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Simone Cristoni, Guglielmo Dusi, Paolo Brambilla, Adriana Albini, Matteo Conti, Maura Brambilla, Antonino Bruno, Francesca Digaudio, Luca Ferlin, Valeria Tazzari, Silvia Mengozzi, Simone Barera, Carlos Salier, Tommaso Trenti, Marco Cantu, Luigi Rossi Bernardi, Douglas M Noonan
Electrospray Ionization (EI) and Collision Induced Dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) are usually employed to obtain compound identification through a mass spectra match. Different algorithms have been developed for this purpose (for example the NIST match algorithm). These approaches compare the tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of the unknown analyte with the MS/MS spectra of known compounds inserted in a database. The compounds are usually identified on the basis of spectral match value associated with a probability of recognition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, J Roman Arguello, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Pseudogenes are generally considered to be non-functional DNA sequences that arise through nonsense or frame-shift mutations of protein-coding genes. Although certain pseudogene-derived RNAs have regulatory roles, and some pseudogene fragments are translated, no clear functions for pseudogene-derived proteins are known. Olfactory receptor families contain many pseudogenes, which reflect low selection pressures on loci no longer relevant to the fitness of a species. Here we report the characterization of a pseudogene in the chemosensory variant ionotropic glutamate receptor repertoire of Drosophila sechellia, an insect endemic to the Seychelles that feeds almost exclusively on the ripe fruit of Morinda citrifolia...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Natalia Proskura, Joanna Podlasińska, Lidia Skopicz-Radkiewicz
: The aim of the study was to determine content of 17 elements (Co, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, K, N, C, S and P) and their bioaccumulation factors (BCF) in bay bolete (Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr.) fruiting bodies (caps and stalks) and underneath soil samples collected from forest sites in lubuskie voivodeship in Poland. Forty-eight samples of Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. fruiting bodies and the same number of underneath soil substrate samples were collected in forest sites of Sulęcin Forest District in western Poland...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Katrin Ehlers, Amey S Bhide, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon, Annette Becker
Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant...
2016: PloS One
Jeri W Nieves, Chris Gennings, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jonathan Hupf, Jessica Singleton, Valerie Sharf, Björn Oskarsson, J Americo M Fernandes Filho, Eric J Sorenson, Emanuele D'Amico, Ray Goetz, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Importance: There is growing interest in the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Objective: To evaluate the associations between nutrients, individually and in groups, and ALS function and respiratory function at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional baseline analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress study was conducted from March 14, 2008, to February 27, 2013, at 16 ALS clinics throughout the United States among 302 patients with ALS symptom duration of 18 months or less...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Yunpeng Cao, Yahui Han, Dahui Li, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
In plants, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CLs), comprising some of the adenylate-forming enzymes, are key enzymes involved in regulating lignin metabolism and the biosynthesis of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Although several 4CL-related proteins were shown to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study on 4CL-related genes in the pear and other Rosaceae species has been reported. In this study, we identified 4CL-related genes in the apple, peach, yangmei, and pear genomes using DNATOOLS software and inferred their evolutionary relationships using phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, conserved motif analysis, and structure analysis...
