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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331557/soil-to-plant-transfer-factors-of-natural-radionuclides-226ra-and-40k-in-selected-thai-medicinal-plants
#1
Kiadtisak Saenboonruang, Endu Phonchanthuek, Kamonkhuan Prasandee
A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg-1 dry weight (DW) and 2...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331540/plant-flowering-imposing-dna-specificity-on-histone-fold-subunits
#2
REVIEW
Nerina Gnesutta, Roberto Mantovani, Fabio Fornara
CONSTANS (CO) is a master regulator of flowering time, although the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcriptional regulator are not well understood. The DNA-binding domain of CO shares homology with that of NUCLEAR FACTOR YA (NF-YA), a subunit of the CCAAT-binding trimer NF-Y. Recent publications indicate that CO and its rice homolog HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) form heterotrimers with the histone-fold subunits of NF-Y to efficiently bind promoter elements in the florigen genes. Differences in the DNA-binding specificities of NF-Y and NF-CO can be conceptualized based on our knowledge of the 3D structure of the NF-Y/CCAAT complex...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330903/lack-of-correlation-between-pollen-aperture-numbers-and-environmental-factors-in-pansies-viola-l-sect-melanium-ging-pollen-heteromorphism-re-examined
#4
Aneta Słomka, Justyna Żabicka, Lulëzim Shuka, Jerzy Bohdanowicz, Elżbieta Kuta
(1) The research conducted including its rationale. The development of different pollen morphs by one specimen - pollen heteromorphism - occurs in ca. one-third species of the genus Viola. Melanium section species (pansies) stand out to produce the widest range of apertures among Viola species. Aperture number decrease with elevation increase and faster germination of 5-aperturate pollen as compared with 3-aperturate were previously postulated. (2) Central methods applied. We re-examined pollen heteromorphism in the context of its viability, and we made correlations with elevation (>1500 m a...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330468/alteration-in-yield-and-oil-quality-traits-of-winter-rapeseed-by-lodging-at-different-planting-density-and-nitrogen-rates
#5
Shahbaz Khan, Sumera Anwar, Jie Kuai, Ali Noman, Muhammad Shahid, Mairaj Din, Ahmed Ali, Guangsheng Zhou
Lodging is a factor that negatively affects yield, seed quality, and harvest ability in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we quantified the lodging-induced yield losses, changes in fatty acid composition, and oil quality in rapeseed under different nitrogen application rates and planting densities. Field experiments were conducted in 2014-2017 for studying the effect of manually-induced lodging angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), 10, 20 and 30 d post-flowering at different densities and nitrogen application rates...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330451/tracheophyte-genomes-keep-track-of-the-deep-evolution-of-the-caulimoviridae
#6
Seydina Issa Diop, Andrew D W Geering, Françoise Alfama-Depauw, Mikaël Loaec, Pierre-Yves Teycheney, Florian Maumus
Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are viral sequences that are integrated in the nuclear genomes of their hosts and are signatures of viral infections that may have occurred millions of years ago. The study of EVEs, coined paleovirology, provides important insights into virus evolution. The Caulimoviridae is the most common group of EVEs in plants, although their presence has often been overlooked in plant genome studies. We have refined methods for the identification of caulimovirid EVEs and interrogated the genomes of a broad diversity of plant taxa, from algae to advanced flowering plants...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330200/pwwp-domain-interactor-of-polycombs11-interacts-with-polycomb-group-proteins-and-histones-and-regulates-arabidopsis-flowering-and-development
#7
Mareike L Hohenstatt, Pawel Mikulski, Olga Komarynets, Constanze Klose, Ina Kycia, Albert Jeltsch, Sara Farrona, Daniel Schubert
Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins mediate epigenetic gene regulation by setting H3K27me3 via Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). In plants, it is largely unclear how PcG proteins are recruited to their target genes. Here, we identified the PWWP-DOMAIN INTERACTOR OF POLYCOMBS1 (PWO1) protein, which interacts with all three Arabidopsis thaliana PRC2 histone methyltransferases and is required for maintaining full H3 occupancy at several Arabidopsis genes. PWO1 localizes and recruits CURLY LEAF to nuclear speckles in Nicotiana benthamiana nuclei, suggesting a role in spatial organization of PcG regulation...
