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enteric nervous system

James L Quinn, Gaurav Kumar, Agnieshka Agasing, Rose M Ko, Robert C Axtell
Both T cells and B cells are implicated in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS), but how these cells cooperate to drive disease remains unclear. Recent studies using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demonstrated that the TH17 pathway is correlated with increased numbers of ectopic B-cell follicles in the central nervous system (CNS). As follicular T helper (TFH) cells are regulators of B cell responses, we sought to examine the role of TFH cells in EAE induced by the transfer of myelin-specific TH17 cells (TH17-EAE)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pietro Fiaschi, Filippo Badaloni, Bernarda Cagetti, Luca Bruzzone, Gianluca Marucci, Anna Dellachà, Marco Pavanello, Giuseppe Ganci, Riccardo Padolecchia, Valtero Valsania
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor was recently added in the World Health Organization classification of Central Nervous System tumors. Although pretty rare, it is more common in the pediatric population, but occasional cases have been reported in adult patients. Despite this tumor has been recognized as a distinct pathological entity, its biological behavior remains unclear. It is considered an indolent neoplasm, even if considerable morbidity has been reported. Because of this reason, further characterization and collection of evidence is crucial...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jianli Feng, Lingling Dong, Jing Zhang, Xiaolei Han, Shi Tang, Lin Song, Lin Cong, Xiang Wang, Yongxiang Wang, Yifeng Du
KIBRA has been recognized as a memory-related gene, which is abundant in the brain and kidney of mammals. However, the expression pattern of KIBRA in the "second brain"-enteric nervous system (ENS) is still unknown, especially in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the detailed expression pattern of KIBRA in the intestinal myenteric nerve plexus of APP/PS1 and wild type mice by whole mount staining technology. The deposition of Aβ and increased levels of phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) and total Tau (T-Tau) protein were observed in the intestinal myenteric nerve plexus of APP/PS1 mice...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
M M Jamil Al-Obaidi, A Bahadoran, S M Wang, R Manikam, Ch S Raju, S D Sekaran
The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption...
2018: Acta Virologica
L Chen, B Yu, D Luo, M Lin
BACKGROUND: The mechanism underlying gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has not been fully elucidated, and enteric nervous system (ENS) has an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ENS in the colonic hypomotility induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) infusion which mimics CP. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to CP which was induced by pancreatic infusion of 2% TNBS, or sham group with treatment of equal saline...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Bodil Ohlsson, Rita J Gustafsson, Ervin Toth, Bèla Veress, Henrik Thorlacius
A full-thickness biopsy of the bowel wall is required to evaluate the enteric nervous system. A patient with aggravating gastrointestinal symptoms underwent a laparoscopic full-thickness biopsy of the ileum and, 1 year later, an endoscopic full-thickness biopsy of the sigmoid colon. Both samples showed enteric neuropathy characterized by vacuolated and enlarged neurons. The length of the myenteric plexus was greater in the endoscopic (23 mm) compared to the laparoscopic (11 mm) biopsy, with fewer tissue artefacts in the laparoscopic approach...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Alex N Dang, Jacob D Isenberg, Justin T Graham, Lena Lindblad, Oliver Domenig, Michael F Waters, Marko Poglitsch, Colin Sumners, U Muscha Steckelings
Significant neuroprotective effects of angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 ) receptor agonists in ischemic stroke have been previously demonstrated in multiple studies.  However, the routes of agonist application used in these pre-clinical studies, direct intracerebroventricular and systemic administration, are unsuitable for translation to humans; in the latter case because AT2 receptor agonists are blood brain barrier (BBB) impermeable. To circumvent this problem, in the current study we utilized the nose-to-brain (N2B) route of administration to bypass the blood brain barrier and deliver the selective AT2 receptor agonist Compound 21 (C21) to naïve rats or rats that had undergone endothelin 1-induced ischemic stroke...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Oscar S Gershanik
Current understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease suggests a key role of the accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis. This critical review highlights major landmarks, hypotheses and controversies about the origin and progression of synucleinopathy in Parkinson's disease, leading to an updated review of evidence suggesting the enteric nervous system might be the starting point for the whole process. Although accumulating and compelling evidence favors this theory, the remaining knowledge gaps are important points for future studies...
February 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
C Liang, K-Y Wang, M-R Gong, Q Li, Z Yu, B Xu
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the importance of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in gastrointestinal motility, we hypothesized that the ENS may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) in constipation by regulating the mechanisms underlying the effects of EA on gastrointestinal function. METHODS: Model mice with constipation were generated by gastric instillation of 0-4°C normal saline. Defecation time and stool (form and wet and dry weight) were assessed...
