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Smeeta Sadar, Dipti Kaspate, Neeraj Vyawahare
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease. L-Glutamine (LG) is naturally occurring amino acids with antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of LG against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in laboratory rats. DN was induced in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (55 mg/kg). Animals were treated orally with either distilled water (10 mg/kg) or LG (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or Sitagliptin (5 mg/kg)...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Julia Buerger, Nadine Rehm, Laura Grebenstein, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to metabolize different nitrogen and carbon sources. In standard minimal media, ammonium and urea typically serve as nitrogen source and glucose or sucrose as carbon and energy source; however, amino acids might also play a role as nitrogen, carbon and energy source. In this study, the function of the putative glutaminase GlsK was investigated. A glsK deletion strain showed impaired growth with L-glutamine as carbon and energy source, while growth was improved upon glsK overexpression...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Jun Hwa Lee, Byong Chul Yoo, Yun Hwan Kim, Sun-A Ahn, Seung-Gu Yeo, Jae Youl Cho, Kyung-Hee Kim, Seung Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: A low-mass-ion discriminant equation (LOME) was constructed to investigate whether systematic low-mass-ion (LMI) profiling could be applied to ovarian cancer (OVC) screening. RESULTS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was performed to obtain mass spectral data on metabolites detected as LMIs up to a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2500 for 1184 serum samples collected from healthy individuals and patients with OVC, other types of cancer, or several types of benign tumor...
2016: BioData Mining
Yitao Feng, Lu Zhang, Shaowen Wu, Zhijun Liu, Xin Gao, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu, Jianwei Liu, Xuhui Huang, Wenning Wang
The glutamine binding protein (GlnBP) binds l-glutamine and cooperates with its cognate transporters during glutamine uptake. Crystal structure analysis has revealed an open and a closed conformation for apo- and holo-GlnBP, respectively. However, the detailed conformational dynamics have remained unclear. Herein, we combined NMR spectroscopy, MD simulations, and single-molecule FRET techniques to decipher the conformational dynamics of apo-GlnBP. The NMR residual dipolar couplings of apo-GlnBP were in good agreement with a MD-derived structure ensemble consisting of four metastable states...
October 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Sourav RoyChoudhury, Biswa Prasanna Mishra, Tila Khan, Ratna Chattopadhayay, Indrani Lodh, Chaitali Datta Ray, Gunja Bose, Himadri S Sarkar, Sudha Srivastava, Mamata V Joshi, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly occurring metabolic and endocrinological disorders affecting women of reproductive age. Metabolomics is an emerging field that holds promise in understanding disease pathophysiology. Recently, a few metabolomics based studies have been attempted in PCOS patients; however, none of them have included patients from the Indian population. The main objective of this study was to investigate the serum metabolomic profile of Indian women with PCOS and compare them with controls...
September 15, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
C Yavas, G Yavas, E Celik, A Buyukyoruk, C Buyukyoruk, D Yuce, O Ata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Pilar Bosch-Roig, Francesca Decorosi, Luciana Giovannetti, Giancarlo Ranalli, Carlo Viti
Research on biotechnology applications for cultural heritage restoration has shown how microorganisms can be efficient at cleaning particularly complex or ingrained substances through the process called "biocleaning". Bacteria are able to synthesize groups of specific enzymes for the degradation of complex materials present on artwork. Biocleaning has been shown to be less hazardous than some traditional mechanical or chemical techniques for the artwork, to be environmentally-friendly and safe for restorers to use...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Geraldo E Vicentini, Luciane Fracaro, Sara R G de Souza, Heber A Martins, Flávia A Guarnier, Jacqueline N Zanoni
Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting...
2016: PloS One
M Lisa Phipps, Antoinetta M Lillo, Yulin Shou, Emily N Schmidt, Chad D Paavola, Leslie Naranjo, Sara Bemdich, Basil I Swanson, Andrew R M Bradbury, Jennifer S Martinez
Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1) ensure efficient display; 2) maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3) minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The "helper cell" packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination...
2016: PloS One
Kornelia Skarbek, Maria J Milewska
Amino sugars are important constituents of a number of biomacromolecules and products of microbial secondary metabolism, including antibiotics. For most of them, the amino group is located at the positions C1, C2 or C3 of the hexose or pentose ring. In biological systems, amino sugars are formed due to the catalytic activity of specific aminotransferases or amidotransferases by introducing an amino functionality derived from L-glutamate or L-glutamine to the keto forms of sugar phosphates or sugar nucleotides...
