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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792527/enteric-neural-stem-cells-expressing-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-a-novel-cellular-therapy-for-hirschsprung-s-disease-in-mouse-model
#1
Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Rongde Wu
Transplanting enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach for replacing enteric neurons in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). However, posttransplantation cell survival and differentiation limit efficacy. We aimed to investigate whether transplantation of ENSCs engineered with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve survival and differentiation of the engrafted cells and promote functional recovery of the aganglionic colon. ENSCs were isolated from the intestine of neonatal mice and genetically modified to express IGF-1...
May 24, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789961/illnesses-associated-with-freshwater-recreation-during-international-travel
#2
REVIEW
Daniel L Bourque, Joseph M Vinetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: International travel, adventure travel, and eco-tourism are increasing over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize the spectrum of infections associated with recreational freshwater activities and international travel. RECENT FINDINGS: Recreational water activities can be associated with a wide range of infections. Acute febrile illnesses due to leptospirosis and schistosomiasis are not uncommon in travelers following extensive freshwater exposure...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782847/optogenetic-induction-of-colonic-motility-in-mice
#3
Timothy J Hibberd, Jing Feng, Jialie Luo, Pu Yang, Vijay K Samineni, Robert W Gereau, Nigel Kelley, Hongzhen Hu, Nick J Spencer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies are needed to increase gastrointestinal transit without systemic pharmacologic agents. We investigated whether optogenetics, focal application of light to control enteric nervous system excitability, could be used to evoke propagating contractions and increase colonic transit in mice. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice with Cre-mediated expression of light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR2) in calretinin neurons (CAL-ChR2 Cre+ mice); Cre- littermates served as controls...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777154/calcimimetic-acts-on-enteric-neuronal-casr-to-reverse-cholera-toxin-induced-intestinal-electrolyte-secretion
#4
Lieqi Tang, Lingli Jiang, Megan E McIntyre, Ekaterina Petrova, Sam X Cheng
Treatment of acute secretory diarrheal illnesses remains a global challenge. Enterotoxins produce secretion through direct epithelial action and indirectly by activating enteric nervous system (ENS). Using a microperfused colonic crypt technique, we have previously shown that R568, a calcimimetic that activates the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), can act on intestinal epithelium and reverse cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion. In the present study, using the Ussing chamber technique in conjunction with a tissue-specific knockout approach, we show that the effects of cholera toxin and CaSR agonists on electrolyte secretion by the intestine can also be attributed to opposing actions of the toxin and CaSR on the activity of the ENS...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768873/macrophages-as-nanocarriers-for-drug-delivery-novel-therapeutics-for-central-nervous-system-diseases
#5
Zeng-Pan-Pan Ye, Xiao-Lin Ai, Andrew M Faramand, Fang Fang
Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases were thought to be untreatable due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The chemokine gradients secreted from CNS parenchyma can induce macrophage migration to the brain, induce firm adherence to the endothelium of BBB, and eventually to enter the brain parenchyma. Macrophages migrating into CNS can promote neuron regeneration, induce inflammation and angiogenesis. These properties can potentially allow macrophages to act as carriers for drug/nano formulations across the BBB, and reach the potential target sites...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767141/weaning-stress-and-gastrointestinal-barrier-development-implications-for-lifelong-gut-health-in-pigs
#6
REVIEW
Adam J Moeser, Calvin S Pohl, Mrigendra Rajput
The gastrointestinal (GI) barrier serves a critical role in survival and overall health of animals and humans. Several layers of barrier defense mechanisms are provided by the epithelial, immune and enteric nervous systems. Together they act in concert to control normal gut functions (e.g., digestion, absorption, secretion, immunity, etc.) whereas at the same time provide a barrier from the hostile conditions in the luminal environment. Breakdown of these critical GI functions is a central pathophysiological mechanism in the most serious GI disorders in pigs...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760287/-multi-organ-distribution-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#7
Koichi Wakabayashi, Yasuo Miki
In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, neuronal α-synuclein aggregates (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) are distributed throughout the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, enteric nervous system, cardiac and pelvic plexuses, submandibular gland, adrenal medulla, and skin. Lewy bodies also occur in 10-20% of neurologically asymptomatic individuals older than 60 years. These cases are called incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD). In ILBD, Lewy bodies can be found in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, visceral autonomic nervous system and skin...
