Read by QxMD icon Read

Crop model*

Zohaib Khan, Vahid Rahimi-Eichi, Stephan Haefele, Trevor Garnett, Stanley J Miklavcic
Background: Unmanned aerial vehicles offer the opportunity for precision agriculture to efficiently monitor agricultural land. A vegetation index (VI) derived from an aerially observed multispectral image (MSI) can quantify crop health, moisture and nutrient content. However, due to the high cost of multispectral sensors, alternate, low-cost solutions have lately received great interest. We present a novel method for model-based estimation of a VI using RGB color images. The non-linear spatio-spectral relationship between the RGB image of vegetation and the index computed by its corresponding MSI is learned through deep neural networks...
2018: Plant Methods
David Wood, Jillian M Lenné
A novel explanation of the origin of cereal agriculture is proposed, based on the ecology and adaptive morphology of wild cereals ancestral to our founder cereals (einkorn, emmer and barley). Wild cereals are unusually large-seeded. A natural evolutionary-ecological syndrome relates l arge seed, a wns and m onodominance (LAM). Awns bury attached seeds in the soil, protecting seed from fire; buried seed needs to be large to emerge on germination; large seeds, growing without competition from small-seeded plants, will produce monodominant vegetation...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A J Christensen, Venkatraman Srinivasan, John C Hart, Amy Marshall-Colon
Sustainable crop production is a contributing factor to current and future food security. Innovative technologies are needed to design strategies that will achieve higher crop yields on less land and with fewer resources. Computational modeling coupled with advanced scientific visualization enables researchers to explore and interact with complex agriculture, nutrition, and climate data to predict how crops will respond to untested environments. These virtual observations and predictions can direct the development of crop ideotypes designed to meet future yield and nutritional demands...
March 17, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Ulrike Bechtold, John N Ferguson, Philip M Mullineaux
The emergence of Arabidopsis as a model species and the availability of genetic and genomic resources have resulted in the identification and detailed characterisation of abiotic stress signalling pathways. However, this has led only to limited success in engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crops. This is because there needs to be a deeper understanding in how to combine resistances to a range of stresses with growth and productivity. The natural variation and genomic resources of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is a great asset to understand the mechanisms of multiple stress tolerances...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Helen E Hermes, Donato Teutonico, Thomas G Preuss, Sebastian Schneckener
The environmental fates of pharmaceuticals and the effects of crop protection products on non-target species are subjects that are undergoing intense review. Since measuring the concentrations and effects of xenobiotics on all affected species under all conceivable scenarios is not feasible, standard laboratory animals such as rabbits are tested, and the observed adverse effects are translated to focal species for environmental risk assessments. In that respect, mathematical modelling is becoming increasingly important for evaluating the consequences of pesticides in untested scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Stefan Siebert, Hubert Hüging, Frank Ewert
Changing crop phenology is considered an important bio-indicator of climate change, with the recent warming trend causing an advancement in crop phenology. Little is known about the contributions of changes in sowing dates and cultivars to long-term trends in crop phenology, particularly for winter crops such as winter wheat. Here, we analyze a long-term (1952-2013) dataset of phenological observations across western Germany and observations from a two-year field experiment to directly compare the phenologies of winter wheat cultivars released between 1950 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gary D Crouse, David A Demeter, Geno Samaritoni, Casandra L McLeod, Thomas C Sparks
New insect pest control agents are needed to meet the demands to feed an expanding global population, to address the desire for more environmentally-friendly insecticide tools, and to fill the loss of control options in some crop-pest complexes due to development of insecticide resistance. The spinosyns are a highly effective class of naturally occurring, fermentation derived insecticides, possessing a very favorable environmental profile. Chemically, the spinosyns are composed of a large complex macrolide tetracycle coupled to two sugars...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Washington Gapare, Shiming Liu, Warren Conaty, Qian-Hao Zhu, Vanessa Gillespie, Danny Llewellyn, Warwick Stiller, Iain Wilson
Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there has not been a study to evaluate GS prediction models that may be used for predicting cotton breeding lines across multiple environments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Bayes Ridge Regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces regression models. We then extended the single-site GS model to accommodate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) in order to assess the merits of multi- over single-environment models in a practical breeding and selection context in cotton, a crop for which this has not previously been evaluated...
March 20, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
C De La Fuente Canto, D I Kalogiros, M Ptashnyk, T S George, R Waugh, A G Bengough, J Russell, L X Dupuy
Discoveries on the genetics of resource acquisition efficiency are limited by the ability to measure plant roots in sufficient number and adequate genotypic variability. This paper presents a root phenotyping study that explores ways to combine live imaging and computer algorithms for model-based extraction of root growth parameters. The study is based on a subset of barley Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) and a combinatorial approach was designed for fast identification of the regions of the genome that contribute the most to variations in root system architecture (RSA)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Roberto Pizzolotto, Antonio Mazzei, Teresa Bonacci, Stefano Scalercio, Nino Iannotta, Pietro Brandmayr
The impact of agricultural practices and soil management on the communities of arthropods living in the agricultural landscape is acknowledged as a critical issue by the literature, and it needs to be better investigated to improve the ecological sustainability of agriculture. In the present study, we aimed to study how soil management affect carabid species distribution in one of the most typical agroecosystem of the Mediterranean region, i.e. the olive grove. In South Italy olive plantations feature different types of soil management, from tillage to half- or full-cover cropping...
