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L-Glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398002/alpha-ketoglutarate-curbs-differentiation-and-induces-cell-death-in-mesenchymal-stromal-precursors-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Karmveer Singh, Linda Krug, Abhijit Basu, Patrick Meyer, Nicolai Treiber, Seppe Vander Beken, Meinhard Wlaschek, Stefan Kochanek, Wilhelm Bloch, Hartmut Geiger, Pallab Maity, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to diverse aging-related degenerative disorders. But so far little is known about the impact of distinct ROS on metabolism and fate of stromal precursor cells. We here demonstrate that an increase in superoxide anion radicals due to superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) deficiency in stromal precursor cells suppress osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation through fundamental changes in the global metabolite landscape...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393748/gut-microbiota-of-mice-putatively-modifies-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-host-brain
#2
Takahiro Kawase, Mao Nagasawa, Hiromi Ikeda, Shinobu Yasuo, Yasuhiro Koga, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently, it has been found that the gut microbiota influences functions of the host brain by affecting monoamine metabolism. The present study focused on the relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain amino acids. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice were used as experimental models. Plasma and brain regions were sampled from mice at 7 and 16 weeks of age, and analysed for free d- and l-amino acids, which are believed to affect many physiological functions. At 7 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-glutamine (l-Gln) and taurine were higher in SPF mice than in GF mice, but no differences were found at 16 weeks of age...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386552/l-glutamine-supplementation-alleviates-constipation-during-late-gestation-of-mini-sows-by-modifying-the-microbiota-composition-in-feces
#3
Yuanyuan Zhang, Taofeng Lu, Lingxia Han, Lili Zhao, Yinjie Niu, Hongyan Chen
Constipation occurs frequently in both sows and humans, particularly, during late gestation. The microbial community of the porcine gut, the enteric microbiota, plays a critical role in functions that sustain intestinal health. Hence, microbial regulation during pregnancy may be important to prevent host constipation. The present study was conducted to determine whether L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation improved intestinal function and alleviated constipation by regulation of enteric microbiota. 16S rRNA sequences obtained from fecal samples from 9 constipated sows (3 in the constipation group and 6 in the 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365292/evolving-transpeptidase-and-hydrolytic-variants-of-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-from-bacillus-licheniformis-by-targeted-mutations-of-conserved-residue-arg109-and-their-biotechnological-relevance
#4
Shruti Bindal, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh, Rani Gupta
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) catalyzes the transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety from donor compounds such as l-glutamine (Gln) and glutathione (GSH) to an acceptor. During the biosynthesis of various γ-glutamyl-containing compounds using GGT enzyme, auto-transpeptidation reaction leads to the formation of unwanted byproducts. Therefore, in order to alter the auto-transpeptidase activity of the GGT enzyme, the binding affinity of Gln should be modified. Structural studies of the Bacillus licheniformis GGT (BlGT) complexed with the glutamic acid has shown that glutamic acid has strong ionic interactions through its α-carboxlic group with the guanidine moiety of Arg109...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358347/the-enzymology-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-2-hydroxyglutaramate-and-2-hydroxysuccinamate-and-their-relationship-to-oncometabolites
#5
Vivek A Hariharan, Travis T Denton, Sarah Paraszcszak, Kyle McEvoy, Thomas M Jeitner, Boris F Krasnikov, Arthur J L Cooper
Many enzymes make "mistakes". Consequently, repair enzymes have evolved to correct these mistakes. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) slowly catalyze the reduction of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to the oncometabolite l-2-hydroxyglutarate (l-2-HG). l-2-HG dehydrogenase corrects this error by converting l-2-HG to 2-OG. LDH also catalyzes the reduction of the oxo group of 2-oxoglutaramate (2-OGM; transamination product of l-glutamine). We show here that human glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the amidation of the terminal carboxyl of both the l- and d- isomers of 2-HG...
March 30, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352998/an-external-substrate-free-blue-white-screening-system-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Zhoujie Xie, Zhao Zhang, Zhenju Cao, Meng Chen, Pengwei Li, Weifeng Liu, Hua Qin, Xuejin Zhao, Yong Tao, Yihua Chen
Since the lacZα-based blue/white screening system was introduced to molecular biology, several different visual reporter systems were developed and used for various purposes in Escherichia coli. A common limit to the existent visual reporter systems is that an extracellular chromogenic substrate has to be added for the visible pigment production. In this study, we developed a new blue/white screening system based on a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase encoded by idgS from Streptomyces and a phosphopantetheinyl transferase encoded by sfp from Bacillus...
