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enteric nervous system

N Elizabeth Colvin, Pamela Lynn Mahan, Jeffrey Harris
As frontline clinicians, occupational and environmental health nurses play an important role in educating workers and the public about the dangers and toxic effects of environmental contaminants. One of these contaminants is methylmercury, which enters the body through the consumption of contaminated fish and seafood. Methylmercury affects the central nervous system where it may cause psychiatric disturbances, ataxia, neuropathy, and visual and hearing loss. Because their central nervous systems are rapidly developing, the most vulnerable subgroups are infants in utero, babies, and young children...
October 6, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xenia Naj, Stefan Linder
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. If an infection with Borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Successful elimination of B. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. Accordingly, host immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Luis D Pacheco, Antonio F Saad, Gary D V Hankins, Giuseppe Chiosi, George Saade
Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported in pregnancy and is a potentially lethal condition. It affects the nervous system with acute onset of symmetric ascending weakness and may result in frank respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction. Most patients recall symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal illness in the weeks preceding the onset of weakness. Recent evidence suggests a potential role of the Zika virus as a trigger for the syndrome. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barré is clinical. Supportive measures include venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, aggressive physical therapy, pressure ulcer prevention, enteral nutrition, and respiratory support...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski, Lukasz Zielonka, Michal Dabrowski, Jaroslaw Calka
T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, which may affect the synthesis of DNA and RNA and causes various pathological processes. Till now, the influence of T-2 toxin on the enteric nervous system (ENS) located in the wall of gastrointestinal tract has not been studied. On the other hand, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of enteric neuronal factors, whose exact functions in the intestines still remain not fully explained. The present study describes the influence of low doses of T-2 toxin on CART-positive neuronal structures in porcine stomach, duodenum, and descending colon...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Sepideh Sefidbakht, Sakineh Dehghani, Maryam Safari, Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Kasraeian
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. OBJECTIVES: We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Jessica M Kelly, Allison Bradbury, Douglas R Martin, Mark E Byrne
Approximately 1 in 5000-8000 children are born annually with a lysosomal storage disease (LSD), which affects their cells' ability to break down naturally occurring substrates. Accumulation, or "storage," of undegraded substrates leads to a wide variety of clinical symptoms, and early mortality. Currently, for LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, there is no available treatment. Four methods of treatment are being explored in clinical trials and preclinical settings: enzyme replacement therapy, ex vivo gene therapy, in vivo gene therapy, and nanoparticle-based therapy...
October 7, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
A Baumann, P O Katz
Swallowing involves complex coordination of the neuromuscular anatomy and physiology of the oropharynx and esophagus, controlled by the enteric and central nervous systems. Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal and results from mechanical or structural disturbances. Videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, barium swallow, manometry, and endoscopy are common modalities utilized in diagnosis, but none is as important as a patient's history. Functional dysphagia is a diagnosis of exclusion and is based on Rome criteria...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jason C H Chiang, David W Ellison
Advances in our understanding of the biology of paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours have encouraged pathologists to use molecular markers alongside histopathological analysis for disease classification or prognostication and treatment stratification. In this article, we review molecular genetic alterations in paediatric CNS tumours, including those in low-grade and high-grade gliomas, ependymomas, and embryonal tumours. Some of these molecular changes with clinicopathological utility have been used for the first time in the most recent edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of CNS tumours to define entities like ependymoma, RELA fusion-positive or diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Carlos R Cámara-Lemarroy, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Roberto Monreal-Robles, Alejandro Marfil-Rivera
Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Consolato Sergi, Oana Caluseriu, Hunter McColl, David D Eisenstat
On the occasion of the 100(th) anniversary of Dr. Harald Hirschsprung's death, there is a worldwide significant research effort towards identifying and understanding the role of genes and biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis as well as the use of new therapies for the disease harboring his name (Hirschsprung disease, HSCR). HSCR (aganglionic megacolon) is a frequent diagnostic and clinical challenge in perinatology and pediatric surgery, and a major cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction. HSCR is characterized by the absence of ganglia of the enteric nervous system, mostly in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
G Pini, S Bigoni, L Congiu, A M Romanelli, M F Scusa, P Di Marco, A Benincasa, P Morescalchi, A Ferlini, F Bianchi, D Tropea, M Zappella
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder almost exclusively affecting females, characterized by a broad clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms and a peculiar course. The disease affects different body systems: nervous, muscolo-skeletal, gastro-enteric. Moreover, part of the symptoms are related to the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. In the Tuscany Rett Center at Versilia Hospital, we collected data from 151 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of classical or variant RTT syndrome...
September 29, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Peter H Neckel, Ulrich Mattheus, Bernhard Hirt, Lothar Just, Andreas F Mack
Novel techniques, like CLARITY and PACT, render large tissue specimens transparent and thereby suitable for microscopic analysis. We used these techniques to evaluate their potential in the intestine as an exemplary organ with a complex tissue composition. Immunohistochemistry, light sheet-, and confocal scanning-microscopy enabled us to follow complex three-dimensional structures, like nerve fibers, vessels, and epithelial barriers throughout the entire organ. Moreover, in a systematic electron microscopic study, we analyzed the morphology and preservation of tissue on ultrastructural level during the clearing process...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
G Fullstone, S Nyberg, X Tian, G Battaglia
Designing nanoparticles that effectively enter the central nervous system (CNS) rapidly and without alteration is one of the major challenges in the use of nanotechnology for the brain. In this chapter, we explore the process of transcytosis, a receptor-mediated transport pathway that permits endogenous macromolecules to enter the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier. Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier involves a number of distinct stages, including receptor binding, endocytosis into a transport vesicle, trafficking of the vesicle to the opposite side of the cell, and finally exocytosis and release of cargo...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Roeland Buckinx, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
While there is a large body of preclinical data on the use of viral vectors in gene transfer, relatively little is known about viral gene transfer in the gastrointestinal tract. Viral vector technology is especially underused in the field of neurogastroenterology when compared to brain research. This review provides an overview of the studies employing viral vectors-in particular retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses-to transduce different cell types in the intestine. Early work mainly focused on mucosal transduction, but had limited success due to the harsh luminal conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and the high turnover rate of enterocytes...
September 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Naho Fujiwara, Katsumi Miyahara, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Chihiro Akazawa, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is caused by a failure of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCC) to colonize the bowel, resulting in an absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Previously, we developed a Sox10 transgenic version of the Endothelin receptor-B (Ednrb) mouse to visualize ENCC with the green fluorescent protein, Venus. The aim of this study was to isolate Sox10-Venus(+) cells, which are differentiated neurons and glial cells in the ENS, and analyze these cells using Sox10-Venus mice gut...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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