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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155296/optogenetic-manipulation-of-ens-the-brain-in-the-gut
#1
REVIEW
Wei Wang
Optogenetics has emerged as an important tool in neuroscience, especially in central nervous system research. It allows for the study of the brain's highly complex network with high temporal and spatial resolution. The enteric nervous system (ENS), the brain in the gut, plays critical roles for life. Although advanced progress has been made, the neural circuits of the ENS remain only partly understood because the appropriate research tools are lacking. In this review, I highlight the potential application of optogenetics in ENS research...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154043/the-cause-and-effect-of-cryptococcus-interactions-with-the-host
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Ballou, Simon A Johnston
Upon Cryptococcus neoformans infection of the host lung, the fungus enters a nutrient poor environment and must adapt to a variety of host-specific stress conditions (temperature, nutrient limitation, pH, CO2). Fungal spores enter this milieu with limited nutritional reserves, germinate, and begin proliferating by budding as yeast. Although relatively little is known about the initial stages of infection, recent work has characterized changes that occur upon germination. This program and subsequent yeast-phase proliferation progress in a dynamic environment as host nutrient immunity responds to the infection via toxic accumulation or sequestration of essential micronutrients and innate immune cells are recruited to the site of infection...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135961/probiotic-prebiotic-and-brain-development
#3
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruíz, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#4
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#5
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#6
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120131/in-vitro-effects-of-selenium-on-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-lines-a-preliminary-study
#7
(no author information available yet)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is caused by the central nervous system-derived glial cells, and represents the most common (50%-60%) form of primary brain tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of selenium on human GBM cells. In the present study, GMS-10 and DBTRG-05MG human GBM cell lines were used as a model to examine selenium entering the cell, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and Ki-67 protein expression in selenomethionine treated and non-treated groups...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119972/rotavirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom, Manuel A Franco, Harry B Greenberg, Miguel O'Ryan, Gagandeep Kang, Ulrich Desselberger, Mary K Estes
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age. Despite the global introduction of vaccinations for rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110829/hirschsprung-disease-bowel-function-beyond-childhood
#9
Tomas Wester, Anna Löf Granström
Hirschsprung disease is a developmental defect of the enteric nervous system characterized by lack of enteric neurons in the distal hindgut. There are numerous reports on short-term outcomes indicating that impaired bowel function is common. Recently, several controlled studies show that bowel function outcomes are affected beyond childhood, in adolescents and adults, compared with healthy control subjects. Constipation and fecal incontinence are common. The impaired bowel function appears to have a negative impact on quality of life, although, a majority of patients have adapted to their symptoms...
October 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108781/retinoic-acid-temporally-orchestrates-colonization-of-the-gut-by-vagal-neural-crest-cells
#10
Rosa A Uribe, Stephanie S Hong, Marianne E Bronner
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate as chains into and along the primitive gut, subsequently differentiating into enteric neurons and glia. Little is known about the mechanisms governing neural crest migration en route to and along the gut in vivo. Here, we report that Retinoic Acid (RA) temporally controls zebrafish enteric neural crest cell chain migration. In vivo imaging reveals that RA loss severely compromises the integrity and migration of the chain of neural crest cells during the window of time window when they are moving along the foregut...
November 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107086/age-dependent-elevations-of-oligomeric-and-phosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-synchronously-occurs-in-the-brain-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-cynomolgus-monkeys
#11
Xin Li, Weiwei Yang, Xuran Li, Min Chen, Chengwei Liu, Shun Yu
Fibrillary α-synuclein (α-syn), which constitutes the major component of Lewy pathology characterized for Parkinson's disease (PD), is found also in the aged enteric nervous system (ENS) and central nervous system (CNS). However, what happens to oligomeric α-syn (o-α-syn) in the aged ENS and CNS remains poorly understood. Here, by using ELISA methods specific for o-α-syn and phosphorylated α-syn (p-α-syn), we measured the levels of o-α-syn and p-α-syn in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and brain of aging cynomolgus monkeys...
October 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107022/error-blindness-and-motivational-significance-shifts-in-networks-centering-on-anterior-insula-co-vary-with-error-awareness-and-pupil-dilation
#12
Helga A Harsay, Michael X Cohen, Marcus Spaan, Wouter D Weeda, Sander Nieuwenhuis, K Richard Ridderinkhof
This investigation aims to further our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the awareness of one's erroneous actions. While all errors are registered as such in the rostral cingulate zone, errors enter awareness only when the anterior insula cortex is activated. Aware but not unaware errors elicit autonomic nervous system reactivity. Our aim is to investigate the hypothesis that activation in the insula during error awareness is related to autonomic arousal and to inter-regional interactions with other areas of the brain...
