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Nathan A Bowden, Johan P M Sanders, Marieke E Bruins
The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
Syed Ibaad Ali, Rimsha Akhter, Ariba Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Yu-Na Im, Yu-Dong Lee, Jeong-Soo Park, Hae-Kyoung Kim, Suhn-Young Im, Hwa-Ryung Song, Hern-Ku Lee, Myung-Kwan Han
Many itch mediators activate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), and trigger itch via activation of GPCR-mediated signaling pathways. GPCRs are desensitized by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The aim of this study is to explore the role of GRKs in itch response and the linkage between GRKs and glutamine (Gln), an amino acid previously demonstrated as an itching reliever. Itch responses were evoked by histamine, chloroquine (CQ), and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD). Phosphorylation and protein expression were detected by immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Soo-Yeon Jeong, Yoo Na Im, Ji Young Youm, Hern-Ku Lee, Suhn-Young Im
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the small intestine and colon. Many investigators have reported that l-glutamine (Gln) therapy improves outcomes of experimental colitis models, although the mechanism is not fully understood. Regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of Gln, we have shown that Gln can effectively deactivate cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) by rapid induction of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. In this study, we explore the possibility that Gln ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via MKP-1 induction, resulting in inhibition of cPLA₂, which has been reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Minlu Han, Mengyu Xie, Jun Han, Daoyi Yuan, Tian Yang, Ying Xie
A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum. Under the optimum conditions, except for DL-proline, L-glutamine, and D-lysine, the enantioseparation of the other 19 enantiomeric pairs of proteinogenic amino acids and nonchiral glycine was achieved with a CROWNPAK CR-I(+) chiral column within 13 min. The lower limits of quantitation for L-amino acids (including glycine) and D-amino acids were 5-56.25 μM and 0...
March 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shunwei Wang, Meng Sun, Na Wang, Kang Yang, Haitao Guo, Jingran Wang, Yuting Zhang, Shunli Yue, Jiabo Zhou
The quality of boar spermatozoa is affected by oxidative stress during preservation in vitro. It has been demonstrated that L-Glutamine (Gln) can effectively protect cells from oxidative stress-induced injury. There are, however, no reports to date evaluating the effects of Gln on boar semen liquid preservation at 17 °C. The aims of the present study were to elucidate whether the addition of Gln to the extender BTS could improve the quality of boar spermatozoa when stored at 17 °C and to determine the mechanism underlying Gln protection of spermatozoa against preservation-induced damage...
February 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Shubha Tiwari, Rohini M Nair, Praseeda Vamadevan, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar, Geeta K Vemuganti
PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction leading to dry eye syndrome (DES) is an important cause of ocular morbidity. One of the potential and promising long-term management therapies for restoration of LG function could be transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded stem cells. The present study was aimed at exploring the 2D and 3D cultures of human LG, identifying inherent stem cells and evaluating their secretory potential. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland (HuLG) (n = 5) from patients undergoing therapeutic exenteration was harvested after ethical approval and informed consent...
February 17, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Wan-Na Sun, Jing-Wei Su, Zih-Ping Shen, Hsin-Tien Hsu
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy may induce peripheral neuropathy, which often results in the chemotherapy dose being reduced or the chemotherapy regimen being stopped. At present, there are no treatment guidelines for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Glutamine is one of the treatment strategies currently applied in practice. This strategy is expensive and lacks clear evidence as to its efficacy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of oral glutamine on CIPN in cancer patients...
