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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915467/the-physics-of-pollinator-attraction
#1
REVIEW
Edwige Moyroud, Beverley J Glover
Contents 1 I. 1 II. 1 III. 3 IV. 4 V. 4 4 References 5 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects...
December 4, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914543/extract-of-syringa-oblata-a-new-biocontrol-agent-against-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-caused-by-ralstonia-solanacearum
#2
Wanming Bai, Fanyu Kong, Yong Lin, Chengsheng Zhang
Ralstonia solanacearum causes serious wilt disease in tobacco. To effectively control this disease, the antibacterial activity of 95% ethanol extracts from the flower buds of Syringa oblata was examined. Based on GC-MS analysis and an inhibition experiment against R. solanacearum, the main antibacterial component is eugenol. We further determined the effect of eugenol on the physiology, biochemistry, and cellular morphology of R. solanacearum. The results showed that eugenol can destroy wilt bacteria, leading to the disappearance of flagella, the leakage of contents, and the appearance of a cavity...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#3
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914340/nickelocene-as-precursor-of-microporous-organometallic-derived-carbon-and-nickel-oxide-carbon-nanocomposite
#4
P González-García, D Arenas-Esteban, D Ávila-Brande, E Urones-Garrote, L C Otero-Díaz
Microporous flower-like and spherical carbon particles, made of graphene-like layers, have been obtained via chlorination of nickelocene (Ni(C5H5)2). Their mechanism of formation, in terms of morphology and micro-nanostructure, has been followed from 200 to 900°C. Conventional transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution-TEM observations allow determining that their structure is made of highly disordered graphene-like layers. The Raman spectrum of the high temperature sample exhibits the characteristics D and G bands...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913905/proteins-immunologically-related-to-map65-1-accumulate-and-localize-differentially-during-bud-development-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#5
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti, Giampiero Cai
Various arrays of microtubules are present throughout the plant cell cycle and are involved in distinct functions. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule dynamics by acting as stabilizers, destabilizers, and promoters of microtubule dynamics. The MAP65 family is a specific group of cross-linkers required for structural maintenance of microtubules. In plants, different isoforms of MAP65 are differentially expressed according to their developmental program. In this work, we analyzed the differential distribution of proteins immunologically related to MAP65-1 during bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L...
December 2, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913788/safety-assessment-of-achillea-millefolium-as-used-in-cosmetics
#6
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913739/structure-activity-relation-of-amor-sugar-molecule-that-activates-pollen-tubes-for-ovular-guidance
#7
Jiao Jiao, Akane G Mizukami, Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Junichiro Yamguchi, Kenichiro Itami, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Successful fertilization in flowering plants depends on the precise directional growth control of pollen tube through the female pistil tissue, towards the female gametophyte contained in the ovule for delivery of non-motile sperm cells. Cysteine-rich peptides LUREs secreted from the synergid cells on either side of the egg cell act as ovular attractants of pollen tubes. Competency control by the pistil is crucial for the response of pollen tubes to these ovular attractants. We recently reported that ovular 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan AMOR induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri...
