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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785071/identification-of-cis-regulatory-elements-associated-with-salinity-and-drought-stress-tolerance-in-rice-from-co-expressed-gene-interaction-networks
#1
Pragya Mishra, Nisha Singh, Ajay Jain, Neha Jain, Vagish Mishra, Pushplatha G, Kiran P Sandhya, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Vandna Rai
Rice, a staple food crop, is often subjected to drought and salinity stresses thereby limiting its yield potential. Since there is a cross talk between these abiotic stresses, identification of common and/or overlapping regulatory elements is pivotal for generating rice cultivars that showed tolerance towards them. Analysis of the gene interaction network (GIN) facilitates identifying the role of individual genes and their interactions with others that constitute important molecular determinants in sensing and signaling cascade governing drought and/or salinity stresses...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784905/northward-shift-of-the-agricultural-climate-zone-under-21-st-century-global-climate-change
#2
Myron King, Daniel Altdorff, Pengfei Li, Lakshman Galagedara, Joseph Holden, Adrian Unc
As agricultural regions are threatened by climate change, warming of high latitude regions and increasing food demands may lead to northward expansion of global agriculture. While socio-economic demands and edaphic conditions may govern the expansion, climate is a key limiting factor. Extant literature on future crop projections considers established agricultural regions and is mainly temperature based. We employed growing degree days (GDD), as the physiological link between temperature and crop growth, to assess the global northward shift of agricultural climate zones under 21st -century climate change...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784884/the-effector-gene-xopae-of-xanthomonas-euvesicatoria-85-10-is-part-of-an-operon-and-encodes-an-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#3
Georgy Popov, Bharat Bhusan Majhi, Guido Sessa
The type III effector XopAE from the Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strain 85-10 ( Xe 85-10) was previously shown to inhibit plant immunity and enhance pathogen-induced disease symptoms. Evolutionary analysis of 60 xopAE alleles ( AEal ) revealed that the xopAE locus is conserved in multiple Xanthomonas species. The majority of xopAE alleles (55 out of 60) encodes a single ORF ( xopAE ), while in 5 alleles, including AEal 37 of the Xe 85-10 strain, a frame-shift splits the locus into two ORFs ( hpaF and a truncated xopAE )...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779495/closing-the-phosphorus-cycle-in-a-food-system-insights-from-a-modelling-exercise
#4
H R J van Kernebeek, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, R Ripoll-Bosch, I J M de Boer
Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778985/all-together-now-a-magical-mystery-tour-of-the-maize-shoot-meristem
#5
REVIEW
Qingyu Wu, Fang Xu, David Jackson
Crop yield improvement requires optimization of shoot architecture, and can be facilitated by understanding shoot apical meristem (SAM) development. Maize, as one of the most important cereal crops worldwide, is also a model system and has significantly contributed to our fundamental understanding of SAM development. In this review, we focus on recent progress and will discuss communication between different meristem regulators, including CLAVATA receptors and ligands, transcription factors, small RNAs and hormones, as well as the importance of communication between different SAM regions...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777501/expression-of-endogenous-proteins-in-maize-hybrids-in-a-multi-location-field-trial-in-india
#6
Linga R Gutha, Divakar Purushottam, Aruna Veeramachaneni, Sarita Tigulla, Vikas Kodappully, Chandana Enjala, Hitendrasinh Rajput, Jennifer Anderson, Bonnie Hong, Jean Schmidt, Shveta Bagga
Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775612/crystal-structure-of-wa352-provides-insight-into-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-rice
#7
Xiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Zhou Gong, Junjie Yan, Guangsheng Yang, Yao-Guang Liu, Ping Yin
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important phenomenon and is widely utilized in hybrid crop breeding. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA), a well-known CMS type, has been successfully applied in the commercial production of hybrid rice seeds for more than 40 years. The CMS-WA causal gene WA352 encodes a novel transmenbrane protein and the interacts with the mitochondrial copper chaperone COX11, triggering reactive oxygen species production and resulting in male sterility in CMS-WA lines. However, the structure of WA352 is currently unknown, and the structural mechanism whereby WA352 perturbs COX11 function to cause CMS remains largely unknown...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774547/petunia-as-model-for-elucidating-adventitious-root-formation-and-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-at-the-nexus-of-physiology-genetics-microbiology-and-horticulture