March 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350110/glutamate%C3%A2-mediated-effects-of-caffeine-and-interferon%C3%A2-%C3%AE-on-mercury-induced-toxicity
#7
Ayse Basak Engin, Evren Doruk Engin, Kirill Golokhvast, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
The molecular mechanisms mediating mercury‑induced neurotoxicity are not yet completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of MeHg‑ and HgCl2‑mediated cytotoxicity to SH‑SY5Y human dopaminergic neurons can be attenuated by regulating glutamate‑mediated signal‑transmission through caffeine and interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ). The SH‑SY5Y cells were exposed to 1, 2 and 5 µM of either MeHgCl2 or HgCl2 in the presence or absence of L‑glutamine. To examine the effect of adenosine receptor antagonist, the cells were treated with 10 and 20 µM caffeine...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345452/l-glutamine-supplementation-promotes-an-improved-energetic-balance-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#8
Heber Amilcar Martins, Roberto Barbosa Bazotte, Geraldo Emilio Vicentini, Mariana Machado Lima, Flavia Alessandra Guarnier, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Flavia Cristina Vieira Frez, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Luciane Fracaro, Larissa Dos Santos Fávaro, Mariana Inocêncio Manzano, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
We evaluated the effects of supplementation with oral l-glutamine in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. A total of 32 male Wistar rats aged 54 days were randomly divided into four groups: rats without Walker-256 tumor, that is, control rats (C group); control rats supplemented with l-glutamine (CG group); Walker-256 tumor rats without l-glutamine supplementation (WT group); and WT rats supplemented with l-glutamine (WTG group). l-Glutamine was incorporated into standard food at a proportion of 2 g/100 g (2%). After 10 days of the experimental period, the jejunum and duodenum were removed and processed...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335103/correlation-between-gastric-emptying-and-gastric-adaptive-relaxation-influenced-by-amino-acids
#9
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Chizuru Saito
Background/Aims: Amino acids have many physiological activities. We report the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation using tryptophan and amino acids with a straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain, and branched chain. Here we sought to further clarify the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation by using other amino acids. Methods: In Sprague-Dawley rats, gastric emptying was evaluated by a breath test using [1-¹³C] acetic acid...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330181/optimization-of-medium-composition-for-in-vitro-shoot-proliferation-and-growth-of-date-palm-cv-mejhoul
#10
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Jamal El Fadile, Az-Eddine Ezzinbi
The effects of major mineral salts, L-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul were evaluated. Different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/L), potassium nitrate (KNO3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/L), calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCl2·2H2O; 147, 220 or 440 mg/L), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/L), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O; 123, 185 or 370 mg/L), L-glutamine and myo-inositol (0...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330175/exploration-of-the-binding-modes-of-l-asparaginase-complexed-with-its-amino-acid-substrates-by-molecular-docking-dynamics-and-simulation
#11
Erva Rajeswara Reddy, Rajulapati Satish Babu, Potla Durthi Chandrasai, Pola Madhuri
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) deamination plays crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Erwinaze(®) (L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of structural information on Erwinaze(®) enzyme. In this present study, homology model of the Erwinaze(®) was developed using MODELLER and the same was validated by various quality indexing tools...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330072/molecular-dynamic-simulations-of-escherichia-coli-l-asparaginase-to-illuminate-its-role-in-deamination-of-asparagine-and-glutamine-residues
#12
Rajeswara Reddy Erva, Satish Babu Rajulapati, Chandrasai Potla Durthi, Mayuri Bhatia, Madhuri Pola
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is an outrageous disease worldwide. L-Asparagine (L-Asn) and L-Glutamine (L-Gln) deamination play a crucial role in ALL treatment. Role of Elspar(®) (L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli) in regulation of L-Asn and L-Gln has been confirmed by the other researchers through experimental studies. Therapeutic research against ALL remained elusive with the lack of information on molecular interactions of Elspar(®) with amino acid substrates. In the present study, using different docking tools binding cavities, key residues in binding and ligand binding mechanisms were identified...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302378/hypothermic-storage-of-isolated-spermatogonia-and-oogonia-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Ryota Kitada, Goro Yoshizaki
A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h...
