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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917170/how-do-climatic-and-management-factors-affect-agricultural-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-in-the-agro-pastoral-transitional-zone-of-northern-china
#1
Jianmin Qiao, Deyong Yu, Jianguo Wu
Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878787/planting-patterns-and-deficit-irrigation-strategies-to-improve-wheat-production-and-water-use-efficiency-under-simulated-rainfall-conditions
#2
Shahzad Ali, Yueyue Xu, Xiangcheng Ma, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Kamran, Zhaoyun Dong, Tie Cai, Qianmin Jia, Xiaolong Ren, Peng Zhang, Zhikuan Jia
The ridge furrow (RF) rainwater harvesting system is an efficient way to enhance rainwater accessibility for crops and increase winter wheat productivity in semi-arid regions. However, the RF system has not been promoted widely in the semi-arid regions, which primarily exist in remote hilly areas. To exploit its efficiency on a large-scale, the RF system needs to be tested at different amounts of simulated precipitation combined with deficit irrigation. Therefore, in during the 2015-16 and 2016-17 winter wheat growing seasons, we examined the effects of two planting patterns: (1) the RF system and (2) traditional flat planting (TF) with three deficit irrigation levels (150, 75, 0 mm) under three simulated rainfall intensity (1: 275, 2: 200, 3: 125 mm), and determined soil water storage profile, evapotranspiration rate, grain filling rate, biomass, grain yield, and net economic return...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878756/analysis-of-microbial-functions-in-the-rhizosphere-using-a-metabolic-network-based-framework-for-metagenomics-interpretation
#3
Shany Ofaim, Maya Ofek-Lalzar, Noa Sela, Jiandong Jinag, Yechezkel Kashi, Dror Minz, Shiri Freilich
Advances in metagenomics enable high resolution description of complex bacterial communities in their natural environments. Consequently, conceptual approaches for community level functional analysis are in high need. Here, we introduce a framework for a metagenomics-based analysis of community functions. Environment-specific gene catalogs, derived from metagenomes, are processed into metabolic-network representation. By applying established ecological conventions, network-edges (metabolic functions) are assigned with taxonomic annotations according to the dominance level of specific groups...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878147/extraction-of-rice-heavy-metal-stress-signal-features-based-on-long-time-series-leaf-area-index-data-using-ensemble-empirical-mode-decomposition
#4
Lingwen Tian, Xiangnan Liu, Biyao Zhang, Ming Liu, Ling Wu
The use of remote sensing technology to diagnose heavy metal stress in crops is of great significance for environmental protection and food security. However, in the natural farmland ecosystem, various stressors could have a similar influence on crop growth, therefore making heavy metal stress difficult to identify accurately, so this is still not a well resolved scientific problem and a hot topic in the field of agricultural remote sensing. This study proposes a method that uses Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to obtain the heavy metal stress signal features on a long time scale...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870149/development-of-novel-indel-markers-and-genetic-diversity-in-chenopodium-quinoa-through-whole-genome-re-sequencing
#5
Tifu Zhang, Minfeng Gu, Yuhe Liu, Yuanda Lv, Ling Zhou, Haiyan Lu, Shuaiqiang Liang, Huabin Bao, Han Zhao
BACKGROUND: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a balanced nutritional crop, but its breeding improvement has been limited by the lack of information on its genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on genomic variation, population structure, and genetic diversity and to develop novel Insertion/Deletion (InDel) markers for quinoa by whole-genome re-sequencing. RESULTS: We re-sequenced 11 quinoa accessions and obtained a coverage depth between approximately 7× to 23× the quinoa genome...
September 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847103/assessing-summertime-urban-warming-and-the-cooling-efficacy-of-adaptation-strategy-in-the-chengdu-chongqing-metropolitan-region-of-china
#6
Xiaojuan Liu, Guangjin Tian, Jinming Feng, Jun Wang, Lingqiang Kong
Western China has experienced rapid urbanization since the Chinese reform process began in the late 1970s. It is essential to study the spatiotemporal patterns of warming induced by historical and future urban expansion and to evaluate adaptation strategies for the Chengdu-Chongqing metropolitan region (CCMR) in western China. The observed urban heat island intensity was ~1.5K in July 2009-2011. We employed the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model using real and projected urban land-use data to simulate near-surface air temperatures for a crop, urban in 2010 and urban in 2030 scenarios in summer over the CCMR...