#8
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#9
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771910/the-influence-of-crop-production-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-seasonal-household-dietary-diversity-in-burkina-faso
#10
Jérôme W Somé, Andrew D Jones
Households in low-income settings are vulnerable to seasonal changes in dietary diversity because of fluctuations in food availability and access. We assessed seasonal differences in household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso, and determined the extent to which household socioeconomic status and crop production diversity modify changes in dietary diversity across seasons, using data from the nationally representative 2014 Burkina Faso Continuous Multisectoral Survey (EMC). A household dietary diversity score based on nine food groups was created from household food consumption data collected during four rounds of the 2014 EMC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770865/the-agrobacterium-phenotypic-plasticity-plast-genes
#11
Léon Otten
The transfer of T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium to plant cells is a well-understood process of natural genetic engineering. The expression of T-DNA genes in plants leads to tumors, hairy roots, or transgenic plants. The transformed cells multiply and synthesize small molecules, called opines, used by Agrobacteria for their growth. Several T-DNA genes stimulate or influence plant growth. Among these, iaaH and iaaM encode proteins involved in auxin synthesis, whereas ipt encodes a protein involved in cytokinin synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768413/wild-boar-mapping-using-population-density-statistics-from-polygons-to-high-resolution-raster-maps
#12
Claudia Pittiglio, Sergei Khomenko, Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo
The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765385/optimizing-winter-wheat-resilience-to-climate-change-in-rain-fed-crop-systems-of-turkey-and-iran
#13
Marta S Lopes, Conxita Royo, Fanny Alvaro, Miguel Sanchez-Garcia, Emel Ozer, Fatih Ozdemir, Mehmet Karaman, Mozaffar Roustaii, Mohammad R Jalal-Kamali, Diego Pequeno
Erratic weather patterns associated with increased temperatures and decreasing rainfall pose unique challenges for wheat breeders playing a key part in the fight to ensure global food security. Within rain fed winter wheat areas of Turkey and Iran, unusual weather patterns may prevent attaining maximum potential increases in winter wheat genetic gains. This is primarily related to the fact that the yield ranking of tested genotypes may change from one year to the next. Changing weather patterns may interfere with the decisions breeders make about the ideotype(s) they should aim for during selection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765057/critical-amino-acids-for-the-insecticidal-activity-of-vip3af-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-inference-on-structural-aspects
#14
N Banyuls, C S Hernández-Rodríguez, J Van Rie, J Ferré
Vip3 vegetative insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are an important tool for crop protection against caterpillar pests in IPM strategies. While there is wide consensus on their general mode of action, the details of their mode of action are not completely elucidated and their structure remains unknown. In this work the alanine scanning technique was performed on 558 out of the total of 788 amino acids of the Vip3Af1 protein. From the 558 residue substitutions, 19 impaired protein expression and other 19 substitutions severely compromised the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764659/mechanisms-of-aphid-adaptation-to-host-plant-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Ashley D Yates, Andy Michel
Host-plant resistant (HPR) crops can play a major role in preventing insect damage, but their durability is limited due to insect adaptation. Research in basal plant resistance provides a framework to investigate adaptation against HPR. Resistance and adaptation are predicted to follow the gene-for-gene and zigzag models of plant defense. These models also highlight the importance of insect effectors, which are small molecules that modulate host plant defense signaling. We highlight research in insect adaptation to plant resistance, and then draw parallels to virulence adaptation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764648/rapid-evolution-to-host-plant-resistance-by-an-invasive-herbivore-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines-virulence-in-north-america-to-aphid-resistant-cultivars