January 12, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329644/anticancer-carbazole-alkaloids-and-coumarins-from-clausena-plants-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Li Huang, Zhe-Ling Feng, Yi-Tao Wang, Li-Gen Lin
Pharmaceutical research has focused on the discovery and development of anticancer drugs. Clinical application of chemotherapy drugs is limited due to their severe side effects. In this regard, new naturally occurring anticancer drugs have gained increasing attention because of their potential effectiveness and safety. Fruits and vegetables are promising sources of anticancer remedy. Clausena (family Rutaceae) is a genus of flowering plants and includes several kinds of edible fruits and vegetables. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies show that carbazole alkaloids and coumarins from Clausena plants exhibit anticancer activity...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329291/ovule-identity-mediated-by-pre-mrna-processing-in-arabidopsis
#9
Encarnación Rodríguez-Cazorla, Samanta Ortuño-Miquel, Héctor Candela, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Martin F Yanofsky, Antonio Martínez-Laborda, Juan-José Ripoll, Antonio Vera
Ovules are fundamental for plant reproduction and crop yield as they are the precursors of seeds. Therefore, ovule specification is a critical developmental program. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ovule identity is redundantly conferred by the homeotic D-class genes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2 and SEEDSTICK (STK), phylogenetically related to the MADS-domain regulatory gene AGAMOUS (AG), essential in floral organ specification. Previous studies have shown that the HUA-PEP activity, comprised of a suite of RNA-binding protein (RBP) encoding genes, regulates AG pre-mRNA processing and thus flower patterning and organ identity...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329207/arnica-tincture-cures-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-golden-hamsters
#10
Sara M Robledo, Ivan D Vélez, Thomas J Schmidt
In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L.) on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328555/syntheses-and-properties-of-meso-substituted-porphyrin-mesogens-with-triazole-linkages-and-peripheral-alkyl-chains
#11
Ruilin Zhang, Hongfei Gao, Yanming Ren, Yulong Xiao, Jinliang Hu, Xiaohong Cheng
Novel discotic mesogens P/n-M (n = 12, 16, 18, M = 2H, Zn and Cu) bearing a porphyrin core, triazole linkages and peripheral 3,4,5-trialkoxybenzyl units have been synthesized by "click chemistry" approach. The thermal behavior, photophysical properties and morphologies of these compounds were investigated by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV and PL spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These compounds can self-assemble into hexagonal columnar phases in their pure states and form organogels in 1,4-dioxane with unusually flower-like sphere morphology...
January 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327647/afrina-sporoboliae-sp-n-nematoda-anguinidae-associated-with-sporobolus-cryptandrus-torr-a-gray-from-idaho-usa-phylogenetic-relationships-and-population-structure
#12
Bianca L Barrantes-Infante, Brenda K Schroeder, Sergei A Subbotin, Timothy D Murray
The dropseed gall-forming nematode, Afrina sporoboliae sp. n., is described from seed galls of Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) collected in Idaho, USA. This is the third report of an Afrina species in North America and the first report of this genus in a natural plant population on this continent. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses placed this nematode in genus Afrina and demonstrated that it differs from Af. hyparrheniae and Af. spermophaga by having longer body and stylet lengths for females and males, and from Af...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327511/cp2tix-complexes-for-sustainable-catalysis-in-single-electron-steps
#13
Andreas Gansäuer, Ruben Benedikt Richrath, Theresa Olyschläger, Sven Hildebrandt, Daniel G Enny, Godfred D Fianu, Robert A Flowers Ii
We present a combined electrochemical, kinetic, and synthetic study with a novel and easily accessible class of titanocene catalysts for catalysis in single electron steps. The tailoring of the electronic properties of our Cp2TiX-catalysts that are prepared in situ from readily available Cp2TiX2 is achieved by varying the anionic ligand X. Of the complexes investigated, Cp2TiOMs proved to be either equal or substantially superior to the best catalysts developed earlier. The kinetic and thermodynamic properties pertinent to catalysis have been determined...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327360/aboveground-herbivory-induced-jasmonates-disproportionately-reduce-plant-reproductive-potential-by-facilitating-root-nematode-infestation
#14
Ricardo A R Machado, Carla C M Arce, Michael A McClure, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Different plant-feeders, including insects and parasitic nematodes, can influence each other by triggering systemic changes in their shared host plants. In most cases however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and the consequences for plant fitness are not well understood. We studied the interaction between leaf feeding Manduca sexta caterpillars and root parasitic nematodes in Nicotiana attenuata. Simulated Manduca sexta attack increased the abundance of root parasitic nematodes in the field and facilitated Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in the glasshouse...
