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L-Glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624247/production-of-l-alanyl-l-glutamine-by-recycling-e-coli-expressing-%C3%AE-amino-acid-ester-acyltransferase
#1
Yimin Li, Wenjie Yuan, Jiaoqi Gao, Chao Fan, Wenzhong Wu, Fengwu Bai
In this study, the optimum induction and reaction conditions, and fermentation process of producing Ala-Gln by E. coli Origami 2 overexpressing α-amino acid ester acyltransferase (OPA) were investigated. Besides, the Ala-Gln synthesis by OPA achieved the maximum molar yield of 94.7% and productivity of 1.89g/L/min due to the extremely high enzyme activity. On this basis, repeated-cycle batch fermentation to produce Ala-Gln indicated that OPA could maintain high Ala-Gln yields and enzyme stabilities after several cell recycling...
June 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620826/individual-amino-acid-supplementation-can-improve-energy-metabolism-and-decrease-ros-production-in-neuronal-cells-overexpressing-alpha-synuclein
#2
Vedad Delic, Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Sandra Zivkovic, Yumeng Zhang, Tam-Anh Phan, Henry Gong, Dale Chaput, Christian Reynes, Vinh B Dinh, Josean Cruz, Eni Cvitkovic, Devon Placides, Ernide Frederic, Hamed Mirzaei, Stanley M Stevens, Umesh Jinwal, Daniel C Lee, Patrick C Bradshaw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels...
June 15, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#3
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#4
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608307/effects-of-l-glutamine-on-rectal-temperature-and-some-markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-red-sokoto-goats-during-the-hot-dry-season
#5
Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Tagang Aluwong, Ndazo Salka Minka
The experiment investigated the ameliorative effects of L-glutamine administration on rectal temperature (RT), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season. Twenty eight healthy Red Sokoto goats, comprising 14 experimental (administered 0.2 g/kg of L-glutamine dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water, once daily for 21 days) and 14 control (administered equivalent of distilled water) goats served as subjects...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597057/an-l-glutamine-transporter-isoform-for-neurogenesis-facilitated-by-l-theanine
#6
REVIEW
Yukio Yoneda
L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration of the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and relevant downstream proteins...
June 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593472/l-glutamine-in-vitro-modulates-some-immunomodulatory-properties-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Guilherme Galvão Dos Santos, Araceli Aparecida Hastreiter, Talita Sartori, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
Glutamine (GLUT) is a nonessential amino acid that can become conditionally essential under stress conditions, being able to act in the modulation of the immune responses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to their capability in the modulation of immune responses through cell-cell contact and by the secretion of soluble factors. Considering that GLUT is an immunonutrient and little is known about the influence of GLUT on the capability of MSCs to modulate immune cells, this work aims to investigate how variations in GLUT concentrations in vitro could affect some immunomodulatory properties of MSCs...
June 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593130/the-neuronal-and-astrocytic-protein-slc38a10-transports-glutamine-glutamate-and-aspartate-suggesting-a-role-in-neurotransmission
#8
Sofie V Hellsten, Maria G Hägglund, Mikaela M Eriksson, Robert Fredriksson
In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591638/interrupted-glucagon-signaling-reveals-hepatic-%C3%AE-cell-axis-and-role-for-l-glutamine-in-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#9
E Danielle Dean, Mingyu Li, Nripesh Prasad, Scott N Wisniewski, Alison Von Deylen, Jason Spaeth, Lisette Maddison, Anthony Botros, Leslie R Sedgeman, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Olga Ilkayeva, Anastasia Coldren, Greg Poffenberger, Alena Shostak, Michael C Semich, Kristie I Aamodt, Neil Phillips, Hai Yan, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Jackie D Corbin, Kasey C Vickers, Shawn E Levy, Chunhua Dai, Christopher Newgard, Wei Gu, Roland Stein, Wenbiao Chen, Alvin C Powers
Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588793/double-blind-randomized-study-of-oral-glutamine-on-the-management-of-radio-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-and-dermatitis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
David Lopez-Vaquero, Lucia Gutierrez-Bayard, Juan-Andres Rodriguez-Ruiz, Monica Saldaña-Valderas, Pedro Infante-Cossio
This randomized clinical trial was designed to determine whether glutamine administration was effective in reducing the incidence and severity of mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Fifty patients were randomized to receive orally either L-Glutamine or placebo (25 patients in each arm). In the glutamine-treated group, 10 g of oral glutamine was administered three times daily. The primary endpoint was to compare the appearance of clinical mucositis between groups at the 6th week, according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546645/fluorination-at-the-4-position-alters-the-substrate-behavior-of-l-glutamine-and-l-glutamate-implications-for-positron-emission-tomography-of-neoplasias
#11
Thomas M Jeitner, Eva Kristoferson, Juan A Azcona, John T Pinto, Clint Stalnecker, Jon W Erickson, Hank F Kung, Jianyong Li, Karl Ploessl, Arthur J L Cooper
Two 4-fluoro-L-glutamine diastereoisomers [(2S,4R)-4-FGln, (2S,4S)-4-FGln] were previously developed for positron emission tomography. Label uptake into two tumor cell types was greater with [(18)F](2S,4R)-4-FGln than with [(18)F](2S,4S)-4-FGln. In the present work we investigated the enzymology of two diastereoisomers of 4-FGln, two diastereoisomers of 4-fluoroglutamate (4-FGlu) (potential metabolites of the 4-FGln diastereoisomers) and another fluoro-derivative of L-glutamine [(2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine (FP-Gln)]...
