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Bronchoalveolar lavage

Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ryan L Sheppard, Joshua M Swift, Aaron Hall, Richard T Mahon
Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear. Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jean Yoo, Yeon-Mi Lim, Haewon Kim, Eun-Ji Kim, Doo-Hee Lee, Byeongwoo Lee, Pilje Kim, Seung Do Yu, Hyun-Mi Kim, Byung-Il Yoon, Ilseob Shim
Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) and propylene glycol (PG) are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Danila de Souza Carraro, Rafael Medeiros Carraro, Silvia Vidal Campos, Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira Braga, Lea Campos de Oliveira, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Flavia Rossi, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization in cystic fibrosis patients undergoing lung transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed clinical data and respiratory tract samples (sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage) collected from suppurative lung disease patients between January 2008 and November 2013. We also subtyped different Burkholderia cepacia complex genotypes via DNA sequencing using primers against the recA gene in samples collected between January 2012 and November 2013...
March 12, 2018: Clinics
Hong-Yi Li, Jing-Xia Meng, Zhen Liu, Xiao-Wen Liu, Yu-Guang Huang, Jing Zhao
Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent widely used in clinical practice, is the preferred anesthetic for asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5 h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected...
March 12, 2018: Inflammation
Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Minoru Satoh, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shin Tanaka, Atsuko Hara, Shota Nakashima, Hirokazu Yura, Takuto Miyamura, Hanako Koyama, Towako Morita, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prognostic indicator of poor outcome in myositis. Although the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD is not well understood, neutrophils are thought to play a pivotal role. Neutrophils store azurophil granules that contain defensins, which are antimicrobial peptides that regulate the inflammatory response. Here, we evaluated levels of the human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) α-defensin 1 through 3 in patients with myositis-associated ILD to determine whether HNPs represent disease markers and play a role in the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Bingji Jin, Hong Jin
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have been reported to be associated with the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). Oxymatrine (OMT) alone or combined with other drugs can ameliorate paraquat- or oleic acid-induced lung injury. However, the effect of OMT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether OMT can attenuate LPS-induced ALI through regulation of the ENaC and MAPK pathway using an ALI mouse model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance. METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers...
March 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Samuel C Cerps, Mandy Menzel, Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Leif Bjermer, Hamid Akbarshahi, Lena Uller
Defective production of antiviral interferon (IFN)-β is thought to contribute to rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. These exacerbations are associated with elevated lung levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating occurrence of cell necrosis. We thus hypothesized that reduced lung IFN-β could contribute to necrotic cell death in a model of asthma exacerbations. Wild-type and IFN-β-/- mice were given saline or house dust mite (HDM) intranasally for 3 weeks to induce inflammation. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was then given for additional 3 days to induce exacerbation...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tadahiro Miyake, Duo Wang, Hidetada Matsuoka, Kentaro Morita, Hiroshi Yasuda, Kazuhiro Yatera, Tamotsu Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Yoshida
Particulate matter (PM) with a median diameter <2.5 μm, is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We previously reported the biological effects of PM in vivo, and although neutrophils play an important role in initiating inflammation, few reports have focused on the relationship between PM inhalation and immune responses. Here, we investigated the effect of PM particle size on neutrophils, including their endocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 1 μm particles are readily endocytosed by neutrophils and that endocytosis is reduced at 4 °C...
March 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yu-Li Liu, Li-de Zhang, Tie-Ming Ma, Si-Tong Song, Hai-Tao Liu, Xu Wang, Ning Li, Chang Yang, Song Yu
Acupuncture was proven beneficial in treating allergic inflammation. We aimed to explore the regulation underlying the effects of acupuncture on Feishu, an acupoint most commonly used in the acupuncture therapy for respiratory diseases, with respect to the system of sympathetic nerve neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouping. No treatment was taken in the normal group. Allergic asthma was induced using ovalbumin on the model, Feishu acupuncture, and sham acupuncture groups; then control or acupuncture treatment lasting for 3 weeks was performed...
March 8, 2018: Inflammation
Luka Brcic, Stefanie Stanzer, Dagmar Krenbek, Ulrike Gruber-Moesenbacher, Gudrun Absenger, Franz Quehenberger, Arschang Valipour, Joerg Lindenmann, Herbert Stoeger, Mohamed Al Effah, Melanie Fediuk, Marija Balic, Helmut H Popper
Squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung develop different mechanisms during carcinogenesis to evade attacks of the immune system. Besides the well-known check-point control programmed death 1 and its ligand, many more mechanisms, acting either tumoricidal or in favor of tumor progression, exist. Analysis of the immune cell profiles in resected tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage samples and correlation between them and with overall survival data was performed. In all tumor samples in this study, cells of the immune system expressed a tumor-cooperating phenotype...