February 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Lei Gao, Zunjian Zhang, Yuan Tian
A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was established for the separation and determination of acetyl-glutamine enantiomers (acetyl-L-glutamine and acetyl-D-glutamine) simultaneously. Baseline separation was achieved on Chiralpak AD-H column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). n-Hexane (containing 0.1% acetic acid) and ethanol (75:25, v/v) were used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The detection was operated in the negative ion mode with an ESI source...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Ran-Ran Zhang, Yun-Wen Zheng, Bin Li, Yun-Zhong Nie, Yasuharu Ueno, Tomonori Tsuchida, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Mature human hepatocytes are critical in preclinical research and therapy for liver disease, but are difficult to manipulate and expand in vitro. Hepatic stem cells (HpSCs) may be an alternative source of functional hepatocytes for cell therapy and disease modeling. Since these cells play an import role in regenerative medicine, the precise characterization that determines specific markers used to isolate these cells as well as whether they contribute to liver regeneration still remain to be shown...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Shan Liu, Yang Yang, Yan Qiu Song, Jie Geng, Qing Liang Chen
To explore the protective effect of N(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine (NLAG) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and observe the influence of NLAG on the Janus activated kinase signal transducer 2 and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway‑associated molecules. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, IRI and NLAG. In the IRI rat model, the cardiac hemodynamics, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and the left ventricular end‑diastolic pressure (LVDP) were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
B Keimer, S Kröger, I Röhe, R Pieper, A Simon, J Zentek
Two feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed (HY) or non-hydrolyzed (NHY) yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) in isoenergetic and isonitrogeneous diets in the post-weaning period. In Exp. 1, a total of 550 unsexed pigs (6.5 ± 0.5 kg BW), weaned at 24 ± 2 d of age, were allocated to 5 treatment groups, receiving either a control diet (CON) or diets with 1, 3 and 5 % HY (groups HY1, HY3, HY5, respectively), or a diet with 3% NHY (group NHY3). In Exp. 2, a total of 48 male and female pigs (6...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
Kyung-Hee Kim, Jungnam Joo, Boram Park, Sang-Jae Park, Woo Jin Lee, Sung-Sik Han, Tae Hyun Kim, Eun Kyung Hong, Sang Myung Woo, Byong Chul Yoo
We searched for metabolic biomarkers that may predict the prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). To this end, a total of 237 serum samples were obtained from IHCC patients (n = 87) and healthy controls (n = 150), and serum metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two stratified algorithms were used to select the metabolites, the levels of which predicted the prognosis of IHCC patients. We performed MS/MS and multiple-reaction-monitoring MS analyses to identify and quantify the selected metabolites...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Hien Anh Nguyen, Ying Su, Jenny Yu Zhang, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Michael Caffrey, Amanda M Schalk, Li Liu, Damiano Rondelli, Annie Oh, Dolores L Mahmud, Maarten C Bosland, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Sofie Peirs, Tim Lammens, Veerle Mondelaers, Barbara De Moerloose, Steven Goossens, Michael J Schlicht, Kasim K Kabirov, Alexander V Lyubimov, Bradley J Merrill, Yogen Saunthararajah, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Arnon Lavie
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of pediatric cancer, although about 4 of every 10 cases occur in adults. The enzyme drug L-asparaginase serves as a cornerstone of ALL therapy and exploits the asparagine-dependency of ALL cells. In addition to hydrolyzing the amino acid L-asparagine, all FDA-approved L-asparaginases also have significant L-glutaminase coactivity. Since several reports suggest that L-glutamine depletion correlates with many of the side effects of these drugs, enzyme variants with reduced L-glutaminase coactivity might be clinically beneficial if their anti-leukemic activity would be preserved...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Research
S Santibáñez, A Portillo, A M Palomar, J A Oteo
Rickettsia amblyommatis, formerly named Rickettsia amblyommii and 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is an intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group Rickettsia. It is highly prevalent in Amblyomma americanum and in other Amblyomma spp. throughout the Western Hemisphere. R. amblyommatis has been cultivated in chicken fibroblast, primary embryonated chicken eggs, Vero cells and arthropod-derived cells. Because of the affinity of rickettsiae to invade vascular endothelial cells, we tried to isolate R...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Anna Block, Shawn A Christensen, Charles T Hunter, Hans T Alborn
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be elicited by many forms of stress, including pathogen attack, abiotic stress, damage and insect infestation. Perception of microbe- or damage-associated elicitors triggers an ROS burst in many plant species; however, the impact of herbivore fatty-acid amides on ROS elicitation remains largely unexplored. In this study we show that the lepidopteran-derived fatty-acid amide elicitor N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (GLN18:3) can induce a ROS burst in multiple plant species. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis this ROS burst is partially dependent on the plasma membrane localized NADPH oxidases RBOHD and RBOHF, and an Arabidopsis rbohD/F double mutant produces enhanced GLN18:3-induced jasmonic acid...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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