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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668133/helminth-eggs-as-parasitic-indicators-of-fecal-contamination-in-agricultural-irrigation-water-biosolids-soils-and-pastures
#1
María Claudia Campos, Milena Beltrán, Nancy Fuentes, Gerardo Moreno
INTRODUCTION: A very common practice in agriculture is the disposal of wastewater and biosolids from water treatment systems due to their high nutrient content, which substantially improves crop yields. However, the presence of pathogens of fecal origin creates a sanitary risk to farmers and consumers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence and concentration of helminth eggs in irrigation waters, biosolids, agricultural soils, and pastures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water, biosolids, soil, and pasture samples were collected and analyzed for helminth egg detection, total eggs and viable eggs counts...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667361/plant-training-for-induced-defense-against-insect-pests-a-promising-tool-for-integrated-pest-management-in-cotton
#3
REVIEW
Ana L Llandres, Raki Almohamad, Thierry Brévault, Alain Renou, Idrissa Téréta, Janine Jean, François-Regis Goebel
Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667000/a-novel-mitochondrial-orf147-causes-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-pigeonpea-by-modulating-aberrant-anther-dehiscence
#4
Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, Ranadheer Gupta, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas Reddy, C V Sameerkumar, Rachit Kumar Saxena, Kiran K Sharma
A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences...
April 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666935/screening-and-identification-of-horticultural-soil-fungi-for-their-evaluation-against-the-plant-parasitic-nematode-nacobbus-aberrans
#5
Ana L Sosa, Laura C Rosso, Fabricio A Salusso, Miriam G Etcheverry, María A Passone
The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite causing severe losses to a wide range of crops from North to South America. The use of native antagonistic fungi may be considered as a possible biological control alternative to reduce the damages caused by this species. Antagonistic effects of 66 potential nematophagous fungi against eggs (J1) and second-stage juveniles (J2) of N. aberrans, were evaluated in vitro on water agar. DGC test showed significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the efficacy of some fungal isolates tested, with parasitism levels for J1 and J2 of 0-95 and 1-78%, respectively...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666650/bacterial-community-of-the-rice-floodwater-using-cultivation-independent-approaches
#6
Michele Pittol, Erin Scully, Daniel Miller, Lisa Durso, Lidia Mariana Fiuza, Victor Hugo Valiati
In agricultural systems, interactions between plants and microorganisms are important to maintaining production and profitability. In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666628/you-shall-not-pass-root-vacuoles-as-a-symplastic-checkpoint-for-metal-translocation-to-shoots-and-possible-application-to-grain-nutritional-quality
#7
REVIEW
Felipe K Ricachenevsky, Artur T de Araújo Junior, Janette P Fett, Raul A Sperotto
Plant nutrient uptake is performed mostly by roots, which have to acquire nutrients while avoiding excessive amounts of essential and toxic elements. Apoplastic barriers such as the casparian strip and suberin deposition block free diffusion from the rhizosphere into the xylem, making selective plasma membrane transporters able to control elemental influx into the root symplast, efflux into the xylem and therefore shoot translocation. Additionally, transporters localized to the tonoplast of root cells have been demonstrated to regulate the shoot ionome, and may be important for seed elemental translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666533/purple-head-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-var-italica-plenck-a-functional-food-crop-for-antioxidant-and-anticancer-potential
#8
Ashun Chaudhary, Sonika Choudhary, Upendra Sharma, Adarsh Pal Vig, Bikram Singh, Saroj Arora
Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666454/long-term-coffee-monoculture-alters-soil-chemical-properties-and-microbial-communities
#9
Qingyun Zhao, Wu Xiong, Yizhang Xing, Yan Sun, Xingjun Lin, Yunping Dong
Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666366/reduction-in-global-area-burned-and-wildfire-emissions-since-1930s-enhances-carbon-uptake-by-land
#10
Vivek K Arora, Joe R Melton
