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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651221/risk-element-immobilization-stabilization-potential-of-fungal-transformed-dry-olive-residue-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-application-in-contaminated-soils
#1
Mercedes García-Sánchez, Tereza Stejskalová, Inmaculada García-Romera, Jiřina Száková, Pavel Tlustoš
The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651189/sex-specific-effects-of-difenoconazole-on-the-growth-hormone-endocrine-axis-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Miaomiao Teng, Suzhen Qi, Wentao Zhu, Yao Wang, Dezhen Wang, Yang Yang, Hui Li, Chenglong Li, Kai Dong, Chengju Wang
Difenoconazole, as one of the most widely used triazole fungicides, is applied to protect crops, fruits, and vegetables. It has been reported that difenoconazole can enter the environment and impair aquatic organisms, but whether difenoconazole can disrupt the growth hormone (GH) balance in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is still unclear. In this study, adult female and male zebrafish were exposed to difenoconazole (0, 5, 50, and 500µg/L) for seven days. The results revealed that the bioaccumulation of difenoconazole and its primary metabolite difenoconazole alcohol in females were both larger than that in males...
June 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651001/pptfdb-a-pigeonpea-transcription-factor-database-for-exploring-functional-genomics-in-legumes
#3
Akshay Singh, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Tilak Raj Sharma
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.), a diploid legume crop, is a member of the tribe Phaseoleae. This tribe is descended from the millettioid (tropical) clade of the subfamily Papilionoideae, which includes many important legume crop species such as soybean (Glycine max), mung bean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna ungiculata), and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It plays major role in food and nutritional security, being rich source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. We have developed a comprehensive Pigeonpea Transcription Factors Database (PpTFDB) that encompasses information about 1829 putative transcription factors (TFs) and their 55 TF families...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650990/identification-of-soil-p-fractions-that-are-associated-with-p-loss-from-surface-runoff-under-various-cropping-systems-and-fertilizer-rates-on-sloped-farmland
#4
Xinghua Li, Baona Wang, Tewu Yang, Duanwei Zhu, Zhongnan Nie, Junchi Xu
Soil phosphorus (P) fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP). Runoff total P (TP) was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650429/acetate-mediated-novel-survival-strategy-against-drought-in-plants
#5
Jong-Myong Kim, Taiko Kim To, Akihiro Matsui, Keitaro Tanoi, Natsuko I Kobayashi, Fumio Matsuda, Yoshiki Habu, Daisuke Ogawa, Takuya Sakamoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Khurram Bashir, Sultana Rasheed, Marina Ando, Hiroko Takeda, Kanako Kawaura, Miyako Kusano, Atsushi Fukushima, Takaho A Endo, Takashi Kuromori, Junko Ishida, Taeko Morosawa, Maho Tanaka, Chieko Torii, Yumiko Takebayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yasunari Ogihara, Kazuki Saito, Kazuo Shinozaki, Alessandra Devoto, Motoaki Seki
Water deficit caused by global climate changes seriously endangers the survival of organisms and crop productivity, and increases environmental deterioration(1,2). Plants' resistance to drought involves global reprogramming of transcription, cellular metabolism, hormone signalling and chromatin modification(3-8). However, how these regulatory responses are coordinated via the various pathways, and the underlying mechanisms, are largely unknown. Herein, we report an essential drought-responsive network in which plants trigger a dynamic metabolic flux conversion from glycolysis into acetate synthesis to stimulate the jasmonate (JA) signalling pathway to confer drought tolerance...
