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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351290/land-use-change-in-oil-palm-dominated-tropical-landscapes-an-agent-based-model-to-explore-ecological-and-socio-economic-trade-offs
#1
Claudia Dislich, Elisabeth Hettig, Jan Salecker, Johannes Heinonen, Jann Lay, Katrin M Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Suria Tarigan
Land-use changes have dramatically transformed tropical landscapes. We describe an ecological-economic land-use change model as an integrated, exploratory tool used to analyze how tropical land-use change affects ecological and socio-economic functions. The model analysis seeks to determine what kind of landscape mosaic can improve the ensemble of ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, and economic benefit based on the synergies and trade-offs that we have to account for. More specifically, (1) how do specific ecosystem functions, such as carbon storage, and economic functions, such as household consumption, relate to each other? (2) How do external factors, such as the output prices of crops, affect these relationships? (3) How do these relationships change when production inefficiency differs between smallholder farmers and learning is incorporated? We initialize the ecological-economic model with artificially generated land-use maps parameterized to our study region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350812/a-unified-framework-of-plant-adaptive-strategies-to-drought-crossing-scales-and-disciplines
#2
Florence Volaire
Plant adaptation to drought has been extensively studied at many scales from ecology to molecular biology across a large range of model species. However, the conceptual frameworks underpinning the definition of plant strategies, and the terminology used across the different disciplines and scales are not analogous. 'Drought resistance' for instance refers to plant responses as different as the maintenance of growth and productivity in crops, to the survival and recovery in perennial woody or grassland species...
January 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349946/validation-study-of-a-korean-version-of-the-abbreviated-university-of-california-los-angeles-ptsd-reaction-index-abb-ucla-ptsd-ri-for-adolescents
#3
Tae Ho Kim, Doug Hyun Han, Seo Koo Yoo, Jung Jae Lee, Ji Eun Kim, Un Sun Chung
BACKGROUND: We aimed to verify a Korean version of the Abbreviated University of California, Los Angeles, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (Abb-UCLA-PTSD RI-Korean version) among Korean adolescents to assess post-traumatic stress in this population. METHODS: We recruited 1,254 adolescents who completed the Abb-UCLA-PTSD RI-Korean version scale, the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348066/multi-scale-measurements-show-limited-soil-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-kenyan-smallholder-coffee-dairy-systems
#4
Daniel Ortiz-Gonzalo, Andreas de Neergaard, Philippe Vaast, Víctor Suárez-Villanueva, Myles Oelofse, Todd S Rosenstock
Efforts have been made in recent years to improve knowledge about soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on soil GHG emissions from smallholder coffee-dairy systems have not hitherto been measured experimentally. This study aimed to quantify soil GHG emissions at different spatial and temporal scales in smallholder coffee-dairy farms in Murang'a County, Central Kenya. GHG measurements were carried out for one year, comprising two cropping seasons, using vented static chambers and gas chromatography...
January 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342190/potential-of-vegetation-indices-combined-with-laser-induced-fluorescence-parameters-for-monitoring-leaf-nitrogen-content-in-paddy-rice
#5
Jian Yang, Lin Du, Wei Gong, Shuo Shi, Jia Sun, Biwu Chen
Nitrogen (N) is important for the growth of crops. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of the growth status of crops and can help determine the dose of N fertilizer. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and the reflectance spectra of crops are widely used to detect the biochemical content of leaves. Many vegetation indices (VIs) and fluorescence parameters have been developed to estimate LNC. However, the comparison among VIs and between fluorescence parameters and VIs has been rarely studied in the estimation of LNC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342101/a-novel-methodology-for-improving-plant-pest-surveillance-in-vineyards-and-crops-using-uav-based-hyperspectral-and-spatial-data
#6
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333696/the-plantain-proteome-a-focus-on-allele-specific-proteins-obtained-from-plantain-fruits
#7
Nádia A Campos, Rony Swennen, Sebastien C Carpentier
Proteomics has been applied with great potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms in plants. This is especially valid in the case of non-model crops of which their genome has not been sequenced yet, or is not well annotated. Plantains are a kind of cooking bananas that are economically very important in Africa, India and Latin America. The aim of this work was to characterize the fruit proteome of common dessert bananas and plantains and to identify proteins that are only encoded by the plantain genome. We present the first plantain fruit proteome...
January 15, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332296/plant-cell-cultures-as-model-systems-to-study-programmed-cell-death
#8
Sara Cimini, Maria Beatrice Ronci, Elisabetta Barizza, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Vittoria Locato, Fiorella Lo Schiavo, Laura De Gara
The study of programmed cell death (PCD) activated in a certain group of cells is complex when analyzed in the whole plant. Plant cell suspension cultures are useful when investigating PCD triggered by environmental and developmental stimuli. Due to their homogeneity and the possibility to synchronize their responses induced by external stimuli, these cultures are used for studying the signaling pathways leading to PCD. The first problem in the analysis of PCD in cell cultures is the quantification of cell viability/death over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#9
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332168/efficient-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-in-carrot-cells
#10
Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka, Tomasz Oleszkiewicz, Levi G Lowder, Yiping Qi, Rafal Baranski
The first report presenting successful and efficient carrot genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) is a powerful genome editing tool that has been widely adopted in model organisms recently, but has not been used in carrot-a model species for in vitro culture studies and an important health-promoting crop grown worldwide. In this study, for the first time, we report application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for efficient targeted mutagenesis of the carrot genome...