October 19, 2016: Genes
Aleksandra S Kristo, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas, Angelos K Sikalidis
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mohammad Z Hossain, Emily Shea, Mohsen Daneshtalab, John T Weber
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kathleen Marie Burchhardt, Megan E Miller, William O Cline, Marc Cubeta
The fungus Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Mvc), a pathogen of Vaccinium spp., requires asexual and sexual spore production to complete its life cycle. A recent study found population structuring of Mvc over a broad spatial scale in the US. In this study, we examined fine-scale genetic structuring, temporal dynamics, and reproductive biology within a 125 x 132m blueberry plot from 2010 to 2012. A total of 395 isolates of Mvc were sampled from infected shoots and fruits to examine their multilocus haplotype (MLH) using microsatellite markers...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Darla E Kendzor, Marlyn Allicock, Michael S Businelle, Lona F Sandon, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Summer G Frank
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a diet and physical activity intervention for homeless adults. METHODS: Shelter residents (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 4-week diet and physical activity intervention (n = 17) or an assessment-only control group (n = 15). Intervention participants received tailored educational newsletters, pedometers with step goals, and twice daily fruit/vegetable snacks. Key measures included 24-hour dietary recall interviews and accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Patricia Morales, Montaña Cámara, Maria José Alves, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Wild Fragaria vesca L. fruits were studied regarding nutritional and phytochemical compounds, and also antioxidant, antibacterial and biofilm formation inhibition activities. The fruits are good sources of carbohydrates (e.g., sucrose), soluble dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic and linolenic acids, as well as other components such as citric and succinic acids, and vitamins B9 and E (mainly γ-tocopherol). Significant amounts of soluble sugars, citric acid and some amounts of ascorbic acid, vitamins B9 and E (only α-tocopherol) were found also in the infusions...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
K Warfa, I Drake, P Wallström, G Engström, E Sonestedt
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables)...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Bartosz Tylkowski, Martyna Nowak, Irene Tsibranska, Anna Trojanowska, Łukasz Marciniak, Ricard Garcia Valls, Tania Gumi, Marta Giamberini, Renata Jastrząb
BACKGROUND: This review aims to present the relevant background information and current research status in concentration of polyphenols using membrane technologies. The potential implementation of membrane separation to bioactive compounds like soluble phenolics from aqueous and organic solvent solutions is gaining increasing interest in the recent years. This review does not pretend to cover the abundant published literature on the subject, but to be representative for the observed tendencies in membrane processes applications for concentration of polyphenols derived from natural products...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takanori Matsui, Yuji Ishibashi, Fumiyuki Isami, Yumi Abe, Tatsuya Sakaguchi, Yuichiro Higashimoto
Reducing sugars can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of proteins and lipids to form irreversibly cross-linked macroprotein derivatives called as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Cross-linking modification of extracellular matrix proteins by AGEs deteriorate their tertiary structural integrity and function, contributing to aging-related organ damage and diabetes-associated complications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, engagement of receptor for AGEs, RAGE with the ligands evoke oxidative stress generation and inflammatory, thrombotic and fibrotic reactions in various kinds of tissues, further exacerbating the deleterious effects of AGEs on multiple organ systems...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
György Miklós Buzás
Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Fei Yan, Bin Su
Antioxidants are widely found or used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, thus rapid and sensitive detection of antioxidants is of great interest. The present work reports a simple and fast electrochemical method for direct analysis of antioxidants in fruit juices by modulating the permeability of mesochannels on the electrode surface. This goal was achieved by growing vertical silica mesochannel array (SMA) with a channel diameter of 2 ∼ 3 nm on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface using the cylindrical micelles (CMs) as the template...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Vaishali Yadav, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Muhammed Majeed, Vikas Kumar
AIM: To compare stress resistance increasing and analgesic activities of piperlongumine and a methanolic Piper longum fruit extract (PLE). METHODS: Efficacies of a single and repeated daily oral doses (1-256 mg/kg/day) of PLE, piperlongumine, and 50 mg/kg/day doxycycline against foot shock stress triggered alteration in body weights and core temperatures, and of their 11 daily doses on antidepressants like activity in tail suspension test and on pentobarbital induced sedation in male mice were compared...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
M Fawzi Mahomoodally, Schajeed Dilmohamed
This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM) (fruit and leaf extracts) against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Hem Singh, Atish Prakash, A N Kalia, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed
Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic hepatoprotective effects and could enhance the desired actions. To investigate the combination of ethanolic fruits extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SX) and Juniperus communis (JC) against Paracetamol (PCM) and Azithromycin (AZM) induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by combine oral administration of PCM (250 mg/kg) and AZM (200 mg/kg) for 7 days in Wistar rats...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Sheila Fleischhacker, Gowri Ramachandran
This article briefly explains the food and nutrition implications of the new standards, tax penalties and reporting requirements for non-profit hospitals and healthcare systems to maintain a tax-exempt or charitable status under section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code set forth in The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, Sec. 9007). The newly created 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code requires, beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that such hospitals demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) at least once every three years and annually file information by means of a Schedule H (Form 990) regarding progress towards addressing identified needs...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
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