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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#1
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807283/neospora-caninum-rop16-play-an-important-role-in-the-pathogenicity-by-phosphorylating-host-cell-stat3
#2
Lei Ma, Gongzhen Liu, Jing Liu, Muzi Li, Heng Zhang, Di Tang, Qun Liu
Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortions in cattle and nervous system dysfunctions in dogs. Our analysis shows that NcROP16 and TgROP16 have similar structures and may have similar functions. To our surprise, we found that similar to the T. gondii RH strain, the N. caninum Nc-1 strain could phosphorylate STAT3(Y705), but in contrast to T. gondii, N. caninum Nc-1 could not phosphorylate STAT6(Y641). We constructed a gene-knockout plasmid and screened ΔNcROP16 strains at the gene, protein and transcription levels...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805584/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Fabrizio Stocchi, Margherita Torti
Constipation is one of the main and disabling nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), with a prevalence ranging from 24.6% to 63% according to the different diagnostic criteria used to define chronic constipation. Constipation is currently recognized as a risk factor of PD in relation to the number of evacuation per week and its severity. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that constipation may precede the occurrence of motor symptoms underlying an earlier involvement of the enteric nervous system and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in the α-synuclein pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803915/neural-crest-cell-implantation-restores-enteric-nervous-system-function-and-alters-the-gastrointestinal-transcriptome-in-human-tissue-engineered-small-intestine
#5
Christopher R Schlieve, Kathryn L Fowler, Matthew Thornton, Sha Huang, Ibrahim Hajjali, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan Grubbs, Jason R Spence, Tracy C Grikscheit
Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803148/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-the-neuroenteric-system-cervical-vagus-hyperphosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-and-tau-in-young-mexico-city-residents
#6
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802790/vascular-air-embolism-a-silent-hazard-to-patient-safety
#7
REVIEW
Sorin J Brull, Richard C Prielipp
PURPOSE: To narratively review published information on prevention, detection, pathophysiology, and appropriate treatment of vascular air embolism (VAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register and Google Scholar databases were searched for data published through October 2016. The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database was queried for "air embolism" reports (years 2011-2016). RESULTS: VAE may be introduced through disruption in the integrity of the venous circulation that occurs during insertion, maintenance, or removal of intravenous or central venous catheters...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801063/chondroitin-sulfates-do-not-impede-axonal-regeneration-in-goldfish-spinal-cord
#8
Akihito Takeda, Soichiro Okada, Kengo Funakoshi
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord...
August 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799054/identification-of-a-novel-variant-of-the-ret-proto-oncogene-in-a-novel-family-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#9
Takafumi Kawano, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Ituro Inoue, Ryuichi Shimono, Shun Onishi, Kazuhiko Nakame, Tatsuru Kaji, Hiroshi Matsufuji, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the Auerbach's and Meissner's plexuses. Although about 7% of cases are hereditary, the causal mutations have not been completely characterized. We encountered a novel family with inherited HSCR and screened them for causal mutations. METHODS: A Japanese family of five female patients and six unaffected individuals was subjected to a whole-exome analysis with a next-generation sequencer...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798420/hiv-1-tat-induced-diarrhea-evokes-an-enteric-glia-dependent-neuroinflammatory-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Giuseppe Esposito, Elena Capoccia, Stefano Gigli, Marcella Pesce, Eugenia Bruzzese, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Carla Cirillo, Alessandro di Cerbo, Rosario Cuomo, Luisa Seguella, Luca Steardo, Giovanni Sarnelli
Despite the effectiveness of combined anti-retroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected-patients frequently report diarrhea and neuropsychological deficits. It is claimed that the viral HIV-1 Trans activating factor (HIV-1 Tat) protein is responsible for both diarrhea and neurotoxic effects, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that colonic application of HIV-1 Tat activates glial cells of the enteric nervous system (EGCs), leading to a neuroinflammatory response able to propagate to the central nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790923/gut-microbiome-response-to-sucralose-and-its-potential-role-in-inducing-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Xiaoming Bian, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Sucralose is the most widely used artificial sweetener, and its health effects have been highly debated over the years. In particular, previous studies have shown that sucralose consumption can alter the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a key role in processes related to host health, such as food digestion and fermentation, immune cell development, and enteric nervous system regulation. Inflammation is one of the most common effects associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis, which has been linked to a series of human diseases, such as diabetes and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774929/chemogenetics-revealed-dreadd-occupancy-and-activation-via-converted-clozapine
#13
Juan L Gomez, Jordi Bonaventura, Wojciech Lesniak, William B Mathews, Polina Sysa-Shah, Lionel A Rodriguez, Randall J Ellis, Christopher T Richie, Brandon K Harvey, Robert F Dannals, Martin G Pomper, Antonello Bonci, Michael Michaelides
The chemogenetic technology DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) is widely used for remote manipulation of neuronal activity in freely moving animals. DREADD technology posits the use of "designer receptors," which are exclusively activated by the "designer drug" clozapine N-oxide (CNO). Nevertheless, the in vivo mechanism of action of CNO at DREADDs has never been confirmed. CNO does not enter the brain after systemic drug injections and shows low affinity for DREADDs. Clozapine, to which CNO rapidly converts in vivo, shows high DREADD affinity and potency...