August 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846909/uptake-of-silver-by-brown-rice-and-wheat-in-soils-repeatedly-amended-with-biosolids
#7
Longhua Wu, Lu Yang, Zhaoyang Wang, Miaomiao Cheng, Zhu Li, Wuxing Liu, Tingting Ma, Peter Christie, Yongming Luo
There have been numerous studies simulating the behaviour and fate of silver (Ag) applied to soils in biosolids in recent decades but the results remain to be verified under actual farming conditions. Here, we report a study of the transfer of Ag along the biosolids-soil-crop pathway with repeated biosolid applications over a four-year period to three contrasting soil types under rice-wheat rotation cultivation. A systematic investigation of Ag concentrations in biosolids throughout China shows Ag concentrations ranging from 0...
August 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846405/mechanisms-for-increasing-the-ph-buffering-capacity-of-an-acidic-ultisol-by-crop-residue-derived-biochars
#8
Ren-Yong Shi, Zhi-Neng Hong, Jiu-Yu Li, Jun Jiang, M Abdulaha-Al Baquy, Ren-Kou Xu, Wei Qian
The effects and underlying mechanisms of crop residue-derived biochars on the pH buffering capacity (pHbuff) of an acidic Ultisol, with low pHbuff, were investigated through indoor incubation and simulated acidification experiments. The incorporation of biochars significantly increased soil pHbuff with the magnitude of the increase dependent on acid buffering capacity of the biochar incorporated to the soil. Cation release, resulting from the protonation of carboxyl groups on biochar surfaces and the dissolution of carbonates, was the predominant mechanism responsible for the increase in soil pHbuff at pH 4...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841504/combined-acid-rain-and-lanthanum-pollution-and-its-potential-ecological-risk-for-nitrogen-assimilation-in-soybean-seedling-roots
#9
Fan Zhang, Mengzhu Cheng, Zhaoguo Sun, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in various fields, resulting in their accumulation in the environment. This accumulation has affected the survival and distribution of crops in various ways. Acid rain is a serious global environmental problem. The combined effects on crops from these two types of pollution have been reported, but the effects on crop root nitrogen assimilation are rarely known. To explore the impact of combined contamination from these two pollutants on crop nitrogen assimilation, the soybean seedlings were treated with simulated environmental pollution from acid rain and a representative rare earth ion, lanthanum ion (La(3+)), then the indexes related to plant nitrogen assimilation process in roots were determined...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837702/imidacloprid-transport-and-sorption-nonequilibrium-in-single-and-multilayered-columns-of-immokalee-fine-sand
#10
Jorge A Leiva, Peter Nkedi-Kizza, Kelly T Morgan, Davie M Kadyampakeni
Imidacloprid (IMD) is a neonicotinoid pesticide soil-drenched to many crops to control piercing-sucking insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Neonicotinoids are persistent in the environment and transport analyses are helpful estimate leaching potential from soils that could result in groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to analyze IMD breakthrough under saturated water flow in soil columns packed with three horizons (A, E, Bh) of Immokalee Fine Sand (IFS). Also, we used the dimensionless form of the convective-dispersive model (CD-Model) to compare the optimized transport parameters from each column experiment (retardation factor, R; fraction of instantaneous-to-total retardation, β; and mass transfer coefficient, ω) with the parameters obtained from sorption batch equilibria and sorption kinetics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829891/physiological-and-enzymatic-alterations-in-sesame-seeds-submitted-to-different-osmotic-potentials
#11
R M O Pires, M A B Àvila, D G Leite, H O Santos, G A Souza, E V R Von Pinho
With the imminence of global climate changes that affect the temperature and the rainfall uniformity, it is growing the concern about the adaptation of crops to the water deficit. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in physiological and enzymatic mechanisms during the germination process of sesame seeds under different water availability. To simulate the water restriction we used PEG6000, a high molecular weight molecule that does not penetrate the seed structure but allows different osmotic potentials...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828265/planting-of-neonicotinoid-coated-corn-raises-honey-bee-mortality-and-sets-back-colony-development
#12
Olivier Samson-Robert, Geneviève Labrie, Madeleine Chagnon, Valérie Fournier
Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808100/hacking-the-thylakoid-proton-motive-force-for-improved-photosynthesis-modulating-ion-flux-rates-that-control-proton-motive-force-partitioning-into-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-and-%C3%AE-ph
#13
REVIEW
Geoffry A Davis, A William Rutherford, David M Kramer
There is considerable interest in improving plant productivity by altering the dynamic responses of photosynthesis in tune with natural conditions. This is exemplified by the 'energy-dependent' form of non-photochemical quenching (qE), the formation and decay of which can be considerably slower than natural light fluctuations, limiting photochemical yield. In addition, we recently reported that rapidly fluctuating light can produce field recombination-induced photodamage (FRIP), where large spikes in electric field across the thylakoid membrane (Δψ) induce photosystem II recombination reactions that produce damaging singlet oxygen ((1)O2)...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806544/decadal-analysis-of-impact-of-future-climate-on-wheat-production-in-dry-mediterranean-environment-a-case-of-jordan
#14
Prakash N Dixit, Roberto Telleria, Amal N Al Khatib, Siham F Allouzi
Different aspects of climate change, such as increased temperature, changed rainfall and higher atmospheric CO2 concentration, all have different effects on crop yields. Process-based crop models are the most widely used tools for estimating future crop yield responses to climate change. We applied APSIM crop simulation model in a dry Mediterranean climate with Jordan as sentinel site to assess impact of climate change on wheat production at decadal level considering two climate change scenarios of representative concentration pathways (RCP) viz...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803104/exploration-of-a-mechanism-for-the-production-of-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-scenedesmus-sp-at-low-temperature-grown-on-oil-crop-residue-based-medium
#15
Qian Lu, Jun Li, Jinghan Wang, Kun Li, Jingjing Li, Pei Han, Paul Chen, Wenguang Zhou
The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells...