August 24, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
I Zulkifli, M Shakeri, A F Soleimani
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) + glutamic acid (Glu) supplementation on growth performance and physiological stress response in broiler chickens subjected to 24 h delay in placement. Equal number of day-old broiler chicks were assigned to either immediate placement or with 24 h delay in placement with no access to feed and water. Chicks from each placement group were fed either standard starter diet (control) or standard starter diet +1% AminoGut (AG; mixture of 10% Gln and 10% Glu) from 1 to 21 d...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Julia Dyachok, Svetlana Earnest, Erica N Iturraran, Melanie H Cobb, Elliott M Ross
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) coordinates a cell's growth with its nutritional, hormonal, energy and stress status. Amino acids are critical regulators of mTORC1 that permit other inputs to mTORC1 activity. Yet the roles of individual amino acids and their interactions in mTORC1 activation are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that activation of mTORC1 by amino acids includes two discrete and separable steps: priming and activation. Sensitizing mTORC1 activation by priming amino acids is a prerequisite for subsequent stimulation of mTORC1 by activating amino acids...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cambyz Irajie, Milad Mohkam, Navid Nezafat, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Mahmood Aminlari, Younes Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase (EC catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid and has been introduced for cancer therapy in recent years. The present study was an in silico analysis of glutaminase to further elucidate its structure and physicochemical properties. METHODS: Forty glutaminase protein sequences from different species of Escherichia and Bacillus obtained from the UniProt Protein Database were characterized for homology search, physiochemical properties, phylogenetic tree construction, motif, superfamily search, and multiple sequence alignment...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hajnalka Harami-Papp, Lőrinc S Pongor, Gyöngyi Munkácsy, Gergő Horváth, Ádám M Nagy, Attila Ambrus, Péter Hauser, András Szabó, László Tretter, Balázs Győrffy
Promising new hallmarks of cancer is alteration of energy metabolism that involves molecular mechanisms shifting cancer cells to aerobe glycolysis. Our goal was to evaluate the correlation between mutation in the commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene TP53 and metabolism. We established a database comprising mutation and RNA-seq expression data of the TCGA repository and performed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to compare expression of each gene between TP53 mutated and wild type samples...
August 25, 2016: Oncotarget
Heber Amilcar Martins, Camila Caviquioli Sehaber, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Fernando Augusto Mariani, Flavia Alessandra Guarnier, Geraldo Emílio Vicentini, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Laraine Almeida Jussani, Mariana Machado Lima, Roberto Barbosa Bazotte, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with L-glutamine. Thirty-two male 50-day-old Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly divided into four groups: control (C), control supplemented with 2 % L-glutamine (GC), Walker-256 tumor (WT), and Walker-256 tumor supplemented with 2 % L-glutamine (TWG). Walker-256 tumor was induced by inoculation viable tumor cells in the right rear flank. After 10 days, celiotomy was performed and duodenal and jejunal tissues were removed and processed...
August 18, 2016: Amino Acids
Jason R Marcero, Robert B Piel Iii, Joseph S Burch, Harry A Dailey
Rapid and accurate heme quantitation in the research lab has become more desirable as the crucial role that intracellular hemoproteins play in metabolism continues to emerge. Here, the time-honored approaches of pyridine hemochromogen and fluorescence heme assays are compared with direct absorbance-based technologies using the CLARiTY spectrophotometer. All samples tested with these methods were rich in hemoglobin-associated heme, including buffered hemoglobin standards, whole blood from mice, and murine erythroleukemia (MEL) and K562 cells...
2016: BioTechniques
Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Tatiana N Stekhanova, Dmitry A Suplatov, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Vladimir O Popov
PLP-Dependent fold-type IV branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) from archaea have so far been poorly characterized. A new BCAT from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermoproteus uzoniensis (TUZN1299) has been studied. TUZN1299 was found to be highly active toward branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), positively charged amino acids, l-methionine, l-threonine, l-homoserine, l-glutamine, as well as toward 2-oxobutyrate and keto analogs of BCAAs, whereas l-glutamate and α-ketoglutarate were not converted in the overall reaction...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jurandir Fernando Comar, Denise Silva de Oliveira, Livia Bracht, Fumie Suzuki Kemmelmeier, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
There are several claims about the beneficial effects of supplementing L-glutamine to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to provide detailed knowledge about the fate of this amino acid in the liver, the first organ that receives the compound when ingested orally. The study was done using the isolated perfused rat liver, an experimental system that preserves the microcirculation of the organ and that allows to measured several parameters during steady-state and pre steady-state conditions...
2016: PloS One
Xinzi Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Hanbing Li, Jianli Jia, Yueqiao Liu, Odafe Ejenavi, Aizhong Ding, Yujiao Sun, Dayi Zhang
Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on the planet, but their functions are yet not well characterized. Though many cultivable degraders for n-alkanes have been intensively investigated, the roles of functional n-alkane degraders remain hidden in the natural environment. This study introduces the novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) technology in Nigerian soils and successfully separates functional microbes belonging to the families Oxalobacteraceae and Moraxellaceae, which were dominant and responsible for alkane metabolism in situ...
July 27, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Cynthia Priscilla do Nascimento Bonato Panizzon, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Camila Caviquioli Sehaber, Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira, David Robert Linden, Marcílio Hubner de Miranda Neto
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Enteric neuropathy associated with Diabetes Mellitus causes dysfunction in the digestive system, such as: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, among others. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2% l-glutamine and 1% l-glutathione on neurons and enteric glial cells of ileum of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats have been used according to these group distributions: Normoglycemic (N), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutamine (NG), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutathione (NGO), Diabetic (D), Diabetic supplemented with l-glutamine (DG) and Diabetic supplemented with l-glutathione (DGO)...
July 2016: Acta Histochemica
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