, Paola Cambiaso, Orsetta Zuffardi, Gunnar Houge, Lindsay Lambie, Francesco Brancati, Ana Pombo, Martin Vingron, Francois Spitz, Stefan Mundlos
Chromosome conformation capture methods have identified subchromosomal structures of higher-order chromatin interactions called topologically associated domains (TADs) that are separated from each other by boundary regions. By subdividing the genome into discrete regulatory units, TADs restrict the contacts that enhancers establish with their target genes. However, the mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. Here we show by chromosome conformation capture (capture Hi-C and 4C-seq methods) that genomic duplications in patient cells and genetically modified mice can result in the formation of new chromatin domains (neo-TADs) and that this process determines their molecular pathology...
October 5, 2016: Nature
Vijay Ramani, Darren A Cusanovich, Ronald J Hause, Wenxiu Ma, Ruolan Qiu, Xinxian Deng, C Anthony Blau, Christine M Disteche, William S Noble, Jay Shendure, Zhijun Duan
With the advent of massively parallel sequencing, considerable work has gone into adapting chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques to study chromosomal architecture at a genome-wide scale. We recently demonstrated that the inactive murine X chromosome adopts a bipartite structure using a novel 3C protocol, termed in situ DNase Hi-C. Like traditional Hi-C protocols, in situ DNase Hi-C requires that chromatin be chemically cross-linked, digested, end-repaired, and proximity-ligated with a biotinylated bridge adaptor...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Ill-Min Chung, Sarada Ketharnathan, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Mari Kavitha Rani, Govindasamy Rajakumar
Proximity ligation assays such as circularized chromosome conformation capture and high-throughput chromosome capture assays have shed light on the structural organization of the interphase genome. Functional topologically associating domains (TADs) that constitute the building blocks of genomic organization are disrupted and reconstructed during the cell cycle. Epigenetic memory, as well as the sequence of chromosomes, regulate TAD reconstitution. Sub-TAD domains that are invariant across cell types have been identified, and contacts between these domains, rather than looping, are speculated to drive chromatin folding...
2016: Genes
Wulan Deng, Gerd A Blobel
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and its derivatives are currently the primary methodologies measuring contacts among genomic elements. In fact, the lion share of what is currently known about chromosome folding is based on 3C-related approaches. For example, distal enhancers are commonly in physically proximity with their target genes, forming chromatin loops. Additional layers of chromatin organization have been described using 3C-based techniques, including topological domains (TADs) and sub-TADs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Benjamin Leblanc, Itys Comet, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli
4C methods are useful to investigate dependencies between regulatory mechanisms and chromatin structures by revealing the frequency of chromatin contacts between a locus of interest and remote sequences on the chromosome. In this chapter we describe a protocol for the data analysis of microarray-based 4C experiments, presenting updated versions of the methods we used in a previous study of the large-scale chromatin interaction profile of a Polycomb response element in Drosophila. The protocol covers data preparation, normalization, microarray probe selection, and the multi-resolution detection of regions with enriched chromatin contacts...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mélody Matelot, Daan Noordermeer
3D chromatin organization is essential for many aspects of transcriptional regulation. Circular Chromosome Conformation Capture followed by Illumina sequencing (4C-seq) is among the most powerful techniques to determine 3D chromatin organization. 4C-seq, like other modifications of the original 3C technique, uses the principle of "proximity ligation" to identify and quantify ten thousands of genomic interactions at a kilobase scale in a single experiment for predefined loci in the genome.In this chapter we focus on the experimental steps in the 4C-seq protocol, providing detailed descriptions on the preparation of cells, the construction of the circularized 3C library and the generation of the Illumina high throughput sequencing library...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hua-Bing Li
Linear chromatin fiber is packed inside the nuclei as a complex three-dimensional structure, and the organization of the chromatin has important roles in the appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. To understand how chromatin organizes inside nuclei, and how regulatory proteins physically interact with genes, chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique provides a powerful and sensitive tool to detect both short- and long-range DNA-DNA interaction. Here I describe the 3C technique to detect the DNA-DNA interactions mediated by insulator proteins that are closely related to PcG in Drosophila, which is also broadly applicable to other systems...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kin Tung Tam, Ping Kei Chan, Wei Zhang, Pui Pik Law, Zhipeng Tian, Godfrey Chi Fung Chan, Sjaak Philipsen, Richard Festenstein, Kian Cheng Tan-Un
Neuroglobin (NGB) is predominantly expressed in the brain and retina. Studies suggest that NGB exerts protective effects to neuronal cells and is implicated in reducing the severity of stroke and Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms which regulate the cell type-specific expression of the gene. In this study, we hypothesized that distal regulatory elements (DREs) are involved in optimal expression of the NGB gene. By chromosome conformation capture we identified two novel DREs located -70 kb upstream and +100 kb downstream from the NGB gene...
