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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031181/mdhy5-positively-regulates-cold-tolerance-via-cbf-dependent-and-cbf-independent-pathways-in-apple
#1
Jian-Ping An, Ji-Fang Yao, Xiao-Na Wang, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cold stress is a major external stimulator that affects crop quality and productivity. The CBF cold regulatory pathway has been regarded as a master regulator in the response to cold stress. In this study, we found that the apple bZIP transcription factor, MdHY5, was responsive to cold treatment both at the transcriptional and at the post-translational levels. Moreover, overexpression of MdHY5 enhanced cold tolerance in apple calli and Arabidopsis. Subsequently, EMSA assay and transient expression assay demonstrated that MdHY5 positively regulated the transcript of MdCBF1 by binding to G-Box motif of its promoter...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031100/discovery-of-a-new-mechanism-for-regulation-of-plant-triacylglycerol-metabolism-the-peanut-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-gene-family-transcriptome-is-highly-enriched-in-alternative-splicing-variants
#2
Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031031/riceanthernet-a-gene-co-expression-network-for-identifying-anther-and-pollen-development-genes
#3
Hong Lin, Jing Yu, Simon Pearce, Dabing Zhang, Zoe Wilson
In plants, normal anther and pollen development involves many important biological events and complex molecular regulatory coordination. Understanding gene regulatory relationships during male reproductive development is essential for fundamental biology and crop breeding. In this work, we developed a rice gene co-expression network for anther development (RiceAntherNet) that allows prediction of gene regulatory relationships during pollen development. RiceAntherNet was generated from 57 rice anther tissue microarrays across all developmental stages...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029282/ecoinformatics-can-infer-causal-effects-of-crop-variety-on-insect-attack-by-capitalizing-on-pseudoexperiments-created-when-different-crop-varieties-are-interspersed-a-case-study-in-almonds
#4
Jay A Rosenheim, Bradley S Higbee, Jonathan D Ackerman, Matthew H Meisner
Capturing the complementary strengths of observational and experimental research methods usually requires the researcher to gather separate experimental and observational data sets. In some cases, however, commercial agricultural practices produce the spatial and temporal mixing of 'treatments' independently of other possibly covarying factors that is normally achieved only with formal experimentation. The resulting 'pseudoexperiments' can provide strong evidence for causal relationships. Here, we analyze a large observational data set that creates a series of such pseudoexperiments to assess the effect of different commercial varieties of almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029235/predicting-nut-damage-at-harvest-using-different-in-season-density-estimates-of-amyelois-transitella-analysis-of-data-from-commercial-almond-production
#5
Jay A Rosenheim, Bradley S Higbee, Jonathan D Ackerman, Matthew H Meisner
Despite decades of research on management tactics for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on almonds, we still do not have an established means of using in-season pest-density estimates to predict damage to nuts at harvest. As a result, hull-split pesticide applications, although timed carefully to coincide with navel orangeworm oviposition and with crop vulnerability, are not tied to pest densities-thus falling short of our goals under modern pest management. Here we use an ecoinformatics approach, analyzing a pre-existing data set collected in commercial almond production in California, to ask: 1) are navel orangeworm density estimates obtained using different sampling methods in strong agreement with one another? and 2) can we use either single density estimates or combinations of density estimates to explain variation in nutmeat damage at harvest? We find that correlations between density estimates of navel orangeworm made over a single growing season are often weak, and suggest that density estimates taken closer to the time of harvest (catches of adult females between hull split and harvest; infestation of early-split nuts) may be most useful for predicting damage at harvest...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029216/diversity-and-distribution-of-cryptic-species-of-the-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-complex-in-pakistan
#6
Mariyam Masood, Imran Amin, Ishtiaq Hassan, Shahid Mansoor, Judith K Brown, Rob W Briddon
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029168/effects-of-foliar-insecticides-on-leaf-level-spectral-reflectance-of-soybean
#7
Tavvs M Alves, Zachary P Marston, Ian V MacRae, Robert L Koch
Pest-induced changes in plant reflectance are crucial for the development of pest management programs using remote sensing. However, it is unknown if plant reflectance data is also affected by foliar insecticides applied for pest management. Our study assessed the effects of foliar insecticides on leaf reflectance of soybean. A 2-yr field trial and a greenhouse trial were conducted using randomized complete block and completely randomized designs, respectively. Treatments consisted of an untreated check, a new systemic insecticide (sulfoxaflor), and two representatives of the most common insecticide classes used for soybean pest management in the north-central United States (i...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029088/plant-herbivore-and-plant-pollinator-interactions-of-the-developing-perennial-oilseed-crop-silphium-integrifolium
#8
J R Prasifka, R E Mallinger, B S Hulke, S R Larson, D Van Tassel