October 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104530/antibiotic-driven-changes-in-gut-motility-suggest-direct-modulation-of-enteric-nervous-system
#13
Thilini Delungahawatta, Jessica Y Amin, Andrew M Stanisz, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe, Wolfgang A Kunze
Antibiotic-mediated changes to the intestinal microbiome have largely been assumed to be the basis of antibiotic-induced neurophysiological and behavioral changes. However, relatively little research has addressed whether antibiotics act directly on the host nervous system to produce these changes. We aimed to identify whether acute exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to antibiotics directly modulates neuronally dependent motility reflexes, ex vivo. Motility of colon and jejunum segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and alterations to neuronally dependent propagating contractile clusters (PCC), measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098550/enteric-glial-dysfunction-evoked-by-apolipoprotein-e-deficiency-contributes-to-delayed-gastric-emptying
#14
Seiichiro Fukuhara, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Soraya Nishimura, Masaya Nakamura, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Hitoshi Tsugawa, Sawako Miyoshi, Hideki Mori, Satoshi Kawase, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Takanori Kanai, Hidekazu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is the main cause of gastroparesis accompanying decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric ganglia of the stomach. Decreased nNOS expression in the stomach also results from defects in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which is secreted by astrocytes and has neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. However, the roles of ApoE and enteric glial cells on gastric motility are uncertain. In this study, ApoE and enteric glial cell alterations in gastroparesis were investigated...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096241/unwrapping-the-unappreciated-recent-progress-in-remak-schwann-cell-biology
#15
REVIEW
Breanne L Harty, Kelly R Monk
Schwann cells (SCs) are specialized glial cells that myelinate and protect axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Although myelinating SCs are more commonly studied, the PNS also contains a variety of non-myelinating SCs, including but not limited to Remak SCs (RSCs), terminal SCs, enteric glia. Although the field currently lacks many robust tools for interrogating the functions of non-myelinating SCs, recent evidence suggests that, like their myelinating counterparts, non-myelinating SCs are critical for proper PNS function...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093530/sporadic-hirschsprung-disease-mutational-spectrum-and-novel-candidate-genes-revealed-by-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Zhen Zhang, Qi Li, Mei Diao, Na Liu, Wei Cheng, Ping Xiao, Jizhen Zou, Lin Su, Kaihui Yu, Jian Wu, Long Li, Qian Jiang
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a common cause of functional colonic obstruction in children. The currently available genetic testing is often inadequate as it mainly focuses on RET and several other genes, accounting for only 15-20% of cases. To identify novel, potentially pathogenic variants, we isolated a panel of genes from a whole-exome sequencing study and from the published mouse aganglionosis phenotypes, enteric nervous system development, and a literature review. The coding exons of 172 genes were analyzed in 83 sporadic patients using next-generation sequencing...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091949/involvement-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-intestinal-obstruction
#17
Quentin Ballouhey, Laurence Richard, Laurent Fourcade, Ines Ben Rhaiem, Jean Michel Vallat, Franck Sturtz, Sylvie Bourthoumieu
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal atresia, a rare congenital condition, is often associated with intestinal motility disorders despite adequate neonatal surgery. Previous studies have focused on changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We hypothesized that other components of the digestive tract could be involved in this condition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a rat model of surgically-induced intestinal obstruction, a transcriptome analysis was performed to measure the global gene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078884/enteric-glial-mediated-enhancement-of-intestinal-barrier-integrity-is-compromised-by-morphine
#18
Brent D Bauman, Jingjing Meng, Lei Zhang, Amanda Louiselle, Eugene Zheng, Santanu Banerjee, Sabita Roy, Bradley J Segura
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a growing concern, and emerging evidence suggests that morphine use may be associated with sepsis. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are the most numerous cell type in the enteric nervous system and regulate gastrointestinal function through the production of trophic factors, including glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We sought to determine the effect of morphine on enteric glia and hypothesized that morphine contributes to EGC dysfunction and increased gut permeability...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078343/dual-origin-of-enteric-neurons-in-vagal-schwann-cell-precursors-and-the-sympathetic-neural-crest
#19
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Ben Jevans, Franck Boismoreau, Zoubida Chettouh, Hideki Enomoto, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Alan J Burns, Jean-François Brunet
Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the "vagal" neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1-7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the "vagal crest" subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072023/-prospects-and-progress-on-the-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-underlying-improvement-in-diabetic-gastroparesis
#20
Yan Gao, Gang Lu, Ya-Yuan Wang, Li Chen, Rui Chen, Feng-Xia Liang
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is an important complication of diabetes, and seriously impacts the patient's quality of life. In the present paper, the authors summarize national and international research on the mechanism of acupuncture therapy in improving DGP and the pathogenesis of DGP over the past 10 years. The authors illustrate the mechanism of acupuncture underlying the improvement in DGP as follows:1) the effect on autonomic nerves and neurons of the central nervous system; 2) promoting restoration of the enteric nervous system; 3) the effect on Cajal interstitial cells; 4) improving gastrointestinal hormone disorder; 5) improving hyperglycemic state; 6) the effect on gastric smooth muscle...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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