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Frieder Hofmann, Maren Kruse-Plass, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sridhar Ravi, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Thomas Engels, Kai Schneider, Chun Wang, Jörn Sesterhenn, Hao Liu
The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Julio A Massange-Sánchez, Paola A Palmeros-Suárez, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Norma A Martínez-Gallardo, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Axel Tiessen, John P Délano-Frier
Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites...
2016: PloS One
Andrew A Udy, Chelsey Vladic, Edward Robert Saxby, Jeremy Cohen, Anthony Delaney, Oliver Flower, Matthew Anstey, Rinaldo Bellomo, David James Cooper, David V Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to describe in-hospital mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary aims were to identify clinical characteristics associated with inferior outcomes, to compare subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality with other neurological diagnoses, and to explore the variability in subarachnoid hemorrhage standardized mortality ratios. DESIGN: Multicenter, binational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Annette Menzel, Michael Matiu, Rico Michaelis, Susanne Jochner
Indoor pollen concentrations are an underestimated human health issue. In this study, we measured hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. These data were compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms and to background pollen data. The rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured directly in front of the windows...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Zahra Boghrati, Maryam Naseri, Mitra Rezaie, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi
OBJECTIVES: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Josh Clevenger, Ye Chu, Brian Scheffler, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The advent of the genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis has ushered in a new era for peanut genomics. With the goal of producing a gene atlas for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), 22 different tissue types and ontogenies that represent the full development of peanut were sequenced, including a complete reproductive series from flower to peg elongation and peg tip immersion in the soil to fully mature seed. Using a genome-guided assembly pipeline, a homeolog-specific transcriptome assembly for Arachis hypogaea was assembled and its accuracy was validated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Bonnie J Ohler, Christelle Guédot, Richard S Zack, Peter J Landolt
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Luis F Aristizábal, Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Ron Cherry, Bernardo Chaves-Cordoba, Steven P Arthurs
The development of simple and reliable pest sampling programs is needed for growers to adopt economic or aesthetic injury levels. We developed a sampling plan for monitoring chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood populations on KnockOut shrub roses under simulated nursery conditions. The distribution of S. dorsalis among different plant structures revealed that most adults and larvae are found on foliar terminals, when compared with buds and flowers. Based on thrips distribution, the third leaf of actively growing terminals was used to determine a sequential sampling model...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Daniel Woods, Ryland Bednarek, Frédéric Bouché, Sean Gordon, John P Vogel, David F Garvin, Richard M Amasino
The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a non-domesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat and barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time...
October 14, 2016: Plant Physiology
Nisha A Gilotra, Adam Shpigel, Ike S Okwuosa, Ruth Tamrat, Deirdre Flowers, Stuart D Russell
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data describing patient-identified precipitants of heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We hypothesized a patient's perception of reason for or preventability of an admission may be related to 30-day readmission rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-four patients admitted with decompensated HF from July 2014 to March 2015 completed a brief questionnaire regarding circumstances leading to admission. Thirty-day outcomes were assessed via telephone call and chart review...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Ping Li, Hua Chun Zeng
In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been employed as heterogeneous catalysts or utilized as solid precursors for synthesis of catalytic materials. However, conventional MOFs and their derivatives, which normally have relatively large particle sizes, exhibit limited mass transfer and modest catalytic activities owing to lengthy diffusion path and less exposed active sites. On the other hand, it has been generally conceived that nanoscale MOFs will be beneficial to materials utilization as well as to mass diffusion, but the instability of nano-MOFs poses a serious issue on their practical applications...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lennard Schröder, Dagmar Ulrike Richter, Birgit Piechulla, Mareike Chrobak, Christina Kuhn, Sandra Schulze, Sybille Abarzua, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
Hereinwe investigated the effect of elderflower extracts (EFE) and of enterolactone/enterodiol on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cell lines JEG-3 and BeWo, as well as MCF7 breast cancer cells. The EFE was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of EFE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the EFE on ER/ER/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
M Bohdan, J Sprakel, J van der Gucht
The dynamics and mechanics of networks depend sensitively on their spatial connectivity. To explore the effect of connectivity on local network dynamics, we prepare transient polymer networks in which we systematically cut connecting bonds. We do this by creating networks formed from hydrophobically modified difunctionalized polyethylene glycol chains. These form physical gels, consisting of flowerlike micelles that are transiently cross-linked by connecting bridges. By introducing monofunctionalized chains, we can systematically reduce the number of bonds between micelles and thus lower the network connectivity, which strongly reduces the network elasticity and relaxation time...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn, John R Evans
Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins are of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xiaojie Yang, Yuanming Zhao, Deyi Xie, Yao Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Nardana Esmaeili, Zuoren Yang, Ye Wang, Guo Yin, Shuping Lv, Lihong Nie, Zhongjie Tang, Fu'an Zhao, Wu Li, Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Wei Zhu, Weiping Fang
Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bryce A Richardson, Lindsay Chaney, Nancy L Shaw, Shannon M Still
Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity can accommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extent and variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to late November among gardens...
October 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Carrie A Deans, Spencer T Behmer, Justin Fiene, Gregory A Sword
Plant soluble protein and digestible carbohydrate content significantly affect insect herbivore fitness, but studies reporting plant protein and carbohydrate content are rare. Instead, the elements nitrogen and carbon often are used as surrogates for plant protein and digestible carbohydrate content, respectively. However, this is problematic for two reasons. First, carbon is found in all organic molecules, which precludes strong correlations with ecologically important dietary macronutrients (e.g., digestible carbohydrates, the primary energy source for most insect herbivores)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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