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L-Glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772299/biophenols-enzymes-%C3%AE-secretase-cholinesterases-histone-deacetylase-and-tyrosinase-inhibitors-from-olive-olea-europaea-l
#1
Syed Haris Omar, Christopher J Scott, Adam S Hamlin, Hassan K Obied
The focus of this study was on inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathogenesis Alzheimer's disease (AD) including prime amyloid beta (Aβ) producing enzyme (β-secretase: BACE-1) and disease progression enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and tyrosinase along with the catecholamine L-DOPA, by using olive biophenols. Here we report the strongest inhibition of BACE-1 from rutin (IC50 : 3.8 nM) followed by verbascoside (IC50 : 6.3 nM) and olive fruit extract (IC50 : 18 ng), respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749635/microbial-and-metabolic-multi-omic-correlations-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#2
Chiara Bellocchi, Álvaro Fernández-Ochoa, Gaia Montanelli, Barbara Vigone, Alessandro Santaniello, Christian Milani, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Marco Ventura, Antonio Segura-Carrettero, Marta Eugenia Alarcón-Riquelme, Lorenzo Beretta
Intestinal microbiota has been associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, yet the functional consequences of these associations are elusive. We characterized the fecal microbiota (16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing) and the plasma metabolome (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) in 59 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Microbial and metabolic data were cross-correlated to find meaningful associations after extensive data mining analysis and internal validation...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726734/preparation-and-characterization-of-titanium-segmented-polyurethane-composites-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#3
Fernando Javier Aguilar-Perez, Rossana Vargas-Coronado, Jose Manuel Cervantes-Uc, Juan Valerio Cauich-Rodriguez, Raul Rosales-Ibañez, Juan Jose Pavon-Palacio, Yadir Torres-Hernandez, Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Ortiz
Segmented polyurethanes were prepared with polycaprolactone diol as soft segment and 4,4-methylene-bis cyclohexyl diisocyanate and l-glutamine as the rigid segment. These polyurethanes were filled with 1 wt.% to 5 wt.% titanium particles (Ti), physicochemically characterized and their biocompatibility assessed using human dental pulp stem cells and mice osteoblasts. Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained the properties of the semicrystalline polyurethane as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg ) between -35°C and -45°C, melting temperature (Tm ) at 52°C and crystallinity close to 40% as determined by differential scanning calorimetry...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715082/efficacy-of-asparaginase-erwinia-chrysanthemi-with-and-without-temozolomide-against-glioma-cells-and-intracranial-mouse-medulloblastoma
#4
Valentina Sanghez, Mengqing Chen, Shan Li, Tsui-Fen Chou, Michelina Iacovino, Henry J Lin, Joseph L Lasky, Eduard H Panosyan
BACKGROUND: Anti-metabolites are less-myelosuppressive than DNA-damaging anticancer drugs and may be useful against brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the asparagine/glutamine-deaminating agent Erwinaze with/without temozolomide against brain tumor cells and mouse medulloblastomas. RESULTS: Erwinaze treatment of cell lines and neurospheres led to dose-dependent reductions of cells (reversible by L-glutamine), with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 s) of 0...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660661/enhanced-bioreduction-synthesis-of-ethyl-r-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate-by-alkalic-salt-pretreatment
#5
Ganggang Chong, Junhua Di, Cuiluan Ma, Dajing Wang, Chu Wang, Lingling Wang, Pengqi Zhang, Jun Zhu, Yucai He
In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na2 CO3 , 0.032% Na2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659951/l-glutamine-attenuates-apoptosis-in-porcine-enterocytes-by-regulating-glutathione-related-redox-homeostasis
#6
Ning Liu, Xiaoshi Ma, Xuan Luo, Yunchang Zhang, Yu He, Zhaolai Dai, Ying Yang, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
Background: Programmed cell death plays a fundamental role in intestinal development and mucosal homeostasis. Dysregulation of these processes is associated with an impaired intestinal-mucosal barrier, reduced nutrient absorption, and initiation and progression of intestinal diseases. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation, is commonly used to induce oxidative stress in cells. l-Glutamine is known to protect cells from apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621136/complex-regulatory-networks-governing-production-of-the-glycopeptide-a40926
#7
REVIEW
Rosa Alduina, Margherita Sosio, Stefano Donadio
Glycopeptides (GPAs) are an important class of antibiotics, with vancomycin and teicoplanin being used in the last 40 years as drugs of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . A few new GPAs have since reached the market. One of them is dalbavancin, a derivative of A40926 produced by the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, recently classified as N. gerenzanensis . This review summarizes what we currently know on the multilevel regulatory processes governing production of the glycopeptide A40926 and the different approaches used to increase antibiotic yields...
April 5, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611720/staining-for-viability-testing-germination-and-maturation-of-sambucus-nigra-l-pollen-in-vitro
#8
J Kosel, L Vižintin, A Majer, B Bohanec
Freshly released pollen of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) was incubated under various culture conditions until germination was achieved. Optimal conditions for germination were determined and used for maturation of unicellular microspores in vitro. Staining with 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, propidium iodide and iodine potassium iodide was used to assess pollen viability, nuclear phase and maturation, respectively. The germination rate was highest when fresh pollen was agitated at 40 rpm in Petri dishes containing a liquid medium consisting of Brewbaker and Kwack salts, 15% (w/v) sucrose, 500 mg/l MES sodium salt, at pH 5...