August 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798370/responses-of-crop-yield-growth-to-global-temperature-and-socioeconomic-changes
#16
Toshichika Iizumi, Jun Furuya, Zhihong Shen, Wonsik Kim, Masashi Okada, Shinichiro Fujimori, Tomoko Hasegawa, Motoki Nishimori
Although biophysical yield responses to local warming have been studied, we know little about how crop yield growth-a function of climate and technology-responds to global temperature and socioeconomic changes. Here, we present the yield growth of major crops under warming conditions from preindustrial levels as simulated by a global gridded crop model. The results revealed that global mean yields of maize and soybean will stagnate with warming even when agronomic adjustments are considered. This trend is consistent across socioeconomic assumptions...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795660/systems-and-synthetic-biology-perspective-of-the-versatile-plant-pathogenic-and-polysaccharide-producing-bacterium-xanthomonas-campestris
#17
Sarah Schatschneider, Jessica Schneider, Jochen Blom, Fabien Létisse, Karsten Niehaus, Alexander Goesmann, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter
Bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are a major group of plant pathogens. They are hazardous to important crops and closely related to human pathogens. Being collectively a major focus of molecular phytopathology, an increasing number of diverse and intricate mechanisms are emerging by which they communicate, interfere with host signalling and keep competition at bay. Interestingly, they are also biotechnologically relevant polysaccharide producers. Systems biotechnology techniques have revealed their central metabolism and a growing number of remarkable features...
August 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792541/hydrologic-cost-effectiveness-ratio-favors-switchgrass-production-on-marginal-croplands-over-existing-grasslands
#18
Yohannes Tadesse Yimam, Tyson E Ochsner, Garey A Fox
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has attracted attention as a promising second generation biofuel feedstock. Both existing grasslands and marginal croplands have been suggested as targets for conversion to switchgrass, but the resulting production potentials and hydrologic impacts are not clear. The objectives of this study were to model switchgrass production on existing grasslands (scenario-I) and on marginal croplands that have severe to very severe limitations for crop production (scenario-II) and to evaluate the effects on evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792495/investigating-the-enhanced-best-performance-algorithm-for-annual-crop-planning-problem-based-on-economic-factors
#19
Aderemi Oluyinka Adewumi, Sivashan Chetty
The Annual Crop Planning (ACP) problem was a recently introduced problem in the literature. This study further expounds on this problem by presenting a new mathematical formulation, which is based on market economic factors. To determine solutions, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm is investigated which is called the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA). eBPA's results are compared against two well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms; these include Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780106/economic-effect-of-reducing-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-mass-balance-on-wisconsin-and-qu%C3%A3-bec-dairy-farms
#20
D Pellerin, E Charbonneau, L Fadul-Pacheco, O Soucy, M A Wattiaux
Our objective was to explore the trade-offs between economic performance (farm net income, FNI) and environmental outcomes (whole-farm P and N balances) of dairy farms in Wisconsin (WI; United States) and Québec (QC; Canada). An Excel-based linear program model (N-CyCLES; nutrient cycling: crops, livestock, environment, and soil) was developed to optimize feeding, cropping, and manure management as a single unit of management. In addition to FNI, P and N balances model outputs included (1) the mix of up to 9 home-grown and 17 purchased feeds for up to 5 animal groups, (2) the mix of up to 5 crop rotations in up to 5 land units and c) the mix of up to 7 fertilizers (solid and liquid manure and 5 commercial fertilizers) to allocate in each land unit...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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