June 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649733/composition-of-the-root-mycorrhizal-community-associated-with-coffea-arabica-in-fifa-mountains-jazan-region-saudi-arabia
#6
Mosbah Mahdhi, Taieb Tounekti, Turki Ali Al-Turki, Habib Khemira
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a key functional group of soil biota that can greatly contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. They improve nutrient uptake and enhance the ability of plants to cope with abiotic stresses. The presence of AMF in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plant roots have been reported in several locations but not in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that coffee has been in cultivation here since ancient times. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diversity of AMF communities colonizing the roots of coffee trees growing in two sites of Fifa Mountains (south-west Saudi Arabia): site 1 at 700 m altitude and site 2 at 1400 m...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649467/larval-exposure-to-field-realistic-concentrations-of-clothianidin-has-no-effect-on-development-rate-over-winter-survival-or-adult-metabolic-rate-in-a-solitary-bee-osmia-bicornis
#7
Elizabeth Nicholls, Robert Fowler, Jeremy E Niven, James D Gilbert, Dave Goulson
There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649261/the-role-of-sink-strength-and-nitrogen-availability-in-the-down-regulation-of-photosynthetic-capacity-in-field-grown-nicotiana-tabacum-l-at-elevated-co2-concentration
#8
Ursula M Ruiz-Vera, Amanda P De Souza, Stephen P Long, Donald R Ort
Down-regulation of photosynthesis is among the most common responses observed in C3 plants grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Down-regulation is often attributed to an insufficient capacity of sink organs to use or store the increased carbohydrate production that results from the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2]. Down-regulation can be accentuated by inadequate nitrogen (N) supply, which may limit sink development. While there is strong evidence for down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated [CO2] in enclosure studies most often involving potted plants, there is little evidence for this when [CO2] is elevated fully under open-air field treatment conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649255/overexpression-of-the-peat1-elicitor-gene-from-alternaria-tenuissima-improves-drought-tolerance-in-rice-plants-via-interaction-with-a-myo-inositol-oxygenase
#9
Fachao Shi, Yijie Dong, Yi Zhang, Xiufeng Yang, Dewen Qiu
Abiotic stresses, especially drought, seriously threaten cereal crops yields and quality. In this study, we observed that the rice plants of overexpression the Alternariatenuissima PeaT1 gene showed enhanced drought stress tolerance and increased the survival rate following a drought treatment. In PeaT1-overexpressing (PeaT1OE) plants, abscisic acid and chlorophyll content significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased compared with the wild-type plants. Additionally, we confirmed that the transcript levels of drought-responsive genes, including OsAM1, OsLP2, and OsDST, were prominently lower in the PeaT1OE plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648997/effects-tolerance-mechanisms-and-management-of-salt-stress-in-grain-legumes
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M Migdadi, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648297/modeling-the-risk-of-salmonellosis-from-consumption-of-pistachios-produced-and-consumed-in-the-united-states
#11
Elisabetta Lambertini, Javad Barouei, Donald W Schaffner, Michelle D Danyluk, Linda J Harris
The risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pistachios produced and consumed in the U.S. was assessed through quantitative microbial risk assessment. Data on Salmonella prevalence and concentration on pistachios, nut crop volume, storage times and temperatures during processing and handling, and reductions during storage or from roasting were derived from laboratory experiments, published literature, and industry expert opinion. Uncertainty was analyzed via what-if scenarios for Salmonella prevalence, concentration, storage reduction, treatment variability, portion of crop treated, and increased consumption...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648292/fusarium-proliferatum-causal-agent-of-garlic-bulb-rot-in-spain-genetic-variability-and-mycotoxin-production
#12
Laura Gálvez, Monika Urbaniak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Daniel Palmero
Fusarium proliferatum is a world-wide occurring fungal pathogen affecting several crops included garlic bulbs. In Spain, this is the most frequent pathogenic fungus associated with garlic rot during storage. Moreover, F. proliferatum is an important mycotoxigenic species, producing a broad range of toxins, which may pose a risk for food safety. The aim of this study is to assess the intraspecific variability of the garlic pathogen in Spain implied by analyses of translation elongation factor (tef-1α) and FUM1 gene sequences as well as the differences in growth rates...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648177/species-specific-substrates-and-products-choices-of-4-o-acetyltransferase-from-trichoderma-brevicompactum
#13
Shikha Sharma, Indu Kumari, Razak Hussain, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Antagonistic species of Trichoderma such as T. harzianum, T. viride, T. virens and T. koningii are well-known biocontrol agents that have been reported to suppress pathogenic soil microbes and enhance the growth of crop plants. Secondary metabolites (SMs) including trichothecenes are responsible for its biocontrol activities. The trichothecenes, trichodermin and harzianum A (HA) are produced in species dependent manner respectively, by Trichoderma brevicompactum (TB) and Trichoderma arundinaceum (TA). The last step in the pathway involves the conversion of trichodermol into trichodermin or HA alternatively, which is catalyzed by 4-O-acetyltransferase (encoded by tri3 gene)...