April 3, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580800/construction-of-chiral-ligand-exchange-capillary-electrochromatography-for-d-l-amino-acids-enantioseparation-and-its-application-in-glutaminase-kinetics-study
#9
Liping Zhao, Juan Qiao, Ke Zhang, Dan Li, Hongyi Zhang, Li Qi
A chiral ligand exchange capillary electrochromatography (CLE-CEC) protocol was designed and implemented for d,l-amino acids enantioseparation with poly(maleic anhydride-styrene-methacryloyl-l-arginine methyl ester) as the coating. The block copolymer was synthesized through the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer reaction. In the constructed CLE-CEC system, poly (methacryloyl-l-arginine methyl ester) moiety of the block copolymer played the role as the immobilized chiral ligand and Zn (II) was used as the central ion...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578334/cytidine-diphosphoramidate-kinase-an-enzyme-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-the-o-methyl-phosphoramidate-modification-in-the-capsular-polysaccharides-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#10
Zane W Taylor, Frank M Raushel
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis, produces a capsular polysaccharide that is derivatized with a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification. This modification contributes to serum resistance and invasion of epithelial cells. Previously, the first three biosynthetic steps for the formation of MeOPN have been elucidated. The first step is catalyzed by a novel glutamine kinase (Cj1418), which catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine phosphate is used by CTP:phosphoglutamine cytidylyltransferase (Cj1416) to displace pyrophosphate from CTP to generate CDP-L-glutamine, which is then hydrolyzed by γ-glutamyl-CDP-amidate hydrolase (Cj1417) to form cytidine diphosphoramidate (CDP-NH2)...
March 26, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545650/solubility-of-the-proteinogenic-%C3%AE-amino-acids-in-water-ethanol-and-ethanol-water-mixtures
#11
Nathan A Bowden, Johan P M Sanders, Marieke E Bruins
The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540903/l-glutamine-approved-for-use-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Syed Ibaad Ali, Rimsha Akhter, Ariba Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530536/gpcr-kinase-grk-2-is-a-key-negative-regulator-of-itch-l-glutamine-attenuates-itch-via-a-rapid-induction-of-grk2-in-an-erk-dependent-way
#13
Yu-Na Im, Yu-Dong Lee, Jeong-Soo Park, Hae-Kyoung Kim, Suhn-Young Im, Hwa-Ryung Song, Hern-Ku Lee, Myung-Kwan Han
Many itch mediators activate GPCR and trigger itch via activation of GPCR-mediated signaling pathways. GPCRs are desensitized by GPCR kinases (GRKs). The aim of this study is to explore the role of GRKs in itch response and the link between GRKs and glutamine, an amino acid previously shown to be an itch reliever. Itch responses were evoked by histamine, chloroquine, and dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis (CD). Phosphorylation and protein expression were detected by immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517999/role-of-polyamines-in-immune-cell-functions
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494494/l-glutamine-attenuates-dss-induced-colitis-via-induction-of-mapk-phosphatase-1
#15
Soo-Yeon Jeong, Yoo Na Im, Ji Young Youm, Hern-Ku Lee, Suhn-Young Im
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the small intestine and colon. Many investigators have reported that l-glutamine (Gln) therapy improves outcomes of experimental colitis models, although the mechanism is not fully understood. Regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of Gln, we have shown that Gln can effectively deactivate cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) by rapid induction of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. In this study, we explore the possibility that Gln ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via MKP-1 induction, resulting in inhibition of cPLA₂, which has been reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492623/development-and-validation-of-a-rapid-selective-and-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-d-and-l-amino-acids-in-human-serum-application-to-the-study-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Minlu Han, Mengyu Xie, Jun Han, Daoyi Yuan, Tian Yang, Ying Xie
A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum. Under the optimum conditions, except for DL-proline, L-glutamine, and D-lysine, the enantioseparation of the other 19 enantiomeric pairs of proteinogenic amino acids and nonchiral glycine was achieved with a CROWNPAK CR-I(+) chiral column within 13 min. The lower limits of quantitation for L-amino acids (including glycine) and D-amino acids were 5-56.25 μM and 0...
April 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475571/effects-of-l-glutamine-on-boar-sperm-quality-during-liquid-storage-at-17%C3%A2-c
#17
Shunwei Wang, Meng Sun, Na Wang, Kang Yang, Haitao Guo, Jingran Wang, Yuting Zhang, Shunli Yue, Jiabo Zhou
The quality of boar spermatozoa is affected by oxidative stress during preservation in vitro. It has been demonstrated that L-Glutamine (Gln) can effectively protect cells from oxidative stress-induced injury. There are, however, no reports to date evaluating the effects of Gln on boar semen liquid preservation at 17 °C. The aims of the present study were to elucidate whether the addition of Gln to the extender BTS could improve the quality of boar spermatozoa when stored at 17 °C and to determine the mechanism underlying Gln protection of spermatozoa against preservation-induced damage...
April 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463319/performance-of-arma-chinensis-reared-on-an-artificial-diet-formulated-using-transcriptomic-methods
#18
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455251/establishing-and-characterizing-lacrispheres-from-human-lacrimal-gland-for-potential-clinical-application
#19
Shubha Tiwari, Rohini M Nair, Praseeda Vamadevan, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar, Geeta K Vemuganti
PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction leading to dry eye syndrome (DES) is an important cause of ocular morbidity. One of the potential and promising long-term management therapies for restoration of LG function could be transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded stem cells. The present study was aimed at exploring the 2D and 3D cultures of human LG, identifying inherent stem cells and evaluating their secretory potential. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland (HuLG) (n = 5) from patients undergoing therapeutic exenteration was harvested after ethical approval and informed consent...
April 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452407/dietary-l-glutamine-supplementation-improves-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-chickens-during-necrotic-enteritis-challenge
#20
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
April 1, 2018: Poultry Science
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