May 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760072/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-proliferation-of-enteric-glia-and-differentiation-of-neurons-in-the-myenteric-plexus-after-damage
#8
F D'Errico, G Goverse, Y Dai, W Wu, M Stakenborg, E Labeeuw, V De Simone, B Verstockt, P J Gomez-Pinilla, M Warner, A Di Leo, G Matteoli, J A Gustafsson
Injury to the enteric nervous system (ENS) can cause several gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including achalasia, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroparesis. Recently, a subpopulation of enteric glial cells with neuronal stem/progenitor properties (ENSCs) has been identified in the adult ENS. ENSCs have the ability of reconstituting the enteric neuronal pool after damage of the myenteric plexus. Since the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is expressed in enteric glial cells and neurons, we investigated whether a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, can influence neuronal and glial cell differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758594/phox2b-is-a-reliable-immunomarker-in-distinguishing-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumors-from-cns-embryonal-tumors
#9
Sanda Alexandrescu, Vera Paulson, Adrian Dubuc, Azra Ligon, Hart G Lidov
INTRODUCTION: The PHOX2B gene regulates neuronal maturation in the brain stem nuclei associated with cardiorespiratory function, and in the autonomic sympathetic and enteric nervous system. PHOX2B expression is a reliable immunomarker for peripheral neuroblastic tumors, however no systematic evaluation of CNS embryonal tumors was included in the studies. We encountered two cases in which the differential diagnosis included neuroblastoma and CNS embryonal tumor, and we hypothesized that PHOX2B immunostain would be helpful establishing the diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756518/the-route-by-which-intranasally-delivered-stem-cells-enter-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Carlos Galeano, Zhifang Qiu, Anuja Mishra, Steven L Farnsworth, Jacob J Hemmi, Alvaro Moreira, Peter Edenhoffer, Peter J Hornsby
Intranasal administration is a promising route of delivery of stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS). Reports on this mode of stem cell delivery have not yet focused on the route across the cribriform plate by which cells move from the nasal cavity into the CNS. In the current experiments, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords and were labeled with extremely bright quantum dots (QDs) in order to track the cells efficiently. At 2 h after intranasal delivery in immunodeficient mice, the labeled cells were found under the olfactory epithelium, crossing the cribriform plate adjacent to the fila olfactoria, and associated with the meninges of the olfactory bulb...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755590/wide-pulse-high-frequency-low-intensity-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-has-potential-for-targeted-strengthening-of-an-intrinsic-foot-muscle-a-feasibility-study
#11
Darren C James, Matthew C Solan, Katya N Mileva
Background: Strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles is a poorly understood and largely overlooked area. In this study, we explore the feasibility of strengthening m . abductor hallucis (AH) with a specific paradigm of neuromuscular electrical stimulation; one which is low-intensity in nature and designed to interleave physiologically-relevant low frequency stimulation with high-frequencies to enhance effective current delivery to spinal motoneurones, and enable a proportion of force produced by the target muscle to be generated from a central origin...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751824/inoculation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-preformed-fibrils-into-the-mouse-gastrointestinal-tract-induces-lewy-body-like-aggregates-in-the-brainstem-via-the-vagus-nerve
#12
Norihito Uemura, Hisashi Yagi, Maiko T Uemura, Yusuke Hatanaka, Hodaka Yamakado, Ryosuke Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Intraneuronal α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates known as Lewy bodies (LBs) and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Braak's hypothesis based on autopsy studies suggests that Lewy pathology initially occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and then travels retrogradely to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmX), proceeding from there in a caudo-rostral direction...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749407/peripheral-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-localization-and-role-in-gastric-acid-secretion-regulation-immunofluorescence-and-pharmacological-studies
#13
Iuliia Golovynska, Tatiana V Beregova, Tatiana M Falalyeyeva, Ludmila I Stepanova, Sergii Golovynskyi, Junle Qu, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and a glutamate receptor (GluR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), participate in gastric acid secretion (GAS) regulation. NMDARs are localized in different stomach cells; however, knowledge of NMDAR expression and function in the ENS is limited. In the present study, we clarified the types of stomach cells that express the NMDARs that are involved in GAS regulation. The pharmacological method of isolated stomach perfusion by Ghosh and Shild combined with direct mapping of NMDARs by fluorescence microscopy in the rat stomach was employed...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749044/mycobacteria-employ-two-different-mechanisms-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
L M van Leeuwen, M Boot, C Kuijl, D I Picavet, G van den Brink, S M A van der Pol, H E de Vries, N N van der Wel, M van der Kuip, A M van Furth, A M van der Sar, W Bitter
Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. How M. tuberculosis crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enters the CNS is not well understood. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae and the closely related pathogen Mycobacterium marinum to answer this question. We show that in the early stages of development mycobacteria rapidly infect brain tissue, either as free mycobacteria or within circulating macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747642/salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-and-cortisol-in-horses-with-acute-abdominal-disease-a-pilot-study
#15
María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Damián Escribano, María Martín-Cuervo, Fernando Tecles, Jose Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), considered a non-invasive biomarker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, and salivary cortisol as possible pain-induced stress biomarker, in horses with acute abdominal disease. Therefore, a prospective observational study was performed in which both biomarkers were analyzed in a group of horses with acute abdomen syndrome, and compared with a group of healthy control horses by an unpaired Student's t-test...