The terrestrial biosphere currently absorbs about 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This carbon uptake over land results primarily from vegetation's response to increasing atmospheric CO2 but other factors also play a role. Here we show that since the 1930s increasing population densities and cropland area have decreased global area burned, consistent with the charcoal record and recent satellite-based observations. The associated reduced wildfire emissions from increase in cropland area do not enhance carbon uptake since natural vegetation that is spared burning was deforested anyway...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666353/inheritance-of-carthamin-and-carthamidin-in-safflower-carthamus-tinctorius-l
#11
Pooran Golkar
The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oil seed crop from which the flowers is used as medicine and food colorants. The present investigation was undertaken to explore gene effects for safflower's pigments in flower including carthamin and carthamidin. Six generation including P1 , P2 , F1 , F2 , BC1 and BC2 that derived from two different crosses (Mex. 2-138 (P2 ) × Wht-Esf (P1 ) and C111 (P2 ) × Wht-Esf (P1 ) were used for generation of mean analysis. The joint scaling test showed that additive [a], additive × additive [aa], and additive × dominance [ad] effects were significant for genetic control of carthamin and carthamidin in both crosses...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666338/identification-of-ssr-and-retrotransposon-based-molecular-markers-linked-to-morphological-characters-in-oily-sunfl-ower-helianthus-annuus-l-under-natural-and-water-limited-states
#12
Soleimani Gezeljeh Ali, Reza Darvishzadeh, Asa Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza Bihamta
Sunflower is an important source of edible oil. Drought is known as an important factor limiting the growth and productivity of field crops in most parts of the world. Agricultural biotechnology mainly aims at developing crops with higher tolerance to the challenging environmental conditions, such as drought. This study examined a number of morphological characters, along with relative water content (RWC) in 100 inbred sunflower lines. A 10 × 10 simple lattice design with two replications was employed to measure the mentioned parameters under natural and water-limited states during two successive years...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666325/identification-of-virulence-factors-and-type-iii-effectors-of-phylotype-i-indian-ralstonia-solanacearum-strains-rs-09-161-and-rs-10-244
#13
Trupti Asolkar, Raman Ramesh
Ralstonia solanacearum is a well-known phytopathogen causing bacterial wilt in a large number of agriculturally important crops. The pathogenicity of R. solanacearum is expressed due to the presence of various virulence factors and effector proteins. In this study, various virulence factors and type III effector proteins of R. solanacearum that are present in the strains Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 were identified through bioinformatics approach and compared with other reference strains. R. solanacearum strains, Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 belong to the phylotype I, biovar3, and are the only sequenced strains from India infecting solanaceous vegetables...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666318/economics-and-policy-driven-organic-carbon-input-enhancement-dominates-soil-organic-carbon-accumulation-in-chinese-croplands
#14
Yongcun Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Shuijin Hu, Xudong Zhang, Zhu Ouyang, Ganlin Zhang, Biao Huang, Shiwei Zhao, Jinshui Wu, Deti Xie, Bo Zhu, Dongsheng Yu, Xianzhang Pan, Shengxiang Xu, Xuezheng Shi
China's croplands have experienced drastic changes in management practices, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue treatments, since the 1980s. There is an ongoing debate about the impact of these changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) and its implications. Here we report results from an extensive study that provided direct evidence of cropland SOC sequestration in China. Based on the soil sampling locations recorded by the Second National Soil Survey of China in 1980, we collected 4,060 soil samples in 2011 from 58 counties that represent the typical cropping systems across China...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666314/carbon-pools-in-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems-new-estimates-based-on-an-intensive-field-survey
#15
Xuli Tang, Xia Zhao, Yongfei Bai, Zhiyao Tang, Wantong Wang, Yongcun Zhao, Hongwei Wan, Zongqiang Xie, Xuezheng Shi, Bingfang Wu, Gengxu Wang, Junhua Yan, Keping Ma, Sheng Du, Shenggong Li, Shijie Han, Youxin Ma, Huifeng Hu, Nianpeng He, Yuanhe Yang, Wenxuan Han, Hongling He, Guirui Yu, Jingyun Fang, Guoyi Zhou