January 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#15
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325917/increase-in-insulin-sensitivity-by-the-association-of-chicoric-acid-and-chlorogenic-acid-contained-in-a-natural-chicoric-acid-extract-ncrae-of-chicory-cichorium-intybus-l-for-an-antidiabetic-effect
#16
Karine Ferrare, Luc P R Bidel, Abdulmomem Awwad, Patrick Poucheret, Guillaume Cazals, Françoise Lazennec, Jacqueline Azay-Milhau, Michel Tournier, Anne-Dominique Lajoix, Didier Tousch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is an indigenous vegetable widely cultivated in Europe, America and Asia. In ancient times, the leaves, flowers, seeds, and roots have been used as a wealth of health benefits including its tonic effects, the ability to ease digestive problems and to detoxify liver. In Indian traditional therapy, chicory was known to possess antidiabetic effect. In the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy, chicory was used as hypoglycemic decoctions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325830/blood-and-marrow-transplant-clinical-trials-network-report-on-development-of-novel-endpoints-and-selection-of-promising-approaches-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prevention-trials
#17
Marcelo C Pasquini, Brent Logan, Richard J Jones, Amin M Alousi, Frederick R Appelbaum, Javier Bolaños-Meade, Mary E D Flowers, Sergio Giralt, Mary M Horowitz, David Jacobsohn, John Koreth, John E Levine, Leo Luznik, Richard Maziarz, Adam Mendizabal, Steven Pavletic, Miguel-Angel Perales, David Porter, Ran Reshef, Daniel Weisdorf, Joseph H Antin
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a common complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Preventing GVHD without chronic therapy or increasing relapse is a desired goal. Here, we report a benchmark analysis to evaluate the performance of six GVHD prevention strategies tested at single institutions compared to a large multicenter outcomes database as a control. Each intervention was compared to the control for the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD and overall survival and against novel composite endpoints: acute and chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival (GRFS) and chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival (CRFS)...
January 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325643/the-secret-life-of-exosomes-what-bees-can-teach-us-about-next-generation-therapeutics
#18
REVIEW
Eduardo Marbán
Mechanistic exploration has pinpointed nanosized extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, as key mediators of the benefits of cell therapy. Exosomes appear to recapitulate the benefits of cells and more. As durable azoic entities, exosomes have numerous practical and conceptual advantages over cells. Will cells end up just being used to manufacture exosomes, or will they find lasting value as primary therapeutic agents? Here, a venerable natural process-the generation of honey-serves as an instructive parable...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325003/reversible-colour-change-in-leaves-enhances-pollinator-attraction-and-reproductive-success-in-saururus-chinensis-saururaceae
#19
Bo Song, Jürg Stöcklin, W Scott Armbruster, Yongqian Gao, Deli Peng, Hang Sun
Background and Aims: Although there has been much experimental work on leaf colour change associated with selection generated by abiotic environmental factors and antagonists, the role of leaf colour change in pollinator attraction has been largely ignored. We tested whether whitening of the apical leaves subtending the inflorescences of Saururus chinensis during flowering enhances pollinator attraction, and whether re-greening of the white leaves after flowering increases carbon assimilation and promotes seed development...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324757/genome-downsizing-physiological-novelty-and-the-global-dominance-of-flowering-plants
#20
Kevin A Simonin, Adam B Roddy
The abrupt origin and rapid diversification of the flowering plants during the Cretaceous has long been considered an "abominable mystery." While the cause of their high diversity has been attributed largely to coevolution with pollinators and herbivores, their ability to outcompete the previously dominant ferns and gymnosperms has been the subject of many hypotheses. Common among these is that the angiosperms alone developed leaves with smaller, more numerous stomata and more highly branching venation networks that enable higher rates of transpiration, photosynthesis, and growth...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
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