#16
REVIEW
Matthew E O'Neal, Adam J Varenhorst, Matthew C Kaiser
Preventing rapid evolution of herbivores to plant traits that confer resistance is an area of active research for applied entomologists. The subfield of insect resistance management (IRM) uses elements of population genetics and ecology to prevent increases in the frequency of virulent (i.e. resistant) sub-populations of an insect pest. Efforts to delay such an increase include using highly lethal toxins (i.e., a high dose), combining multiple resistance traits in one cultivar (i.e., pyramids), and using susceptible plants (i...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762898/predicting-mammalian-metabolism-and-toxicity-of-pesticides-in-silico
#17
REVIEW
Robert D Clark
Pesticides must be effective to be commercially viable but they must also be reasonably safe for those who manufacture them, apply them, or consume the food they are used to produce. Animal testing is key to ensuring safety, but it comes late in the agrochemical development process, is expensive, and requires relatively large amounts of material. Surrogate assays used as in vitro models require less material and shift identification of potential mammalian toxicity back to earlier stages in development. Modern in silico methods are cost-effective complements to such in vitro models that make it possible to predict mammalian metabolism, toxicity and exposure for a pesticide, crop residue or other metabolite before it has been synthesized...
May 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761511/overexpression-of-the-tashn1-transcription-factor-in-bread-wheat-leads-to-leaf-surface-modifications-improved-drought-tolerance-and-no-yield-penalty-under-controlled-growth-conditions
#18
Huihui Bi, Jianxin Shi, Natalia Kovalchuk, Sukanya Luang, Natalia Bazanova, Larissa Chirkova, Dabing Zhang, Yuri Shavrukov, Anton Stepanenko, Penny Tricker, Peter Langridge, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato, Nikolai Borisjuk
Transcription factors regulate multiple networks, mediating the responses of organisms to stresses, including drought. Here we investigated the role of the wheat transcription factor TaSHN1 in crop growth and drought tolerance. TaSHN1, isolated from bread wheat, was characterised for molecular interactions and functionality. The overexpression of TaSHN1 in wheat was followed by the evaluation of T2 and T3 transgenic lines for drought tolerance, growth and yield components. Leaf surface changes were analysed by light microscopy, SEM, TEM and GC-MS/GC-FID...
May 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761500/compositional-and-transcriptomic-analysis-associated-with-cuticle-lipid-production-on-rosette-and-inflorescence-stem-leaves-in-the-extremophyte-thellungiella-salsuginea
#19
Shuai Tang, Ningmei Chen, Buerbatu Song, Junqing He, Yijun Zhou, Matthew A Jenks, Xiaojing Xu
The plant cuticle is a complex structure composed primarily of wax and cutin, but also contains cutan, glycerolipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, and proteins. The cuticle plays an important protective role as barrier between plants and their environment. In this paper, 4-week old leaves produced either on the rosette or on the inflorescence stem of the model extremophyte Thellungiella salsuginea were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cuticle permeability assays, and chemical composition analysis...
May 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761061/transcriptomic-studies-reveal-a-key-metabolic-pathway-contributing-to-a-well-maintained-photosynthetic-system-under-drought-stress-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l
#20
Weiping Shi, Jingye Cheng, Xiaojie Wen, Jixiang Wang, Guanyan Shi, Jiayan Yao, Liyuan Hou, Qian Sun, Peng Xiang, Xiangyang Yuan, Shuqi Dong, Pingyi Guo, Jie Guo
Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting crop productivity. A better understanding of the effects of drought on millet ( Setaria italica L.) production, a model crop for studying drought tolerance, and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drought stress responses is vital to improvement of agricultural production. In this study, we exposed the drought resistant F1 hybrid, M79, and its parental lines E1 and H1 to drought stress. Subsequent physiological analysis demonstrated that M79 showed higher photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency and drought tolerance than its parents...
2018: PeerJ
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