September 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Karen L Bunting, T David Soong, Rajat Singh, Yanwen Jiang, Wendy Béguelin, David W Poloway, Brandon L Swed, Katerina Hatzi, William Reisacher, Matt Teater, Olivier Elemento, Ari M Melnick
During the humoral immune response, B cells undergo a dramatic change in phenotype to enable antibody affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). Using genome-wide chromosomal conformation capture (Hi-C), we found that GC B cells undergo massive reorganization of the genomic architecture that encodes the GC B cell transcriptome. Coordinate expression of genes that specify the GC B cell phenotype-most prominently BCL6-was achieved through a multilayered chromatin reorganization process involving (1) increased promoter connectivity, (2) formation of enhancer networks, (3) 5' to 3' gene looping, and (4) merging of gene neighborhoods that share active epigenetic marks...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Jonas Ibn-Salem, Enrique M Muro, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Paralog genes arise from gene duplication events during evolution, which often lead to similar proteins that cooperate in common pathways and in protein complexes. Consequently, paralogs show correlation in gene expression whereby the mechanisms of co-regulation remain unclear. In eukaryotes, genes are regulated in part by distal enhancer elements through looping interactions with gene promoters. These looping interactions can be measured by genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) experiments, which revealed self-interacting regions called topologically associating domains (TADs)...
September 14, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Petros Kolovos, Theodore Georgomanolis, Anna Koeferle, Joshua D Larkin, Lilija Brant, Miloš Nikolić, Eduardo G Gusmao, Anne Zirkel, Tobias A Knoch, Wilfred F van Ijcken, Peter R Cook, Ivan G Costa, Frank G Grosveld, Argyris Papantonis
Mammalian cells have developed intricate mechanisms to interpret, integrate, and respond to extracellular stimuli. For example, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rapidly activates proinflammatory genes, but our understanding of how this occurs against the ongoing transcriptional program of the cell is far from complete. Here, we monitor the early phase of this cascade at high spatiotemporal resolution in TNF-stimulated human endothelial cells. NF-κB, the transcription factor complex driving the response, interferes with the regulatory machinery by binding active enhancers already in interaction with gene promoters...
September 15, 2016: Genome Research
Shireesha Sankella, Abhimanyu Garg, Anil K Agarwal
Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Mogat1) catalyzes the conversion of monoacylglycerols (MAG) to diacylglycerols (DAG), the precursor of several physiologically important lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol (TAG). Expression of Mogat1 is tissue restricted and it is highly expressed in the kidney, stomach and adipose tissue but minimally in the normal adult liver. To understand the transcriptional regulation of Mogat1, we characterized the mouse and human Mogat1 promoters in human kidney proximal tubule-2 (HK-2) cells...
2016: PloS One
David Dickerson, Marek Gierliński, Vijender Singh, Etsushi Kitamura, Graeme Ball, Tomoyuki U Tanaka, Tom Owen-Hughes
BACKGROUND: Genomes of eukaryotes exist as chromatin, and it is known that different chromatin states can influence gene regulation. Chromatin is not a static structure, but is known to be dynamic and vary between cells. In order to monitor the organisation of chromatin in live cells we have engineered fluorescent fusion proteins which recognize specific operator sequences to tag pairs of syntenic gene loci. The separation of these loci was then tracked in three dimensions over time using fluorescence microscopy...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Amanda C Mitchell, Behnam Javidfar, Lucy K Bicks, Rachael Neve, Krassimira Garbett, Sharon S Lander, Karoly Mirnics, Hirofumi Morishita, Marcelo A Wood, Yan Jiang, Inna Gaisler-Salomon, Schahram Akbarian
Neuronal epigenomes, including chromosomal loopings moving distal cis-regulatory elements into proximity of target genes, could serve as molecular proxy linking present-day-behaviour to past exposures. However, longitudinal assessment of chromatin state is challenging, because conventional chromosome conformation capture assays essentially provide single snapshots at a given time point, thus reflecting genome organization at the time of brain harvest and therefore are non-informative about the past. Here we introduce 'NeuroDam' to assess epigenome status retrospectively...
2016: Nature Communications
Shanli Tsui, Jie Wang, Ling Wang, Wei Dai, Luo Lu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to elicit the epigenetic mechanism involving CCCTC binding factor (CTCF)-mediated chromatin remodeling that regulates PAX6 gene interaction with differentiation-associated genes to control corneal epithelial differentiation. METHODS: Cell cycle progression and specific keratin expressions were measured to monitor changes of differentiation-induced primary human limbal stem/progenitor (HLS/P), human corneal epithelial (HCE) and human telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial (HTCE) cells...
2016: PloS One
Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Huayun Hou, Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani, Matteo Vietri Rudan, Minggao Liang, Alejandra Medina-Rivera, Hisham Mohammed, Dominic Schmidt, Petra Schwalie, Edwin J Young, Jüri Reimand, Suzana Hadjur, Anne-Claude Gingras, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: Type II DNA topoisomerases (TOP2) regulate DNA topology by generating transient double stranded breaks during replication and transcription. Topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) facilitates rapid gene expression and functions at the later stages of development and differentiation. To gain new insight into the genome biology of TOP2B, we used proteomics (BioID), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) to identify novel proximal TOP2B protein interactions and characterize the genomic landscape of TOP2B binding at base pair resolution...
2016: Genome Biology
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