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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245185/contribution-of-crop-model-structure-parameters-and-climate-projections-to-uncertainty-in-climate-change-impact-assessments
#1
Fulu Tao, Reimund P Rötter, Taru Palosuo, C G H Díaz-Ambrona, M Inés Mínguez, Mikhail A Semenov, Kurt Christian Kersebaum, Claas Nendel, Xenia Specka, Holger Hoffmann, Frank Ewert, Anaelle Dambreville, Pierre Martre, Lucía Rodríguez, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Thomas Gaiser, Jukka G Höhn, Tapio Salo, Roberto Ferrise, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Alan H Schulman
Climate change impact assessments are plagued with uncertainties from many sources, such as climate projections or the inadequacies in structure and parameters of the impact model. Previous studies tried to account for the uncertainty from one or two of these. Here, we developed a triple-ensemble probabilistic assessment using seven crop models, multiple sets of model parameters, and eight contrasting climate projections together to comprehensively account for uncertainties from these three important sources...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244878/isolation-and-functional-analysis-of-fatty-acid-desaturase-genes-from-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#2
Xiaoyuan Chi, Zhimeng Zhang, Na Chen, Xiaowen Zhang, Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Tong Wang, Lijuan Pan, Jing Chen, Zhen Yang, Xiangyu Guan, Shanlin Yu
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acyl chains. Extensive studies of fatty acid desaturases have been done in many plants. However, less is known about the diversity of this gene family in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: In this study, twelve novel AhFADs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript abundances of AhFAB2-2 and AhFAD3-1 were higher in seeds than in other tissues examined, whereas the AhADS and AhFAD7-1 transcripts were more abundant in leaves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243826/gsslah3-a-glycine-soja-slow-type-anion-channel-homologue-positively-modulates-plant-bicarbonate-stress-tolerance
#3
Xiangbo Duan, Yang Yu, Huizi Duanmu, Chao Chen, Xiaoli Sun, Lei Cao, Qiang Li, Xiaodong Ding, Beidong Liu, Yanming Zhu
Alkaline stress is a major form of abiotic stress that severely inhibits plant growth and development, thus restricting crop productivity. However, little is known about how plants respond to alkali. In this study, a slow-type anion channel homologue 3 gene GsSLAH3 was isolated and functionally characterized. Bioinformatics analysis showed that GsSLAH3 protein contains ten transmembrane helices. Consistently, GsSLAH3 was found to locate on plasma membrane by transient expression in onion epidermal cells. In wild soybeans, GsSLAH3 expression was induced by NaHCO3 treatment, suggesting its involvement in plant response to alkaline stress...
December 15, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243155/trends-in-plant-research-using-molecular-markers
#4
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
A deep bibliometric analysis has been carried out, obtaining valuable parameters that facilitate the understanding around the research in plant using molecular markers. The evolution of the improvement in the field of agronomy is fundamental for its adaptation to the new exigencies that the current world context raises. In addition, within these improvements, this article focuses on those related to the biotechnology sector. More specifically, the use of DNA markers that allow the researcher to know the set of genes associated with a particular quantitative trait or QTL...