December 2, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912751/anti-aging-and-tyrosinase-inhibition-effects-of-cassia-fistula-flower-butanolic-extract
#8
Pornngarm Limtrakul, Supachai Yodkeeree, Pilaiporn Thippraphan, Wanisa Punfa, Jatupol Srisomboon
BACKGROUND: Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. METHODS: The butanolic extraction of C...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911919/few-ant-species-play-a-central-role-linking-different-plant-resources-in-a-network-in-rupestrian-grasslands
#9
Fernanda V Costa, Marco A R Mello, Judith L Bronstein, Tadeu J Guerra, Renata L Muylaert, Alice C Leite, Frederico S Neves
Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911846/dna-methylome-of-the-20-gigabase-norway-spruce-genome
#10
Israel Ausin, Suhua Feng, Chaowei Yu, Wanlu Liu, Hsuan Yu Kuo, Elise L Jacobsen, Jixian Zhai, Javier Gallego-Bartolome, Lin Wang, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Nathaniel R Street, Steven E Jacobsen, Haifeng Wang
DNA methylation plays important roles in many biological processes, such as silencing of transposable elements, imprinting, and regulating gene expression. Many studies of DNA methylation have shown its essential roles in angiosperms (flowering plants). However, few studies have examined the roles and patterns of DNA methylation in gymnosperms. Here, we present genome-wide high coverage single-base resolution methylation maps of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from both needles and somatic embryogenesis culture cells via whole genome bisulfite sequencing...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#11
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911369/field-experiments-of-pollination-ecology-the-case-of-lycoris-sanguinea-var-sanguinea
#12
Futa Yamaji, Takeshi A Ohsawa
Plant-pollinator interactions have been studied for approximately one hundred years. During that time, many field methods have been developed to clarify the pollination effectiveness of each pollinator for visited flowers. Pollinator observations have been one of the most common methods to identify pollinators, and bagging and cage experiments have been conducted to show the effectiveness of specific pollinators. In a previous study of Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea, its effective pollinators, the visitation frequencies of each floral visitor, and its reproductive strategies were not identified...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910900/zn-uptake-behavior-of-rice-genotypes-and-its-implication-on-grain-zn-biofortification
#13
Sarah E Johnson-Beebout, Johnvie Bayang Goloran, Francis H C Rubianes, Jack D C Jacob, Oliver B Castillo
Understanding Zn uptake dynamics is critical to rice grain Zn biofortification. Here we examined soil Zn availability and Zn uptake pathways as affected by genotype (high-grain Zn varieties IR69428 and IR68144), Zn fertilization and water management in two pot experiments. Results showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between genotypes and Zn fertilization on DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable soil Zn from early tillering to flowering. DTPA-extractable Zn in soils grown with IR69428 was positively correlated with stem (r = 0...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909392/predatory-mites-double-the-economic-injury-level-of-frankliniella-occidentalis-in-strawberry
#14
Clare Sampson, William D J Kirk
The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) causes bronzing to strawberry fruit. Management of insecticide-resistant strains relies on the integration of predators with carefully timed use of the few insecticides available. Effective management requires better understanding of economic injury levels (EILs) and the factors that affect them. The densities of F. occidentalis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were manipulated in field experiments...
2016: BioControl: Journal of the International Organization for Biological Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909301/genetic-architecture-and-evolution-of-the-s-locus-supergene-in-primula-vulgaris
#15
Jinhong Li, Jonathan M Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Margaret A Webster, Mark McMullan, Sarah Dyer, David Swarbreck, Mario Caccamo, Cock van Oosterhout, Philip M Gilmartin
Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909017/early-environmental-field-research-career-exploration-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-precollege-apprentices
#16
Susan K Flowers, Katherine M Beyer, Maria Pérez, Donna B Jeffe
Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station-based research teams...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908741/resolving-interspecific-relationships-within-evolutionarily-young-lineages-using-rna-seq-data-an-example-from-pedicularis-section-cyathophora-orobanchaceae
#17
Hong-Juan Wang, Wei-Tao Li, Ya-Nan Liu, Fu-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Quan Wang
Phylogenomics has shown great potential in resolving evolutionary relationships at different taxonomical levels. However, it remains controversial whether all orthologous genes under different selective pressures can be concatenated for phylogenomic reconstruction. Here we used sect. Cyathophora of Pedicularis, one of the most species-rich genera of angiosperms in the alpine and arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, as a model to investigate the efficiency of RNA-seq in resolving relationships of closely related congeneric species...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907853/sewall-wright-shifting-balance-theory-and-the-hardening-of-the-modern-synthesis
#18
Yoichi Ishida
The period between the 1940s and 1960s saw the hardening of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. Gould and Provine argue that Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution hardened during this period. But their account does not do justice to Wright, who always regarded selection as acting together with drift. This paper presents a more adequate account of the development of Wright's shifting balance theory, paying particular attention to his application of the theory to the geographical distribution of flower color dimorphism in Linanthus parryae...
November 28, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907133/phosphorous-nutritional-level-carbohydrate-reserves-and-flower-quality-in-olives
#19
Ran Erel, Uri Yermiyahu, Hagai Yasuor, Dan Cohen Chamus, Amnon Schwartz, Alon Ben-Gal, Arnon Dag
The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907027/assessment-of-soybean-flowering-and-seed-maturation-time-in-different-latitude-regions-of-kazakhstan
#20
Saule Abugalieva, Svetlana Didorenko, Shynar Anuarbek, Lubov Volkova, Yelena Gerasimova, Ivan Sidorik, Yerlan Turuspekov
Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits...
2016: PloS One
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