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Urinary sodium potassium ratio AND hypertension

Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Martha L Daviglus, Alan R Dyer, Linda Van Horn, Daniel B Garside, Katsuyuki Miura, Yangfeng Wu, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Liancheng Zhao, Paul Elliott
Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
Danika Krupp, Jonas Esche, Gert Bernardus Maria Mensink, Stefanie Klenow, Michael Thamm, Thomas Remer
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18-79 years) of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
Daniel Carranza-Leon, Rany Octaria, Michelle J Ormseth, Annette Oeser, Joseph F Solus, Yahua Zhang, Chimalum R Okafor, Jens Titze, C Michael Stein, Cecilia P Chung
Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In other populations, high sodium (Na+) and low potassium (K+) intake are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and in animal models, a high salt intake exacerbated arthritis. Patients with RA have many comorbidities associated with salt sensitivity, but their salt intake and its relationship to blood pressure and inflammation is unknown. Using the Kawasaki formula, Na+ and K+ urinary excretion (reflecting intake) was estimated in 166 patients with RA and 92 controls, frequency matched for age, sex, and race...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Chang-Yeon Kim, Mi-Kyung Ye, Young Soo Lee
Background: The salt-taste threshold can influence the salt appetite, and is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Many studies have mentioned the relationship between the sodium intake and blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the salt-taste threshold and urinary sodium excretion in normotensive and hypertensive groups. Methods: We analyzed 199 patients (mean age 52 years, male 47.3%) who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM)...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
Sandra L Jackson, Mary E Cogswell, Lixia Zhao, Ana L Terry, Chia-Yih Wang, Jacqueline Wright, Sallyann M Coleman King, Barbara Bowman, Te-Ching Chen, Robert Merritt, Catherine M Loria
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of sodium and lower levels of potassium intake are associated with higher blood pressure. However, the shape and magnitude of these associations can vary by study participant characteristics or intake assessment method. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium are unaffected by recall errors and represent all sources of intake, and were collected for the first time in a nationally representative US survey. Our objective was to assess the associations of blood pressure and hypertension with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium among US adults...
January 16, 2018: Circulation
Jun Ho Lee, Hyo Serk Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between dietary nutrients and female urinary incontinence using nationally representative data from Korea. METHODS: We included 8090 women aged >20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. We carried out a propensity-matched study by identifying women with urinary incontinence. Women without urinary incontinence, matched for age, body mass index, menopause, delivery history, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and amount of total food intake, were included as a control group at a 2:1 ratio (661 women with urinary incontinence; 1322 women without urinary incontinence)...
November 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Noushin Mohammadifard, Arsalan Khaledifar, Alireza Khosravi, Fatemeh Nouri, Ali Pourmoghadas, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
AIM: The association of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake with blood pressure (BP) is an ongoing debate, especially in central Iran. We aimed to examine the mean Na and K intake, major sources of Na and the relationship between BP and dietary and urinary Na and K. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in central Iran in 2013-2014. A total of 796 non-hypertensive adults aged >18 years were randomly recruited. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary Na and K intake...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Netsanet Fekadu, Hirut Basha, Asfaw Meresa, Sileshi Degu, Biruktawit Girma, Bekesho Geleta
Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as hypertension and diabetes in Ethiopia. This study aims to assess the diuretic activity of the aqueous crude extract and hot tea infusion of M. stenopetala leaves in saline-loaded rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 5). The control group received distilled water (5 mL/kg), whereas the reference group received Furosemide (10 mg/kg). Groups III-X orally received different doses of aqueous crude extract (62...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
Ross L Prentice, Ying Huang, Marian L Neuhouser, JoAnn E Manson, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Fridtjof Thomas, Lesley F Tinker, Matthew Allison, Karen C Johnson, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Arjun Seth, Jacques E Rossouw, James Shikany, Laura D Carbone, Lisa W Martin, Marcia L Stefanick, Bernhard Haring, Linda Van Horn
Studies of the associations of sodium and potassium intakes with cardiovascular disease incidence often rely on self-reported dietary data. In the present study, self-reported intakes from postmenopausal women at 40 participating US clinical centers are calibrated using 24-hour urinary excretion measures in cohorts from the Women's Health Initiative, with follow-up from 1993 to 2010. The incidence of hypertension was positively related to (calibrated) sodium intake and to the ratio of sodium to potassium. The sodium-to-potassium ratio was associated with cardiovascular disease incidence during an average follow-up period of 12 years...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kohei Ueda, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Daigoro Hirohama, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Wakako Kawarazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Tatsuo Shimosawa, Johannes Loffing, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Takeshi Marumo, Toshiro Fujita
Genome-wide analysis of renal sodium-transporting system has identified specific variations of Mendelian hypertensive disorders, including HSD11B2 gene variants in apparent mineralocorticoid excess. However, these genetic variations in extrarenal tissue can be involved in developing hypertension, as demonstrated in former studies using global and brain-specific Hsd11b2 knockout rodents. To re-examine the importance of renal dysfunction on developing hypertension, we generated kidney-specific Hsd11b2 knockout mice...