August 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771235/systemic-gene-delivery-transduces-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-guinea-pigs-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#14
S E Gombash, C J Cowley, J A Fitzgerald, C A Lepak, M G Neides, K Hook, L J Todd, G-D Wang, C Mueller, B K Kaspar, E C Bielefeld, A J Fischer, J D Wood, K D Foust
Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or PBS. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post-injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis...
August 3, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770679/the-stomatogastric-and-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-pulmonate-snail-megalobulimus-abbreviatus-a-neurochemical-analysis
#15
Malcon Andrei Martinez-Pereira, Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi, Bárbara Paranhos Coelho, Denise M Zancan
Chemical coding of stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) of midgut and hindgut in the snail Megalobulimus abbreviatus was investigated using histochemistry, histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The gastrointestinal plexuses, constituted by intrinsic neurons and fibers originating from the subesophageal ganglia and/or STNS, showed intense acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase (NADPHd) activity. The enteric neurons and fibers with AChE activity are scattered in the submucosa and between both muscular layers of gastrointestinal tract, whereas NADPHd neurons and fibers are more abundant between muscular layers than in the submucosa...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762291/water-permeability-is-a-measure-of-severity-in-acute-appendicitis
#16
Nicola Pini, Viktoria A Pfeifle, Urs Kym, Simone Keck, Virginie Galati, Stefan Holland-Cunz, Stephanie J Gros
Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for pediatric abdominal emergency surgery. Determination of the severity of appendicitis on clinical grounds is challenging. Complicated appendicitis presenting with perforation, abscess or diffuse peritonitis is not uncommon. The question remains why and when acute appendicitis progresses to perforation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of water permeability on the severity of appendicitis. We show that AQP1 expression and water permeability in appendicitis correlate with the stage of inflammation and systemic infection parameters, leading eventually to perforation of the appendix...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759281/balanced-caloric-restriction-minimizes-changes-caused-by-aging-on-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus
#17
Renata de Britto Mari, Sandra Regina Stabille, Haroldo Garcia de Faria, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, Gabriela Pustiglione Marinsek, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza
Aging can promote significant morphofunctional changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Regulation of GIT motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Actions that aim at decreasing the aging effects in the GIT include those related to diet, with caloric restriction (CR). The CR is achieved by controlling the amount of food or by manipulating the components of the diet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different levels of CR on the plasticity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADPH-) reactive myenteric neurons in the colon of Wistar rats during the aging process using ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and morphoquantitative analysis...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755521/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-dysbiosis-impairs-neuromuscular-function-in-juvenile-mice
#18
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Viviana Filpa, Silvia Cerantola, Genny Orso, Michela Bistoletti, Nicola Paccagnella, Sara De Martin, Monica Montopoli, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Francesca Crema, Iole-Maria Di Gangi, Francesca Galuppini, Isabella Lante, Sara Bogialli, Massimo Rugge, Patrizia Debetto, Cristina Giaroni, Maria Cecilia Giron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Early life perturbations of gut microbiota can potentially impact neurodevelopment leading to functional bowel disorders later in life. We examined the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis impairs ENS structural and functional integrity leading to gut dysmotility in juvenile mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To induce gut dysbiosis broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered by gavage to juvenile male C57Bl/6 mice for 14 days...
July 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754485/prevalence-and-incidence-of-pressure-injuries-in-pediatric-hospitals-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-sp-brazil
#19
Donata Maria de Souza Pellegrino, Julieta Maria Ferreira Chacon, Leila Blanes, Lydia Masako Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence and prevalence of pressure injuries (PIs) in children admitted to hospitals in the city of São Paulo, and assess the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 543 children were evaluated, and their sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Student's t, Wilcoxon, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess associations between risk factors and the occurrence of HAPIs...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744122/penetration-of-blood-brain-barrier-and-antitumor-activity-and-nerve-repair-in-glioma-by-doxorubicin-loaded-monosialoganglioside-micelles-system
#20
Dan Zou, Wei Wang, Daoxi Lei, Ying Yin, Peng Ren, Jinju Chen, Tieying Yin, Bochu Wang, Guixue Wang, Yazhou Wang
For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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