February 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Casey M Calkins
Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a common cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction in which a variable segment of the distal intestinal tract lacks the normal enteric nervous system elements. Affected individuals present with varying degrees of obstructive symptoms, but today most patients are diagnosed within the first several months of life owing to the well-recognized symptoms and the ease of making the diagnosis by way of the bedside suction rectal biopsy. Thus, for the adult general or colorectal surgeon, the vast majority of patients who present for evaluation will have already undergone surgical treatment within the first year of life by a pediatric surgeon...
March 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Marc Gielen, Pierre-Jean Corringer
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast neurotransmission in the nervous system. Their dysfunction is associated with psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding their biophysical and pharmacological properties, both at the functional and structural levels, thus holds many therapeutic promises. In addition to their agonist-elicited activation, most pLGICs display another key allosteric property, namely desensitization, in which they enter a shut state refractory to activation upon sustained agonist binding...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Clara Sm Tang, Xuehan Zhuang, Wai-Yee Lam, Elly Sau-Wai Ngan, Jacob Shujui Hsu, Y U Michelle, S O Man-Ting, Stacey S Cherny, Ngoc Diem Ngo, Pak C Sham, Paul Kh Tam, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barcelo
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a complex birth defect characterized by the lack of ganglion cells along a variable length of the distal intestine. A large proportion of HSCR patients remain genetically unexplained. We applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 9 trios where the probands are sporadically affected with the most severe form of the disorder and harbor no coding sequence variants affecting the function of known HSCR genes. We found de novo protein-altering variants in three intolerant to change genes-CCT2, VASH1, and CYP26A1-for which a plausible link with the enteric nervous system (ENS) exists...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Qiyang Shen, Hua Zhang, Yang Su, Zechao Wen, Zhongxian Zhu, Guanglin Chen, Lei Peng, Chunxia Du, Hua Xie, Hongxing Li, Xiaofeng Lv, Changgui Lu, Yankai Xia, Weibing Tang
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a complex disorder with multiple pathogenic gene mutations. Protocadherin alpha 9 (PCDHA9) was identified as a potential candidate gene for HSCR by whole-exome sequencing in a Chinese family. Sanger sequencing in 298 HSCR cases revealed two sporadic Chinese patients with a novel missence PCDHΑ9 mutation (NM_031857; c.1280C > T[p.Ala427Val]) and one sporadic Chinese patient with another novel missence PCDHΑ9 mutation (c.1425C > G[p.Phe475Leu]).The silico predictions and 3D modeling suggest the deleterious effect of identified mutations on protein function...
February 22, 2018: Gene
Farideh Baghishani, Abbas Mohammadipour, Hossain Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
Tramadol, a frequently used pain reliever drug, present neurotoxic effects associated to cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, crocin has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to assess crocin's capacity to protect learning, and memory abilities on tramadol-treated rats. A total of 35 rats were divided into five groups: Control, Saline, tramadol (50 mg/kg), tramadol + crocin(30 mg/kg), crocin groups and treated orally for 28 consecutive days. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were done, followed by dissection of the rat's brains for toluidine blue and TUNEL staining...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Patrícia Rocha Martins, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Aline Tomaz Dos Santos, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Patricia Massara Martinelli, Débora d'Avila Reis
Chagas disease is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that affects millions of people worldwide and is endemic in Latin America. Megacolon is the most frequent complication of the digestive chronic form and happens due to lesions of the enteric nervous system. The neuronal lesions seem to initiate in the acute phase and persist during the chronic phase, albeit the mechanisms involved in this process are still debated. Among the cells of the immune system possibly involved in this pathological process is the mast cell (MC) due to its well-known role in the bi-directional communication between the immune and nervous systems...
February 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ethan A Everington, Adina G Gibbard, Jerome D Swinny, Mohsen Seifi
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) subtype A receptors (GABAA Rs) are integral membrane ion channels composed of five individual proteins or subunits. Up to 19 different GABAA R subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π, and ρ1-3) have been identified, resulting in anatomically, physiologically, and pharmacologically distinct multiple receptor subtypes, and therefore GABA-mediated inhibition, across the central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, GABAA R-modulating drugs are important tools in clinical medicine, although their use is limited by adverse effects...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Luminita Ene
Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early, where it can persist, evolve, and become compartmentalized. Central nervous system (CNS) disease can be attributed to HIV alone or to the complex interplay between the virus and other neurotropic pathogens. Aim: The current review aims to describe the direct impact of HIV on the brain as well as its relationship with other pathogens from a practitioner's perspective, to provide a general clinical overview, brief workup, and, whenever possible, treatment guidance...
2018: Infectious Diseases
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