2018: PloS One
Zewdu Hora, Solomon Zewdu Altaye, Abebe Jenberie Wubie, Jianke Li
The honeybee is one of the most valuable insect pollinators, which plays a key role in pollinating wild vegetation and agricultural crops, with significant contribution to world food production. Although honeybees have long been studied as model for social evolution, the molecular level of honeybee biology remained poorly understood until the year 2006. With the available honeybee genome sequence, technological advancements in protein separation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, wide ranges of honeybee biology such as developmental biology, physiology, behavior, neurobiology, and immunology are explored to a new depth at molecular and biochemical levels...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Amjad M Husaini, Kyoko Morimoto, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Steven Kelly, Farnusch Kaschani, Daniel Palmero, Jianbing Jiang, Markus Kaiser, Oussama Ahrazem, Hermen S Overkleeft, Renier A L van der Hoorn
With nearly 140 α-glycosidases in 14 different families, plants are well equipped with enzymes that can break the α-glucosidic bonds in a large diversity of molecules. Here, we introduce activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of α-glycosidases in plants using α-configured cyclophellitol aziridine probes carrying various fluorophores or biotin. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these probes label members of the GH31 family of Glycosyl Hydrolases, including ER-resident α-glucosidase-II RSW3/PSL5 (Radial Swelling-3/Priority for Sweet Life-5) and Golgi-resident α-mannosidase-II HGL1, both of which trim N-glycans on glycoproteins...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
José Luis Araus, Shawn C Kefauver, Mainassara Zaman-Allah, Mike S Olsen, Jill E Cairns
Inability to efficiently implement high-throughput field phenotyping is increasingly perceived as a key component that limits genetic gain in breeding programs. Field phenotyping must be integrated into a wider context than just choosing the correct selection traits, deployment tools, evaluation platforms, or basic data-management methods. Phenotyping means more than conducting such activities in a resource-efficient manner; it also requires appropriate trial management and spatial variability handling, definition of key constraining conditions prevalent in the target population of environments, and the development of more comprehensive data management, including crop modeling...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Yuchun Ma, Graeme Schwenke, Liying Sun, De Li Liu, Bin Wang, Bo Yang
Limited information exists on potential impacts of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions by including N2 -fixing legumes in crop rotations from rain-fed cropping systems. Data from two 3-yr crop rotations in northern NSW, Australia, viz. chickpea-wheat-barley (CpWB) and canola-wheat-barley (CaWB), were used to gain an insight on the role of legumes in mitigation of N2 O emissions. High-frequency N2 O fluxes measured with an automated system of static chambers were utilized to test the applicability of Denitrification and Decomposition model...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Axel de Zélicourt, Lukas Synek, Maged M Saad, Hanin Alzubaidy, Rewaa Jalal, Yakun Xie, Cristina Andrés-Barrao, Eleonora Rolli, Florence Guerard, Kiruthiga G Mariappan, Ihsanullah Daur, Jean Colcombet, Moussa Benhamed, Thomas Depaepe, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Heribert Hirt
Several plant species require microbial associations for survival under different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we show that Enterobacter sp. SA187, a desert plant endophytic bacterium, enhances yield of the crop plant alfalfa under field conditions as well as growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro, revealing a high potential of SA187 as a biological solution for improving crop production. Studying the SA187 interaction with Arabidopsis, we uncovered a number of mechanisms related to the beneficial association of SA187 with plants...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Francois Tardieu, Thierry Simonneau, Bertrand Muller
Drought tolerance involves mechanisms operating at different spatial and temporal scales, from rapid stomatal closure to maintenance of crop yield. We review how short-term mechanisms are controlled for stabilizing shoot water potential and how long-term processes have been constrained by evolution or breeding to fit into acclimation strategies for specific drought scenarios. These short- or long-term feedback processes participate in trade-offs between carbon accumulation and the risk of deleterious soil water depletion...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Sylvain Dépigny, Frédéric Tchotang, Médard Talla, Désirée Fofack, David Essomé, Jean-Pierre Ebongué, Bernard Kengni, Thierry Lescot
The 'Plantain-Optim' dataset (came from the 'Plantain-Optim' experiment conducted from 2009 to 2011 at CARBAP experimental station in Cameroon. The main objective was to describe agronomic potential of nine plantain varieties, including five natural plantains commonly cropped in Cameroon, and four plantain-like hybrids. A completely randomized bloc permitted to compare growth, development and yield of 45 plants per variety split between five replicates. Cropping practices guarantied non-limiting and homogenous conditions...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Yong Jiang, Renate H Schmidt, Jochen C Reif
Genome-wide prediction approaches represent versatile tools for the analysis and prediction of complex traits. Mostly they rely on marker-based information, but scenarios have been reported in which models capitalizing on closely-linked markers that were combined into haplotypes outperformed marker-based models. Detailed comparisons were undertaken to reveal under which circumstances haplotype-based genome-wide prediction models are superior to marker-based models. Specifically, it was of interest to analyze whether and how haplotype-based models may take local epistatic effects between markers into account...
March 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"