December 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243152/transgene-escape-and-persistence-in-an-agroecosystem-the-case-of-glyphosate-resistant-brassica-rapa-l-in-central-argentina
#5
Claudio E Pandolfo, Alejandro Presotto, Francisco Torres Carbonell, Soledad Ureta, Mónica Poverene, Miguel Cantamutto
Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242569/ecosystem-respiration-and-its-components-in-a-rainfed-spring-maize-cropland-in-the-loess-plateau-china
#6
Xiang Gao, Xurong Mei, Fengxue Gu, Weiping Hao, Haoru Li, Daozhi Gong
We estimated ecosystem respiration (Re) and its components in a rainfed spring maize field in the Loess Plateau, China, during the growing seasons of 2012, 2013, and 2014 using measurements of eddy covariance and soil respiration (Rs). The multi-factor equation, which included photosynthetic active radiation, 5-cm soil temperature, 10-cm soil water content, and green leaf area index (GLAI), had goodness-of-fit values of between 0.81 and 0.94 for Re, autotrophic respiration (Ra), and above-ground autotrophic respiration (Raa), and goodness-of-fit values of between 0...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242229/emerging-role-of-the-plant-erf-transcription-factors-in-coordinating-wound-defense-responses-and-repair
#7
REVIEW
Jefri Heyman, Balkan Canher, Anchal Bisht, Fien Christiaens, Lieven De Veylder
Plants react to wounding through the activation of both defense and repair pathways, but how these two responses are coordinated is unclear. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that diverse members of the subfamily X of the plant-specific ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors coordinate stress signaling with the activation of wound repair mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the observation that tissue repair is strongly boosted through the formation of a heterodimeric protein complex that comprises ERF and transcription factors of the GRAS domain type...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242074/genome-wide-identification-and-validation-of-new-reference-genes-for-transcript-normalization-in-developmental-and-post-harvested-fruits-of-actinidia-chinensis
#8
Jian Liu, Shengxiong Huang, Xiangli Niu, Danyang Chen, Qiang Chen, Li Tian, FangMing Xiao, Yongsheng Liu
The appropriate reference genes are important and essential for reliable results of transcript normalization in real-time qRT-PCR. In the current study, we identified 1203 stably expressed genes from 35,286 genes' expression profiles in developmental fruits of Actinidia chinensis. We manually selected six candidate genes and assessed their expression levels, using two sets of fruit samples of A. chinensis: flesh fruits at four developmental stages and post-harvested fruits. The expression stability of these six genes was assessed by three independent algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper...
December 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241845/crispr-cas9-mediated-knockout-of-two-eye-pigmentation-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-hemiptera-delphacidae
#9
Wen-Hua Xue, Nan Xu, Xiao-Bo Yuan, Hao-Hao Chen, Jin-Li Zhang, Sheng-Jie Fu, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Hai-Jun Xu
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in Asia, demonstrating high fertility and causing huge crop losses by sucking sap of rice as well as transmitting viruses. However, functional genomic studies on N. lugens are seriously constrained by lack of genetic tools. Here, we employed two eye pigmentation genes to generate germ-line mutations in N. lugens using the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system. We showed that injection of single guide RNA of the cinnabar gene of N...
December 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241155/dissolved-organic-matter-reduces-cuo-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-duckweed-in-simulated-natural-systems
#10
Devin A Rippner, Peter G Green, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
With increasing demand for recycled wastewater for irrigation purposes, there is a need to evaluate the potential for manufactured nanomaterials in waste water to impact crop production and agroecosystems. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have previously been shown to negatively impact the growth of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) a model aquatic plant consumed by water fowl and widely found in agricultural runoff ditches in temperate climates. However, prior studies involving CuO NP toxicity to duckweed have focused on systems without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#11
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240906/differential-inhibition-of-helicoverpa-armigera-lep-noctuidae-gut-digestive-trypsin-by-extracted-and-purified-inhibitor-of-datura-metel-solanales-solanaceae
#12
Reza Navaei-Bonab, Majid Kazzazi, Moosa Saber, Mohammad Vatanparast
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240818/genetic-dissection-of-main-and-epistatic-effects-of-qtl-based-on-augmented-triple-test-cross-design
#13
Xueli Zhang, Congwei Sun, Zheng Zhang, Zhijun Dai, Yuan Chen, Xiong Yuan, Zheming Yuan, Wenbang Tang, Lanzhi Li, Zhongli Hu
The use of heterosis has considerably increased the productivity of many crops; however, the biological mechanism underpinning the technique remains elusive. The North Carolina design III (NCIII) and the triple test cross (TTC) are powerful and popular genetic mating design that can be used to decipher the genetic basis of heterosis. However, when using the NCIII design with the present quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method, if epistasis exists, the estimated additive or dominant effects are confounded with epistatic effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240755/integrating-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-to-characterize-the-regulation-of-epa-biosynthesis-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-seaweed-bangia-fuscopurpurea