Sampling in Kansas and North Dakota documented the plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions of the developing perennial oilseed crop, Silphium integrifolium Michx. The larva of the tortricid moth, Eucosma giganteana (Riley), was the most damaging floret- and seed-feeding pest in Kansas, with infested heads producing ≈85% (2015) or ≈45% (2016) fewer seeds than apparently undamaged heads. Necrosis of apical meristems caused stunting and delayed bloom in Kansas; though the source of the necrosis is not known, observations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois; Hemiptera: Miridae), in S...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028871/high-light-aggravates-functional-limitations-of-cucumber-canopy-photosynthesis-under-salinity
#9
Tsu-Wei Chen, Hartmut Stützel, Katrin Kahlen
Background and Aims: Most crop species are glycophytes, and salinity stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses reducing crop yields worldwide. Salinity affects plant architecture and physiological functions by different mechanisms, which vary largely between crop species and determine the susceptibility or tolerance of a crop species to salinity. Methods: Experimental data from greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus), a salt-sensitive species, grown under three salinity levels were interpreted by combining a functional-structural plant model and quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028538/nitric-oxide-induces-rice-tolerance-to-excessive-nickel-by-regulating-nickel-uptake-reactive-oxygen-species-detoxification-and-defense-related-gene-expression
#10
Muhammad Rizwan, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Imtiaz, Sajid Mehmood, Muhammad Adeel, Zhihua Dai, Zheyong Li, Omar Aziz, Yihui Zhang, Shuxin Tu
Soil contamination with nickel (Ni) is a persistent threat to crop production worldwide. The present study examined the putative roles of nitric oxide (NO) in improving Ni-tolerance in rice. Our findings showed that application of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, significantly improved the growth performance of rice seedlings when grown under excessive Ni. The enhanced Ni-tolerance of rice prompted by SNP could be ascribed to its ability to regulate Ni uptake, decrease Ni-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by reduced levels of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage in Ni-stressed plants...
September 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028497/aquatic-macroinvertebrate-assemblages-are-affected-by-insecticide-applications-on-the-argentine-pampas
#11
Marina Solis, Carlos Bonetto, Natalia Marrochi, Ariel Paracampo, Hernán Mugni
Agriculture intensification in Argentina has increased agrochemicals consumption in the last decades and might represent an environmental risk for adjacent water bodies. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of land use on water quality and invertebrate assemblages in the Argentine Pampas streams. Eight streams were sampled on 4 occasions during the 2013/14 growing season. Three streams are located within a biosphere reserve, two drain basins with extensive livestock fields, and three run through intensively cultivated plots; one of them contained a 30m wide uncultivated grass-covered strip between the crop and the stream...
October 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028270/critical-review-of-the-emerging-research-evidence-on-agricultural-biodiversity-diet-diversity-and-nutritional-status-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Andrew D Jones
The declining diversity of agricultural production and food supplies worldwide may have important implications for global diets. The primary objective of this review is to assess the nature and magnitude of the associations of agricultural biodiversity with diet quality and anthropometric outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. A comprehensive review of 5 databases using a priori exclusion criteria and application of a systematic, qualitative analysis to the findings of identified studies revealed that agricultural biodiversity has a small but consistent association with more diverse household- and individual-level diets, although the magnitude of this association varies with the extent of existing diversification of farms...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028269/acceptance-and-adoption-of-biofortified-crops-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#13
Elise F Talsma, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Inge D Brouwer
Biofortification of staple crops is a promising strategy for increasing the nutrient density of diets in order to improve human health. The willingness of consumers and producers to accept new crop varieties will determine whether biofortification can be successfully implemented. This review assessed sensory acceptance and adoption of biofortified crops and the determining factors for acceptance and adoption among consumers and producers in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for published reports...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027833/trichostatin-a-and-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-influence-the-expression-of-cold-induced-genes-in-arabidopsis
#14
Yuan Song, Lijun Liu, Gaopeng Li, Lizhe An, Lining Tian
The expression of cold-induced genes is critical for plants to survive under freezing stress. However, the underlying mechanisms for the decision of when, where, and which genes to express are unclear when a plant meets a sudden temperature drop. Previous studies have demonstrated epigenetics to play a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plant responses to environmental stress. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are the two most important epigenetic modifications. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of inhibiting DNA methylation and histone deacetylation on gene expression, and to explore the potential role of epigenetics in plant responses to cold stress...