May 10, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742516/influence-of-commensal-microbiota-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
Kristina Endres, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
When thinking about neurodegenerative diseases, the first symptoms that come to mind are loss of memory and learning capabilities, which all resemble hallmarks of manifestation of such diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the gut comprises the largest nervous system outside the CNS that is autonomously active and in close interplay with its microbiota. Therefore, the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as an indicator of degenerative pathomechanisms that also affect the CNS. On the other hand, it might offer an entry point for devastating influences from the microbial community or - conversely - for therapeutic approaches via gut commensals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740907/enteric-glial-cell-activation-protects-enteric-neurons-from-damage-due-to-diabetes-in-part-via-the-promotion-of-neurotrophic-factor-release
#17
P Luo, D Liu, C Li, W-X He, C-L Zhang, M-J Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes can result in pathological changes to enteric nervous system. Our aim was to test the dynamic changes of enteric neurons and identify the role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in regulating enteric neuron expression in diabetic rats. METHODS: A single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish diabetic rats. Animals were randomly distributed into diabetic 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-week groups, as well as age-matched control groups. The PGP9...
May 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739833/central-nervous-shutdown-underlies-acute-cold-tolerance-in-tropical-and-temperate-drosophila-species
#18
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Nikolaj Johannes Skole Jensen, R Meldrum Robertson, Johannes Overgaard
When cooled, insects first lose their ability to perform coordinated movements (CTmin ) after which they enter chill coma (chill coma onset, CCO). Both these behaviours are popular measures of cold tolerance that correlate remarkably well with species distribution. To identify and understand the neuromuscular impairment that causes CTmin and CCO we used inter- and intraspecific model systems of Drosophila species that have varying cold tolerance as a consequence of adaptation or cold acclimation. Our results demonstrate that CTmin and CCO correlate strongly with a spreading depolarization (SD) within the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730765/control-of-neuronal-ryanodine-receptor-mediated-calcium-signaling-by-calsenilin
#19
Michael A Grillo, Stephanie L Grillo, Bryan C Gerdes, Jacob G Kraus, Peter Koulen
Calsenilin is a calcium ion (Ca2+ )-binding protein involved in regulating the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ , a second messenger that controls multiple cellular signaling pathways. The ryanodine receptor (RyR) amplifies Ca2+ signals entering the cytoplasm by releasing Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, a process termed calcium-induced calcium release (CICR). Here, we describe a novel mechanism, in which calsenilin controls the activity of neuronal RyRs. We show calsenilin co-localized with RyR2 and 3 in the ER of mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons using immunocytochemistry...
May 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729479/palmitate-lipotoxicity-in-enteric-glial-cells-lipid-remodeling-and-mitochondrial-ros-are-responsible-for-cyt-c-release-outside-mitochondria
#20
Lara Macchioni, Maya Petricciuolo, Magdalena Davidescu, Katia Fettucciari, Paolo Scarpelli, Rita Vitale, Leonardo Gatticchi, Pierluigi Orvietani, Andrea Marchegiani, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti, Angela Corcelli, Lanfranco Corazzi
Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the enteric nervous system, an organized structure that controls gut functions. EGCs may be vulnerable to different agents, such as bacterial infections that could alter the intestinal epithelial barrier, allowing bacterial toxins and/or other agents possessing intrinsic toxic effect to access cells. Palmitate, known to exhibit lipotoxicity, is released in the gut during the digestion process. In this study, we investigated the lipotoxic effect of palmitate in cultured EGCs, with particular emphasis on palmitate-dependent intracellular lipid remodeling...
May 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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