July 2017: Hypertension
Yasuharu Tabara, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Kazuya Setoh, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Shinji Kosugi, Takeo Nakayama, Fumihiko Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K) represents a simple measure of sodium load and has been reported to be associated with blood pressure (BP) levels in a cross-sectional setting even with spot measurements. The aim of the present large-scale cohort study is to determine prognostic significance of spot urine Na/K for longitudinal changes in BP levels and renal function. METHODS: The present study population consisted of 7,063 individuals from the general population...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
Jianwei Xu, Xiaorong Chen, Zeng Ge, Hao Liang, Liuxia Yan, Xiaolei Guo, Yongqing Zhang, Linhong Wang, Jixiang Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High sodium intake and low intake of potassium can increase blood pressure (BP) and risk of developing hypertension. Few studies have examined the association between 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and BP or risk of hypertension in China, and most used only a single 24-h urinary sample. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2281 participants aged 18-69 years by using two 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretions from the supplemental baseline survey of the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Nicolas Glatz, Aline Chappuis, David Conen, Paul Erne, Antoinette Péchère-Bertschi, Idris Guessous, Valentina Forni, Luca Gabutti, Franco Muggli, Augusto Gallino, Daniel Hayoz, Isabelle Binet, Paolo Suter, Fred Paccaud, Murielle Bochud, Michel Burnier
BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and in the development of hypertension. In this analysis, we explored the associations of 24-hour urinary Na+, K+ and urea excretion with blood pressure levels and the risk of hypertension in the Swiss population, taking regional linguistic differences into account. METHODS: The Swiss Survey on Salt is a population based cross-sectional study that included 1336 subjects from the three main linguistic regions (French, German and Italian) of Switzerland...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Rene Baudrand, Francisco J Guarda, Carlos Fardella, Gregory Hundemer, Jenifer Brown, Gordon Williams, Anand Vaidya
Primary aldosteronism is a severe form of autonomous aldosteronism. Milder forms of autonomous and renin-independent aldosteronism may be common, even in normotension. We characterized aldosterone secretion in 210 normotensives who had suppressed plasma renin activity (<1.0 ng/mL per hour), completed an oral sodium suppression test, received an infusion of angiotensin II, and had measurements of blood pressure and renal plasma flow. Continuous associations between urinary aldosterone excretion rate, renin, and potassium handling were investigated...
May 2017: Hypertension
Yeong Mi Park, Chang Keun Kwock, Kyunga Kim, Jihye Kim, Yoon Jung Yang
Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
Toshiyuki Iwahori, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Sayuki Torii, Yoshino Saito, Keiko Kondo, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Hisatomi Arima, Katsuyuki Miura
High sodium-to-potassium ratios are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to determine whether urinary sodium-to-potassium ratios fluctuate diurnally during the day to understand measured values of casual urinary sodium-to-potassium ratios. A total of 13,277 casual urine specimens were collected under free-living conditions from 122 Japanese normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Participants collected all casual urine samples in aliquot tubes, reported urine volumes and the time at each voiding for 10-22 days...
July 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Nicole Li, Lijing L Yan, Wenyi Niu, Chen Yao, Xiangxian Feng, Jianxin Zhang, Jingpu Shi, Yuhong Zhang, Ruijuan Zhang, Zhixin Hao, Hongling Chu, Jing Zhang, Xian Li, Jianhong Pan, Zhifang Li, Jixin Sun, Bo Zhou, Yi Zhao, Yan Yu, Michael Engelgau, Darwin Labarthe, Jixiang Ma, Stephen MacMahon, Paul Elliott, Yangfeng Wu, Bruce Neal
BACKGROUND: Average sodium intake and stroke mortality in northern China are both among the highest in the world. An effective, low-cost strategy to reduce sodium intake in this population is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of a community-based sodium reduction program on salt consumption in rural northern China. DESIGN: This study was a cluster-randomized trial done over 18 months in 120 townships (one village from each township) from five provinces...
2016: PloS One
Chao Chu, Yumeng Cao, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Salt reduction are crucial in the management of hypertension. Over the past few decades, Series of national activities and studies focusing on salt reduction and salt intake education were promoted by the Chinese government. However, the current status of dietary sodium and potassium intake of Chinese population is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the status of dietary salt and potassium intake in the Chinese population through summarizing the previous studies from 1998 to 2011 and then propose appropriate initiatives...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lu Yin, Xinhua Zhang, Xingyu Wang, Yang Wang, Jian Bo, Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with ratio for urinary sodium versus potassium in a large prospective urban and rural epidemiological study in China (PURE-China). DESIGN AND METHOD: As the important part of global multi-center PURE study, a prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 46,285 participants in urban and rural area of 12 provinces in China between 2005 and 2009. A single fasting morning urine specimen was collected to test sodium and potassium excretion, and the Kawasaki formula was used to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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