#14
Min Cao, Dongmei Wang, Yunxiang Mao, Fanna Kong, Guiqi Bi, Qikun Xing, Zhen Weng
Bangia fuscopurpurea is a traditional mariculture crop having high nutritional value, eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA) production, and protein content. As an intertidal species, it can tolerate drastic changes in abiotic factors such as temperature, hydration, and light radiation; however, genomic information on the evolutionary aspect and mechanism of EPA enrichment in B. fuscopurpurea and the role of EPA in cold tolerance in this species remain elusive. We conducted transcriptome profile analysis in B. fuscopurpurea to investigate the biological functions of genes associated with resistance to various environment factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240417/modifying-the-formulation-of-abamectin-to-promote-its-efficacy-on-southern-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-under-blending-of-soil-and-root-irrigation-conditions
#15
Beixing Li, Yupeng Ren, Da-Xia Zhang, Shuangyu Xu, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
The southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is the most disastrous and prevalent nematode threat to the production of crops, especially vegetables. In the current study, second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were collected from five regions near Tai'an, China. The toxicity of abamectin to these J2 had insignificant differences, with LC50 values of approximately 2 mg/L. Two pesticide application approaches (i.e., blending-of-soil and root-irrigation) were adopted in pot experiments; blending-of-soil was more beneficial for promoting the efficacy of abamectin on the RKN of tomatoes...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240415/identifying-plant-stress-responses-to-roxarsone-in-soybean-root-exudates-new-insights-from-two-dimensional-correlation-spectroscopy
#16
Qing-Long Fu, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX) is an organoarsenic feed additive of increasing interest used in the poultry industry. Soybean responses to ROX stress were investigated in root exudates (REs) using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Environmentally-relevant ROX concentrations caused negligible toxicity to crop growth and photosynthesis activity, but blackened soybean roots at high concentrations. 2D-COS analysis revealed that the protein-like fluorophore and C=C and C=O, aliphatic-OH, and polysaccharide C-O-H moieties in soybean REs were most sensitive to ROX stress...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240123/detecting-crop-population-growth-using-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging
#17
Heng Wang, Xiangjie Qian, Lan Zhang, Sailong Xu, Haifeng Li, Xiaojian Xia, Liankui Dai, Liang Xu, Jingquan Yu, Xu Liu
For both field and greenhouse crops, it is challenging to evaluate their growth information on a large area over a long time. In this work, we developed a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging-based system for crop population growth information detection. Modular design was used to make the system provide high-intensity uniform illumination. This system can perform modulated chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics measurement and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter imaging over a large area of up to 45  cm×34  cm...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239714/fusion-proteins-towards-fungi-and-bacteria-in-plant-protection
#18
Ana Margarida Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara Monteiro
In agriculture, although fungi are considered the foremost problem, infections by bacteria also cause significant economical losses. The presence of different diseases in crops often leads to a misuse of the proper therapeutic, or the combination of different diseases forces the use of more than one pesticide. This work concerns the development of a 'super-Blad': a chimeric protein consisting of Blad polypeptide, the active ingredient of a biological fungicide already on the market, and two selected peptides, SP10-5 and Sub5, proven to possess biological potential as antibacterial agents...
December 14, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239602/improving-estimates-of-nitrogen-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment-of-cropping-systems-at-the-scale-of-an-agricultural-territory
#19
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239512/inheritance-and-fitness-costs-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-lepidoptera-noctuidae-resistance-to-spinosad-in-brazil
#20
Daniela M Okuma, Daniel Bernardi, Renato J Horikoshi, Oderlei Bernardi, Aline P Silva, Celso Omoto
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest of economically important crops in the South America. In Brazil, this species is considered the most destructive pest of maize. The use of spinosyn insecticides in Insect Resistance Management (IRM) has been one of the strategies to control this pest. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda to spinosad and evaluated the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. RESULTS: The estimated LC50 values were 0...
December 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
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