January 13, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#11
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329405/solanaceous-exocyst-subunits-are-involved-in-immunity-to-diverse-plant-pathogens
#12
Yu Du, Elysa J R Overdijk, Jeroen A Berg, Francine Govers, Klaas Bouwmeester
The exocyst, a multiprotein complex consisting of eight subunits, plays an essential role in many biological processes by mediating secretion of post-Golgi-derived vesicles towards the plasma membrane. In recent years, roles for plant exocyst subunits in pathogen defence have been uncovered, largely based on studies in the model plant Arabidopsis. Only a few studies have been undertaken to assign the role of exocyst subunits in plant defence in other plants species, including crops. In this study, predicted protein sequences from exocyst subunits were retrieved by mining databases from the Solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and potato...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329353/estimating-the-responses-of-winter-wheat-yields-to-moisture-variations-in-the-past-35-years-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#13
Xiangying Xu, Ping Gao, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo, Jinfeng Ding, Chunyan Li
Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324707/evaluation-of-controlled-release-urea-on-the-dynamics-of-nitrate-ammonium-and-its-nitrogen-release-in-black-soils-of-northeast-china
#14
Xin Tong, Xueqin He, Hongwei Duan, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
Controlled release urea (CRU) is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH₄⁺) and nitrate (NO₃-) in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU) and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU), compared with conventional urea, on NO₃- and NH₄⁺ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N) release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO₃- and NH₄⁺...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323243/expression-of-cry2ah1-and-two-domain-ii-mutants-in-transgenic-tobacco-confers-high-resistance-to-susceptible-and-cry1ac-resistant-cotton-bollworm
#15
Shengyan Li, Zeyu Wang, Yiyao Zhou, Changhui Li, Guiping Wang, Hai Wang, Jie Zhang, Gemei Liang, Zhihong Lang
To improve the novel Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal gene cry2Ah1 toxicity, two mutants cry2Ah1-vp (V354VP) and cry2Ah1-sp (V354SP) were performed. SWISS-MODEL analysis showed two mutants had a longer loop located between β-4 and β-5 of domain II, resulting in higher binding affinity with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Helicoverpa armigera comparing with Cry2Ah1. The cry2Ah1, cry2Ah1-vp, and cry2Ah1-sp were optimized codon usage according to plant codon bias, and named mcry2Ah1, mcry2Ah1-vp, and mcry2Ah1-sp...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322303/salt-tolerance-of-two-perennial-grass-brachypodium-sylvaticum-accessions
#16
Nir Sade, Maria Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Xiaojuan Ke, Yariv Brotman, Matthew Wright, Imran Khan, Wagner De Souza, Elias Bassil, Christian M Tobias, Roger Thilmony, John P Vogel, Eduardo Blumwald
We studied the salt stress tolerance of two accessions isolated from different areas of the world (Norway and Tunisia) and characterized the mechanism(s) regulating salt stress in Brachypodium sylvaticum Osl1 and Ain1. Perennial grasses are widely grown in different parts of the world as an important feedstock for renewable energy. Their perennial nature that reduces management practices and use of energy and agrochemicals give these biomass crops advantages when dealing with modern agriculture challenges such as soil erosion, increase in salinized marginal lands and the runoff of nutrients...
January 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319784/the-effect-of-isabelin-a-sesquiterpene-lactone-from-ambrosiaartemisiifolia-on-soil-microorganisms-and-human-pathogens
#17
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315591/suppression-of-a-single-bahd-gene-in-setaria-viridis-causes-large-stable-decreases-in-cell-wall-feruloylation-and-increases-biomass-digestibility
#18
Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Jackie Freeman, Till K Pellny, Louise V Michaelson, Bruno L Sampaio, Felipe Vinecky, Ana P Ribeiro, Barbara A D B da Cunha, Adilson K Kobayashi, Patricia A de Oliveira, Raquel B Campanha, Thályta F Pacheco, Danielly C I Martarello, Rogério Marchiosi, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho, Wanderley D Dos Santos, Robson Tramontina, Fabio M Squina, Danilo C Centeno, Marília Gaspar, Marcia R Braga, Marco A S Tiné, John Ralph, Rowan A C Mitchell, Hugo B C Molinari
Feruloylation of arabinoxylan (AX) in grass cell walls is a key determinant of recalcitrance to enzyme attack, making it a target for improvement of grass crops, and of interest in grass evolution. Definitive evidence on the genes responsible is lacking so we studied a candidate gene that we identified within the BAHD acyl-CoA transferase family. We used RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of orthologs in the model grasses Setaria viridis (SvBAHD01) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdBAHD01) and determined effects on AX feruloylation...
January 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314053/developmental-responses-of-bread-wheat-to-changes-in-ambient-temperature-following-deletion-of-a-locus-that-includes-flowering-locus-t1
#19
Laura E Dixon, Alba Farré, E Jean Finnegan, Simon Orford, Simon Griffiths, Scott A Boden
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a central integrator of environmental signals that regulates the timing of vegetative to reproductive transition in flowering plants. In model plants, these environmental signals have been shown to include photoperiod, vernalization and ambient temperature pathways, whilst in crop species the integration of the ambient temperature pathway remains less well understood. In hexaploid wheat, at least 5 FT-like genes have been identified, each with a copy on the A, B and D genomes. Here we report the characterization of FT-B1 through analysis of FT-B1 null and over-expression genotypes under different ambient temperature conditions...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313544/dietary-supplementation-of-defatted-kenaf-hibiscus-cannabinus-l-seed-meal-and-its-phenolics-saponins-rich-extract-effectively-attenuates-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-in-rats
#20
Kim Wei Chan, Maznah Ismail, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der Jiun Ooi, Nicholas M H Khong
Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model...
January 9, 2018: Food & Function
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