China's terrestrial ecosystems have functioned as important carbon sinks. However, previous estimates of carbon budgets have included large uncertainties owing to the limitations of sample size, multiple data sources, and inconsistent methodologies. In this study, we conducted an intensive field campaign involving 14,371 field plots to investigate all sectors of carbon stocks in China's forests, shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to better estimate the regional and national carbon pools and to explore the biogeographical patterns and potential drivers of these pools...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666287/the-blast-fungus-decoded-genomes-in-flux
#16
Thorsten Langner, Aleksandra Białas, Sophien Kamoun
Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666265/an-explainable-deep-machine-vision-framework-for-plant-stress-phenotyping
#17
Sambuddha Ghosal, David Blystone, Asheesh K Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar
Current approaches for accurate identification, classification, and quantification of biotic and abiotic stresses in crop research and production are predominantly visual and require specialized training. However, such techniques are hindered by subjectivity resulting from inter- and intrarater cognitive variability. This translates to erroneous decisions and a significant waste of resources. Here, we demonstrate a machine learning framework's ability to identify and classify a diverse set of foliar stresses in soybean [ Glycine max (L...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666236/synthetically-engineered-medea-gene-drive-system-in-the-worldwide-crop-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#18
Anna Buchman, John M Marshall, Dennis Ostrovski, Ting Yang, Omar S Akbari
Synthetic gene drive systems possess enormous potential to replace, alter, or suppress wild populations of significant disease vectors and crop pests; however, their utility in diverse populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the creation of a synthetic Medea gene drive system in a major worldwide crop pest, Drosophila suzukii We demonstrate that this drive system, based on an engineered maternal "toxin" coupled with a linked embryonic "antidote," is capable of biasing Mendelian inheritance rates with up to 100% efficiency...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666229/drought-delays-development-of-the-sorghum-root-microbiome-and-enriches-for-monoderm-bacteria
#19
Ling Xu, Dan Naylor, Zhaobin Dong, Tuesday Simmons, Grady Pierroz, Kim K Hixson, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Kristin M Engbrecht, Yi Wang, Cheng Gao, Stephanie DeGraaf, Mary A Madera, Julie A Sievert, Joy Hollingsworth, Devon Birdseye, Henrik V Scheller, Robert Hutmacher, Jeffery Dahlberg, Christer Jansson, John W Taylor, Peggy G Lemaux, Devin Coleman-Derr
Drought stress is a major obstacle to crop productivity, and the severity and frequency of drought are expected to increase in the coming century. Certain root-associated bacteria have been shown to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress on plant growth, and manipulation of the crop microbiome is an emerging strategy for overcoming drought stress in agricultural systems, yet the effect of drought on the development of the root microbiome is poorly understood. Through 16S rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing, as well as root metabolomics, we demonstrate that drought delays the development of the early sorghum root microbiome and causes increased abundance and activity of monoderm bacteria, which lack an outer cell membrane and contain thick cell walls...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665794/mapping-a-male-fertility-restoration-locus-for-the-a-4-cytoplasmic-genic-male-sterility-system-in-pearl-millet-using-a-genotyping-by-sequencing-based-linkage-map
#20
Anna Pucher, C Tom Hash, Jason G Wallace, Sen Han, Willmar L Leiser, Bettina I G Haussmann
BACKGROUND: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., syn. Cenchrus americanus (L.) R. Br) is an important cereal and fodder crop in hot and arid environments. There is great potential to improve pearl millet production through hybrid breeding. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the corresponding nuclear fertility restoration / sterility maintenance genes (Rfs) are essential tools for economic hybrid seed production in pearl millet. Mapping the Rf genes of the A4 CMS system in pearl millet would enable more efficient introgression of both dominant male-fertility restoration alleles (Rf) and their recessive male-sterility maintenance counterparts (rf)...
April 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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