September 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647924/comparative-expression-analysis-of-rice-and-arabidopsis-peroxiredoxin-genes-suggests-conserved-or-diversified-roles-between-the-two-species-and-leads-to-the-identification-of-tandemly-duplicated-rice-peroxiredoxin-genes-differentially-expressed-in-seeds
#14
Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ruyl Kim, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) have recently been identified as plant antioxidants. Completion of various genome sequencing projects has provided genome-wide information about PRX genes in major plant species. Two of these -- Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis -- each have 10 PRX members. Although significant progress has been made in understanding their biological roles in Arabidopsis, those functions in rice, a model crop plant, have not been well studied. RESULTS: We performed a comparative expression analysis of rice and Arabidopsis PRXs...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647905/time-dependent-leaf-proteome-alterations-of-brachypodium-distachyon-in-response-to-drought-stress
#15
Ozge Tatli, Bahar Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Gizem Dinler Doganay
For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application...
June 24, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647603/effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-on-non-target-plant-native-species-from-chaco-forest-argentina
#16
Ferreira María Florencia, Torres Carolina, Bracamonte Enzo, Galetto Leonardo
Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647560/transcript-expression-bias-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-gene-in-bumblebee-bombus-lantschouensis-hymenoptera-apidae
#17
Jie Dong, Lei Han, Ye Wang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family is a highly conserved group of proteins found in a wide range of organism. It plays an important role in innate immunity of insects. Little is known on the expression characteristic and function of PEBP in bees. In the current study, we cloned the pebp gene and investigated its expression profiles at different developmental stages and reproductive status from bumblebee, Bombus lantschouensis (Vogt), which is one of the most abundant pollinators for wild plants and crops in Northern China...
June 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647246/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-aminopolycarboxylate-chelating-agents-mobilize-cd-from-humic-acid
#18
Ashley E North, Sophia Sarpong-Kumankomah, Andrew R Bellavie, Wade M White, Jürgen Gailer
Although Cd is a pollutant of public health relevance, many dietary sources from which it can be absorbed into human tissues remain unknown. While it is well established that the biogeochemical cycle of Cd involves its complexation with environment-derived ligands (e.g., humic acids, HAs) and anthropogenic ones (e.g., chelating agents, CAs), the interaction of Cd with both of these ligands is less well understood. To gain insight, a HA-Cd complex was injected on a size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) column coupled on-line with a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using 10mmol/L Tris buffer (pH8...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647234/local-pm10-and-pm2-5-emission-inventories-from-agricultural-tillage-and-harvest-in-northeastern-china
#19
Weiwei Chen, Daniel Q Tong, Shichun Zhang, Xuelei Zhang, Hongmei Zhao
Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM10 and PM2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647222/soil-application-of-sewage-sludge-stabilized-with-steelmaking-slag-and-its-effect-on-soil-properties-and-wheat-growth
#20
Eftihia Samara, Theodora Matsi, Athanasios Balidakis
The effect of sewage sludge, stabilized with steelmaking slag, on soil chemical properties and fertility and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth was evaluated. Dewatered sewage sludge [75% (wet weight basis)] stabilized with steelmaking slag (25%) and three soils with different pH values were used in a pot experiment with winter wheat. The following treatments were applied: (i) sludge addition of 30gkg(-1) (≈ 120Mgha(-1), rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's water soluble NO3-N), (ii) sludge addition of 10gkg(-1) (≈ 40Mgha(-1), rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's Kjeldahl-N), (iii) addition of the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat (120kgNha(-1)) as NH4NO3, (iv) control (no fertilizer, no sludge)...
June 21, 2017: Waste Management
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