December 2016: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533156/identification-and-characterization-of-lbpa-an-indigoidine-biosynthetic-gene-in-the-%C3%AE-butyrolactone-signaling-system-of-streptomyces-lavendulae-fri-5
#12
Ivy Grace Umadhay Pait, Shigeru Kitani, Yohanes Novi Kurniawan, Maeda Asa, Takashi Iwai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 produces the blue pigment indigoidine and other secondary metabolites (d-cycloserine and nucleoside antibiotics). The production of these useful compounds is controlled by a signaling cascade mediated by the γ-butyrolactone autoregulator IM-2. Previously we revealed that the far regulatory island includes the IM-2 receptor, the IM-2 biosynthetic enzyme, and several transcriptional regulators, and that it contributes to the regulation of indigoidine production in response to the signaling molecule...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512059/genome-scale-metabolic-network-of-cordyceps-militaris-useful-for-comparative-analysis-of-entomopathogenic-fungi
#13
Wanwipa Vongsangnak, Nachon Raethong, Warasinee Mujchariyakul, Nam Ninh Nguyen, Hon Wai Leong, Kobkul Laoteng
The first genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris (iWV1170) was constructed representing its whole metabolisms, which consisted of 894 metabolites and 1,267 metabolic reactions across five compartments, including the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, peroxisome and extracellular space. The iWV1170 could be exploited to explain its phenotypes of growth ability, cordycepin and other metabolites production on various substrates. A high number of genes encoding extracellular enzymes for degradation of complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were existed in C...
May 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500980/serum-metabolomics-reveals-the-mechanistic-role-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-for-obesity-management-in-rats
#14
Naglaa M Ammar, Mohamed A Farag, Tahani E Kholeif, Nadia S Metwally, Nora M El-Sheikh, Abdel Nasser El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Obesity is one of the independent risk factors for several health problems, leading to metabolic perturbations and for which analytical approaches i.e., "metabolomics" is needed to monitor the underlying metabolic changes. In this study, obesity associated changes were assessed via serum metabolites analysis of obese rats fed on high fat diet. Obese rats were subsequently treated with different functional foods used for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage in parallel to swimming exercise...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500346/structural-studies-of-the-periplasmic-portion-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-cdgh-from-vibrio-cholerae
#15
Min Xu, Yi-Zhi Wang, Xiu-An Yang, Tao Jiang, Wei Xie
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in bacterial signal transduction and produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) generally containing highly variable periplasmic signal-recognition domains. CdgH is a DGC enzyme that regulates rugosity associated phenotypes in Vibrio cholerae. CdgH has two N-terminal tandem periplasmic substrate-binding (PBPb) domains for its signal recognition; however, the role of the tandem PBPb domains remains unclear. Here, we reported the crystal structure of the periplasmic portion of CdgH, which indicated that both tandem PBPb domains consist of typical interlobe ligand-binding architecture...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490097/influence-of-l-pyroglutamic-acid-on-the-color-formation-process-of-non-enzymatic-browning-reactions
#16
Steffen Wegener, Martin Kaufmann, Lothar W Kroh
Heating aqueous d-glucose model reactions with l-glutamine and l-alanine yielded similar colored solutions. However, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed that both non-enzymatic browning reactions proceeded differently. Due to a fast occurring cyclization of l-glutamine to pyroglutamic acid, the typical amino-carbonyl reaction was slowed down. However, l-glutamine and l-alanine model reactions showed the same browning index. Closer investigations could prove that l-pyroglutamic acid was able to influence non-enzymatic browning reactions...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483912/an-in-vitro-torc1-kinase-assay-that-recapitulates-the-gtr-independent-glutamine-responsive-torc1-activation-mechanism-on-yeast-vacuoles
#17
Mirai Tanigawa, Tatsuya Maeda
Evolutionarily-conserved TOR complex 1 (TORC1) responds to nutrients, especially amino acids, to promote cell growth. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, various nitrogen sources activate TORC1 with different efficiencies although the mechanism remains elusive. Leucine, and perhaps other amino acids, was reported to activate TORC1 via the heterodimeric small GTPases Gtr1-Gtr2, the orthologs of the mammalian Rag GTPases. More recently, an alternative Gtr-independent TORC1 activation mechanism that may respond to glutamine was reported, although its molecular detail is not clear...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#18
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447334/-1-h-nmr-1-h-nmr-t2-edited-and-2d-nmr-in-bipolar-disorder-metabolic-profiling
#19
Sumit Sethi, Mariana Pedrini, Lucas B Rizzo, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Caroline Dal Mas, Ana Cláudia Cassinelli, Mariane N Noto, Elson Asevedo, Quirino Cordeiro, João G M Pontes, Antonio J M Brasil, Acioly Lacerda, Mirian A F Hayashi, Ronei Poppi, Ljubica Tasic, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations in the human blood serum related to bipolar disorder, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. METHODS: Metabolomic profiling, employing (1)H-NMR, (1)H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics of human blood serum samples from patients with bipolar disorder (n = 26) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 50) was performed. RESULTS: The investigated groups presented distinct metabolic profiles, in which the main differential metabolites found in the serum sample of bipolar disorder patients compared with those from controls were lipids, lipid metabolism-related molecules (choline, myo-inositol), and some amino acids (N-acetyl-L-phenyl alanine, N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine)...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398002/alpha-ketoglutarate-curbs-differentiation-and-induces-cell-death-in-mesenchymal-stromal-precursors-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Karmveer Singh, Linda Krug, Abhijit Basu, Patrick Meyer, Nicolai Treiber, Seppe Vander Beken, Meinhard Wlaschek, Stefan Kochanek, Wilhelm Bloch, Hartmut Geiger, Pallab Maity, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to diverse aging-related degenerative disorders. But so far little is known about the impact of distinct ROS on metabolism and fate of stromal precursor cells. Here, we demonstrate that an increase in superoxide anion radicals due to superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) deficiency in stromal precursor cells suppress osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation through fundamental changes in the global metabolite landscape...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells
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