October 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027758/characterization-of-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-genes-and-their-possible-roles-in-multi-insecticide-resistance-in-plutella-xylostella-l
#15
Xiuxia Li, Haiyan Shi, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), as multifunctional detoxification enzymes, play important roles in the biotransformation of various compounds. However, their roles in insecticide resistance are still unclear. This study presents a genome-wide identification of the UGTs in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide notorious insect pest of cruciferous crops. The possible roles of these UGTs in insecticide resistance were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 21 putative UGTs in P...
October 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027683/ultrasonographic-measurement-of-the-biceps-femoris-long-head-muscle-architecture
#16
Sandro R Freitas, João Marmeleira, Maria João Valamatos, Anthony Blazevich, Pedro Mil-Homens
OBJECTIVES: Biceps femoris long-head architectural assessment using ultrasonography (US) has not been previously described in detail for both acquisition (image capture) and digitization (image measurement) processes, and the effect of the US window width is unknown. This study aimed to describe the reliability and test-retest minimum detectable difference of US-based biceps femoris architectural measurements. METHODS: Muscle length was determined by marking the muscle-tendon junction distances...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027423/-research-progress-of-relationship-between-continuous-cropping-obstacles-and-micrornas-in-rehmannia-glutinosa
#17
REVIEW
Xiao-Feng Cao, Yan-Hui Yang, Fa-Jie Feng, Ming-Jie Li, Li Gu, Feng-Qing Wang, Xin-Jian Chen, Zhong-Yi Zhang
The efficacy of Rehmannia glutinosa which as a large quantity of traditional Chinese medicine is significant. However, the land must be given up after one season of R. glutinosa cultivation or replanted after a period of 8-10 years because of the severe continuous cropping obstacles. MicroRNAs is a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, which participate in regulation of physiological activities by target mRNA cleavage or translational repression in plants. In recent years,studies on the role of miRNAs in plants have made significant progresses,especially in medicinal plants.MiRNAs from some different medicinal plant species have been identified with regulatory effects.When plants are exposed to environmental stress, miRNAs act on stress-related genes and initiate stress-resistance mechanisms in the body against adverse factors...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027089/a-decade-of-a-thrips-invasion-in-china-lessons-learned
#18
Shengyong Wu, Liangde Tang, Xingrui Zhang, Zhenlong Xing, Zhongren Lei, Yulin Gao
The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive polyphagous pest with an expanding global range that damages a wide variety of crops. F. occidentalis was first reported in China from Yunnan province during 2000, and has rapidly expanded its range since then. It is currently distributed across at least 10 provinces in China and has become a particularly devastating pest, causing substantial damage and economic losses. At present, the still heavy reliance on frequent use of insecticides for control of F...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027055/socio-demographic-characters-distribution-and-transformation-of-iodine-in-soil-plant-and-wheat-grains-at-district-diamer-gilgit-baltistan-pakistan
#19
Faridullah, Didar Ahmad, Hina Shabbir, Toqeer Ahmed, Muhammad Irshad, Arif Alam, Asif Sardar
Iodine deficiency in soils and plants is a common problem in the hilly areas and has still been ignored. The aim of the current study is to investigate associated health issues, socio-economic characteristics and people's perception regarding iodine deficiency. Furthermore, a follow-up study was conducted to determine iodine and nutrients concentration in soil and crops at District Diamer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. A descriptive and empirical analysis was examined. Most importantly, male was significantly observed as more affected for iodine deficiency than female, as contrary to the literature, socio-economic factors such as households' income and awareness (education) are reported as negative and significant contributor to reduce the iodine deficiency among the people irrespective of the gender...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026389/oxidative-stress-and-histopathological-changes-induced-by-methylthiophanate-a-systemic-fungicide-in-blood-liver-and-kidney-of-adult-rats
#20
Ben Amara Ibtissem, Ben Saad Hajer, Hakim Ahmed, Elwej Awatef, Kallel Choumous, Boudawara Ons, Zeghal Khaled Mounir, Zeghal Najiba
BACKGROUND: Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism. METHODS: In the present study, the effect of MT injected intraperitoneally to adult rats at 300 or 500 mg/kg of body weight was studied on blood, liver and kidney...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
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