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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923718/using-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-understand-ingestive-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Stephen C Woods, Aaron A May, Min Liu, Patrick Tso, Denovan P Begg
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a window into the workings of the brain and blood-brain barrier (BBB). Molecules that enter into the central nervous system (CNS) by passive diffusion or receptor-mediated transport through the choroid plexus often appear in the CSF prior to acting within the brain. Other molecules enter the CNS by passing through the BBB into the brain's interstitial fluid prior to appearing in the CSF. This pattern is also often observed for molecules synthesized by neurons or glia within the CNS...
December 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#2
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916355/enhanced-serotonin-signaling-increases-intestinal-neuroplasticity
#3
Chasen J Greig, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
BACKGROUND: The intestinal mucosa recovers from injury by accelerating enterocyte proliferation resulting in villus growth. A similar phenomenon is seen after massive bowel resection. Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated as an important regulator of mucosal homeostasis by promoting growth in the epithelium. The impact of 5-HT on other components of growing villi is not known. We hypothesized that 5-HT-stimulated growth in the intestinal epithelium would be associated with growth in other components of the villus such as enteric neural axonal processes...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905407/endothelin-3-stimulates-cell-adhesion-and-cooperates-with-%C3%AE-1-integrins-during-enteric-nervous-system-ontogenesis
#4
Elodie Gazquez, Yuli Watanabe, Florence Broders-Bondon, Perrine Paul-Gilloteaux, Julie Heysch, Viviane Baral, Nadège Bondurand, Sylvie Dufour
Endothelin-3 (EDN3) and β1-integrins are required for the colonization of the embryonic gut by enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to form the enteric nervous system (ENS). β1-integrin-null ENCCs exhibit migratory defects in a region of the gut enriched in EDN3 and in specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We investigated the putative role of EDN3 on ENCC adhesion properties and its functional interaction with β1-integrins during ENS development. We show that EDN3 stimulates ENCC adhesion to various ECM components in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902697/a-novel-zebrafish-ret-heterozygous-model-of-hirschsprung-disease-identifies-a-functional-role-for-mapk10-as-a-modifier-of-enteric-nervous-system-phenotype-severity
#5
Tiffany A Heanue, Werend Boesmans, Donald M Bell, Koichi Kawakami, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by absence of enteric neurons from the distal colon and severe intestinal dysmotility. To understand the pathophysiology and genetics of HSCR we developed a unique zebrafish model that allows combined genetic, developmental and in vivo physiological studies. We show that ret mutant zebrafish exhibit cellular, physiological and genetic features of HSCR, including absence of intestinal neurons, reduced peristalsis, and varying phenotype expressivity in the heterozygous state...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900601/rna-seq-expression-analysis-of-enteric-neuron-cells-with-rotenone-treatment-and-prediction-of-regulated-pathways
#6
Qiang Guan, Xijin Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Lijuan Zhao, Zhiyu Nie, Lingjing Jin
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899999/colorectal-cancer-patients-exhibit-increased-levels-of-galanin-in-serum-and-colon-tissues
#7
Przemysław Kwiatkowski, Janusz Godlewski, Jacek Kieżun, Bartłomiej Emil Kraziński, Zbigniew Kmieć
Galanin (GAL) is a 30-amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Increased GAL concentrations have been identified in the blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of the present study was to assess whether sections of the colon wall containing ENS plexuses or CRC tumor are associated with increased GAL concentrations. Blood samples were collected from 68 CRC patients and 39 healthy volunteers. In addition, samples of CRC tumors and colon wall tissue in close proximity to and distant from the neoplastic tissue were obtained from 22 CRC patients...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894243/spinal-muscular-atrophy-more-than-a-disease-of-motor-neurons
#8
L A Nash, J K Burns, J W Chardon, R Kothary, R J Parks
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease resulting in infant mortality. SMA is caused by genetic deletion or mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN protein deficiency preferentially affects α- motor neurons, leading to their degeneration and subsequent atrophy of limb and trunk muscles, progressing to death in severe forms of the disease. More recent studies have shown that SMN protein depletion is detrimental to the functioning of other tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, autonomic and enteric nervous systems, metabolic/endocrine (e...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893870/associations-between-hydration-status-intravenous-fluid-administration-and-outcomes-of-patients-infected-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Lisa Hartling, Phillip I Tarr, David Schnadower, Stephen B Freedman
Importance: The associations between hydration status, intravenous fluid administration, and outcomes of patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remain unclear. Objective: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and adverse outcomes in STEC-infected individuals. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via the OvidSP platform, PubMed via the National Library of Medicine, CINAHL Plus with full text, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891756/motility-patterns-in-mouse-colon-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-induced-by-anticancer-chemotherapy
#10
REVIEW
N J Spencer
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a major chemotherapy treatment, has been used for decades to fight numerous types of cancers, including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients treated with 5-FU develop toxicities that include diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and vomiting. While the side effects of 5-FU are well known, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these unpleasant symptoms are poorly understood...