March 8, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Xingjian Liu, Nikhil Khadtare, Hardek Patel, Ralph Stephani, Jerome Cantor
INTRODUCTION: A number of studies indicate that endothelin-1 (ET-1) may act as an inflammatory cell "gatekeeper," by regulating the influx of neutrophils following pulmonary injury. To further examine the role of ET-1 in modulating lung inflammation, hamsters were treated with an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), HJP272, either 1 h prior to intratracheal instillation of amiodarone (AM) or 24 h afterwards. METHODS: In both cases, the extent of lung injury and repair was determined by (1) histopathological changes; (2) neutrophil content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); (3) lung collagen content; (4) tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression by BALF macrophages; (5) BALF levels of (a) transforming growth factor beta-1, (b) stromal cell-derived factor 1 (commonly referred to as CXCL12), and (c) platelet-derived growth factor BB; (6) alveolar septal cell apoptosis...
March 7, 2018: Lung
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Mingxing Yang, Maxie Kohler, Tina Heyder, Helena Forsslund, Hilde K Garberg, Reza Karimi, Johan Grunewald, Frode S Berven, Sven Nyrén, C Magnus Sköld, Åsa M Wheelock
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Women with COPD who smoke experienced a higher risk of hospitalization and worse decline of lung function. Yet the mechanisms of these gender-related differences in clinical presentations in COPD remain unknown. The aim of our study is to identify proteins and molecular pathways associated with COPD pathogenesis, with emphasis on elucidating molecular gender difference. METHOD: We employed shotgun isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteome analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from smokers with normal lung function (n = 25) and early stage COPD patients (n = 18)...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
Mingxing Yang, Maxie Kohler, Tina Heyder, Helena Forsslund, Hilde K Garberg, Reza Karimi, Johan Grunewald, Frode S Berven, C Magnus Sköld, Åsa M Wheelock
BACKGROUND: Smoking represents a significant risk factor for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: To identify dysregulation of specific proteins and pathways in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells associated with smoking, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun proteomics analyses were performed on BAL cells from healthy never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
Xudong Wang, Chao Zhang, Chao Chen, Yi Guo, Xiaoyan Meng, Chen Kan
Allicin is an oxygenated carotenoid derivative that exhibits strong antioxidant activity, which effectively removes reactive oxygen species from the body and has important roles in disease prevention and treatment. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether allicin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced acute lung injury (ALI) in neonatal rats and the potential underlying mechanisms. An LPS‑induced ALI neonatal rat model was utilized to assess the therapeutic value and mechanisms of allicin...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jian-Qiang Huang, Xiao-Yang Chen, Fang Huang, Ji-Min Fan, Xiao-Wei Shi, Yan-Kai Ju
Connexion 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, is expressed abundantly in the airway and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the effects of blocking Cx43 in asthma remain unclear. We investigated the therapeutic effects of two specific Cx43 inhibitors (Gap26 and Gap27) on the development of allergic airway disease in mice. Allergic asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). Different doses of Cx43 inhibitors were administered by aerosol inhalation 1 h after OVA challenge on days 21 and 23...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Myeong-Joo Kim, Ye-Ji Lee, Young-So Yoon, Jae H Lim, Eun-Mi Park, Young H Chong, Jihee Lee Kang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) transcription factor mediates PPARγ-regulated gene expression in macrophages. However, it remains largely unknown how proximal membrane signaling events initiated by apoptotic cell recognition upregulate PPARγ expression and activate the lung homeostatic program. METHODS: The STAT6 inhibitor AS1517499 was used to determine the role of STAT6 in mediating PPARγ activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-fibrotic effects induced by apoptotic cell instillation after bleomycin treatment into C57BL/6 mice...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hongli Chen, Xiaotong Sun, Xiaomei Yang, Yonghao Hou, Xiaoqian Yu, Yang Wang, Jianbo Wu, Dejie Liu, Huanliang Wang, Jingui Yu, Wenbo Yi
Mechanical ventilation (MV) may lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Previous research has shown that dexmedetomidine attenuates pulmonary inflammation caused by MV, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aims to test whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against VILI and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms using the rat model. Thirty adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 6): control, low tidal volume MV (LMV), high tidal volume (HVT) MV (HMV), HVT MV + dexmedetomidine (DEX), HVT MV + dexmedetomidine + yohimbine (DEX+Y)...
February 20, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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