March 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#14
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252650/amino-acid-transporters-in-t-cell-activation-and-differentiation
#15
REVIEW
W Ren, G Liu, J Yin, B Tan, G Wu, F W Bazer, Y Peng, Y Yin
T-cell-mediated immune responses aim to protect mammals against cancers and infections, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Cellular uptake and the utilization of nutrients is closely related to the T-cell fate decision and function. Research in this area has yielded surprising findings in the importance of amino-acid transporters for T-cell development, homeostasis, activation, differentiation and memory. In this review, we present current information on amino-acid transporters, such as LAT1 (l-leucine transporter), ASCT2 (l-glutamine transporter) and GAT-1 (γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1), which are critically important for mediating peripheral naive T-cell homeostasis, activation and differentiation, especially for Th1 and Th17 cells, and even memory T cells...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251112/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-ethanolic-extracts-of-piper-nigrum-against-colorectal-carcinoma-cell-lines
#16
Akila Prashant, Chandini Rangaswamy, Anshu Kumar Yadav, Varun Reddy, M N Sowmya, Subbarao Madhunapantula
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum (PN) is well known for its cytotoxic and pharmacological benefits. However, there is minimal documented evidence about its cytotoxic efficacy against colorectal carcinoma. We therefore sought to procure a precisely quantitative and qualitative result, pertaining the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of PN (EEPN) against colorectal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EEPN was prepared by subjecting dried PN seeds to gradient ethanol fractionation...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245352/the-association-of-a-probiotic-with-a-prebiotic-flortec-bracco-to-improve-the-quality-quantity-of-spermatozoa-in-infertile-patients-with-idiopathic-oligoasthenoteratospermia-a-pilot-study
#17
C Maretti, G Cavallini
The hypothesis that the assumption of a probiotic associated with a prebiotic (Flortec, Bracco; one sachet contains: Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 5 × 10(9) cells + arabinogalctan 1243 mg + oligo-fructosaccharides 700 mg + l-glutamine 500 mg) could improve the quality and quantity of spermatozoa in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (iAOT) patients to a larger extent than a control substance (starch) was tested. Forty-one patients with no chromosomal aberrations were randomized into two groups: 20 received Flortec, one sachet per day for 6 months, whereas 21 received the control substance...
February 28, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202352/amino-acid-transporter-slc38a3-promotes-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-activating-pdk1
#18
Yanhui Wang, Li Fu, Minqing Cui, Yongbin Wang, Yan Xu, Molin Li, Jun Mi
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is a finely-tuned pathological process coupled to metabolic reprogramming that includes both glutamine and glucose. The solute carrier SLC38A3, a member of amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily, is an l-glutamine transporter. It is not clear whether SLC38A3 involves the metastasis of NSCLC (non small cell lung cancer). METHODS: The scratch test and transwell assay were used to determine the ability of NSCLC to migrate. Cellular amino acids content was determined by mass spectrometry...
February 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191319/discrimination-of-enantiomers-of-dipeptide-derivatives-with-two-chiral-centers-by-tetraaza-macrocyclic-chiral-solvating-agents-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#19
Lixia Fang, Caixia Lv, Guo Wang, Lei Feng, Pericles Stavropoulos, Guangpeng Gao, Lin Ai, Jiaxin Zhang
(1)H NMR spectroscopy is often used to discriminate enantiomers of chiral analytes and determine their enantiomeric excess (ee) by various chiral auxiliaries. In reported research, these studies were mainly focused on chiral discriminantion of chiral analytes with only one chiral center. However, many chiral compounds possessing two or more chiral centers are often found in natural products, chiral drugs, products of asymmetric synthesis and biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their chiral discrimination by effective chiral auxiliaries using (1)H NMR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2016: Organic Chemistry Frontiers: An International Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182739/distinct-effects-of-endosomal-escape-and-inhibition-of-endosomal-trafficking-on-gene-delivery-via-electrotransfection
#20
Lisa D Cervia, Chun-Chi Chang, Liangli Wang, Fan Yuan
A recent theory suggests that endocytosis is involved in uptake and intracellular transport of electrotransfected plasmid DNA (pDNA). The goal of the current study was to understand if approaches used previously to improve endocytosis of gene delivery vectors could be applied to enhancing electrotransfection efficiency (eTE). Results from the study showed that photochemically induced endosomal escape, which could increase poly-L-lysine (PLL)-mediated gene delivery, decreased eTE. The decrease could not be blocked by treatment of cells with endonuclease inhibitors (aurintricarboxylic acid and zinc ion) or antioxidants (L-glutamine and ascorbic acid)...
2017: PloS One
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