December 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#11
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890822/visual-light-effects-on-mitochondria-the-potential-implications-in-relation-to-glaucoma
#12
Neville N Osborne, Claudia Núñez-Álvarez, Susana Del Olmo-Aguado, Jesús Merrayo-Lloves
Light of different wave-lengths have the potential to interact with four major mitochondrial protein complexes that are involved in the generation of ATP. Neurones of the central nervous system have an absolute dependence on mitochondrial generated ATP. Laboratory studies show that short-wave or blue light (400-480nm) that impinges on the retina affect flavin and cytochrome constituents associated with mitochondria to decrease the rate of ATP formation, stimulate ROS and results in cell death. This suggests that blue light could potentially have a negative influence on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) mitochondria that are abundant and not shielded by macular pigments as occurs for photoreceptor mitochondria...
November 24, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889765/contribution-of-common-variants-in-gabrg2-reln-and-nrg3-and-interaction-networks-to-the-risk-of-hirschsprung-disease
#13
Yang Wang, Jun Wang, Ying Zhou, Zhiyun Wei, Yongtao Xiao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Wen, Junkai Yan, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, characterized by a deficit in enteric nervous system. Genome-wide studies implied GABRG2, RELN and NRG3 might be involved in HSCR etiology. Here, we aimed to assess genetic variants in GABRG2, RELN and NRG3 that may confer susceptibility to HSCR and explore genetic interaction networks in HSCR. METHODS: Using a strategy that combined case-control study and gene-gene interaction analysis with the MassArray system, we evaluated 24 polymorphisms within GABRG2, RELN and NRG3 in 104 HSCR cases and 151 normal controls of Han Chinese origin...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878645/the-synaptojanins-in-the-murine-small-and-large-intestine
#14
María Dolores Vázquez-Carretero, Ana Eloisa Carvajal, José Manuel Serrano-Morales, Pablo García-Miranda, Anunciación Ana Ilundain, María José Peral
The expression of the phosphoinositides phosphatases Synaptojanins (Synjs) 1 and 2 has been shown in brain and in some peripheral tissues, but their expression in the intestine has not been reported. Herein we show that the small and large intestine express Synj1 and Synj2. Their mRNA levels, measured by RT-PCR, are not affected by development in the small intestine but in the colon they increase with age. Immunostaining assays reveal that both Synjs localize at the apical domain of the epithelial cells and at the lamina propria at sites also expressing the neuron marker calretinin...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#15
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869680/gut-bacteria-and-hydrogen-sulfide-the-new-old-players-in-circulatory-system-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Lenka Tomasova, Piotr Konopelski, Marcin Ufnal
Accumulating evidence suggests that gut bacteria play a role in homeostasis of the circulatory system in mammals. First, gut bacteria may affect the nervous control of the circulatory system via the sensory fibres of the enteric nervous system. Second, gut bacteria-derived metabolites may cross the gut-blood barrier and target blood vessels, the heart and other organs involved in the regulation of the circulatory system. A number of studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is an important biological mediator in the circulatory system...
November 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867383/environmental-toxicants-induced-immune-responses-in-the-olfactory-mucosa
#18
REVIEW
Fumiaki Imamura, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb (OB) that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the OB via the OM and directly affect the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860042/acotiamide-improves-stress-induced-impaired-gastric-accommodation
#19
K Ikeo, T Oshima, H Sei, T Kondo, H Fukui, J Watari, H Miwa
BACKGROUND: Gastric accommodation is a reflex reaction related to gastric reservoir function. Psychological stress, such as anxiety, inhibits gastric accommodation in humans. Acotiamide enhances the effect of acetylcholine in the enteric nervous system, enhances gastric contractility, and accelerates delayed gastric emptying. However, the effect of acotiamide on stress-induced impaired gastric accommodation remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of acotiamide on gastric accommodation and stress-induced impaired gastric accommodation using a conscious guinea pig model...
November 14, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858292/cisplatin-toxicity-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-relieved-by-meclizine-via-diminution-of-mitochondrial-compromise-and-improved-clearance-of-dna-damage
#20
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, Ella W Englander
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity of peripheral nervous system (PNS) hinders efficacy of cancer treatments. Mechanisms initiating PNS injury by anticancer drugs are incompletely understood delaying development of effective management strategies. To understand events triggered in PNS by cancer drugs, we exposed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to cisplatin, a drug from platinum-based class of chemotherapeutics frequently implicated in peripheral neuropathies. While cisplatin enters cancer cells and forms cisplatin/DNA crosslinks that block cell proliferation, circulating cisplatin can also reach the PNS and produce crosslinks that impede critical DNA transactions in postmitotic neurons...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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