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Atsushi Imai, Takeshi Imai, Satoshi Iizuka, Koji Kaneoka
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a trunk stabilization exercise warm-up program in reducing the incidence of lower extremity injuries among male junior soccer players. Two junior soccer teams participated in this study. The intervention (INT) team performed three trunk stabilization exercises before practice sessions and games, while a control (CON) team performed their usual warm-up without trunk exercises. Both teams engaged in regular soccer training and games, and were followed for the incidence of injury...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jing Kang, Chao Xue, Adriana Chou, Austin Scholp, Ting Gong, Yi Zhang, Zhen Chen, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of traditional and physiological warm-up exercises and to determine the optimal duration of these methods using acoustic and aerodynamic metrics. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects were recruited to participate in both straw phonation exercises (physiological vocal warm-up) and traditional singing exercises (traditional vocal warm-up) for 20 minutes each, 24 hours apart. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio were measured before the intervention (m0), as well as after 5 minutes (m5), 10 minutes (m10), 15 minutes (m15), and 20 minutes (m20) of intervention...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Chelsey R Schlechter, Justin M Guagliano, Richard R Rosenkranz, George A Milliken, David A Dzewaltowski
BACKGROUND: Youth sport (YS) reaches a large number of children world-wide and contributes substantially to children's daily physical activity (PA), yet less than half of YS time has been shown to be spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity during practice is likely to vary depending on practice structure that changes across YS time, therefore the purpose of this study was 1) to describe the type and frequency of segments of time, defined by contextual characteristics of practice structure, during YS practices and 2) determine the influence of these segments on PA...
February 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
A J Ocaña, S Blázquez, B Ballesteros, A Canosa, M Antiñolo, J Albaladejo, E Jiménez
Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, has been unveiled in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radioastronomy and it is thought to be released into the gas phase after the warm-up phase of the grain surface, where it is formed. Once in the gas phase, it can be destroyed by different reactions with atomic and radical species, such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The knowledge of the rate coefficients of all these processes at temperatures of the ISM is essential in the accurate interpretation of the observed abundances. In this work, we have determined the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with CH3CH2OH (k(T)) between 21 and 107 K by employing the pulsed and continuous CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, which means Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique...
February 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi, Matteo Bonato
The aim of the present randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of an 8-weeks neuromuscular training program focused on core stability, plyometric, and body-weight strengthening exercises on dynamic-postural control and vertical jump performance in elite junior skiers. Twenty-four Italian elite junior male skiers were recruited and randomized to either an experimental group, performing neuromuscular warm-up exercises, (EG; n = 12; age 18 ± 1 years; body mass 66 ± 21 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.1 m) or a control group involved in a standard warm-up (CG; n = 12; age 18 ± 1 years; body mass 62 ± 14 kg; height 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Guan-Jhong Lin, Tien-Jung Chen, Jhao-Ting Wu, Jin-Jei Wu
A stable low-pretilt molecular configuration (SLPMC) is successfully developed in optically compensated bend (OCB) liquid crystal (LC) devices by simultaneously employing the curing voltage and surface-anchored crosslinking monomer during the polymerization process. For the SLPMC OCB cell with the low-bend state, the warm-up voltage making the LC molecules reorient from the splay to the bend state is annihilated, and the transient twist state occurring as the driven LC molecules recover from the bend to the splay state is also eliminated...
February 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Sebastian Klembt, Petr Stepanov, Thorsten Klein, Anna Minguzzi, Maxime Richard
Exciton polaritons constitute a unique realization of a quantum fluid interacting with its environment. Using selenide-based microcavities, we exploit this feature to warm up a polariton condensate in a controlled way and monitor its spatial coherence. We determine directly the amount of heat picked up by the condensate by measuring the phonon-polariton scattering rate and comparing it with the loss rate. We find that, upon increasing the heating rate, the spatial coherence length decreases markedly, while localized phase structures vanish, in good agreement with a stochastic mean-field theory...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yu Wang, Huichao Zhang, Xue Yang, Shuqing Jiang, Alexander F Goncharov
Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells has been employed to study phase boundaries and transformation kinetics of H2O ice at high pressures up to 16 GPa and temperatures down to 15 K. Ice i formed at nearly isobaric cooling of liquid water transforms on compression to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice at 1.1-3 GPa at 15-100 K and then crystallizes in ice vii with the frozen-in disorder (ice vii') which remains stable up to 14.1 GPa at 80 K and 15.9 GPa at 100 K. Unexpectedly, on decompression of ice vii', it transforms to ice viii in its domain of metastability, and then it relaxes into low-density amorphous (LDA) ice on a subsequent pressure release and warming up...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xiaoli Li, Ning Tao, J G Sun, Cunlin Zhang, Yuejin Zhao
Infrared thermal imaging is a promising nondestructive technique for thickness prediction. However, it is usually thought to be only appropriate for testing the thickness of thin objects or near-surface structures. In this study, we present a new two-sided step-heating thermal imaging method which employed a low-cost portable halogen lamp as the heating source and verified it with two stainless steel step wedges with thicknesses ranging from 5 mm to 24 mm. We first derived the one-dimensional step-heating thermography theory with the consideration of warm-up time of the lamp, and then applied the nonlinear regression method to fit the experimental data by the derived function to determine the thickness...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Che Hsiu Chen, Ye Xin, Kuang Wu Lee, Ming Ju Lin, Jiu Jenq Lin
The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effects of different dynamic exercise interventions on hamstring muscle performance. Thirty-six young men with poor hamstring flexibility were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: jogging combined with dynamic open kinetic chain stretching (DS), jogging combined with dynamic closed kinetic chain stretching (lunge with eccentric hamstring windmills, LEC), and jogging only (CON) groups. Hamstring flexibility, muscle stiffness (area under the curve, AUC), joint position sense (JPS), maximal eccentric strength (ECC), and angle of peak torque (APT) were recorded before and immediately after the exercise interventions...
2018: PloS One
Samuel López Mariscal, Víctor Sánchez Garcia, José Carlos Fernández-García, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of introducing passive static and ballistic stretching in a standard soccer match warm-up. The variables addressed were the Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump and the 40 m linear sprint. The sample was composed of 33 male subjects, divided in two age groups. U16 and adult players formed the groups, in order to cross check if there were differences between them. Each group was further subdivided into two groups regarding the type of stretching carried out during the stretching phase...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
N Williams, M Russell, C J Cook, L P Kilduff
The effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on swimming performance was examined. Using a randomized, crossover design, National-and International-level swimmers (n=20; 14 males, 6 females) participated in three trials (Con, IPC-2h, IPC-24h). Lower-body IPC (4 x 5 min bi-lateral blood-flow restriction at 160-228 mmHg, and 5 min reperfusion) was used 2- (IPC-2h) or 24-h (IPC-24h) before a self-selected (100 m, n=15; 200 m, n=5) swimming time-trial (TT). The Con trial used a sham intervention (15 mmHg) 2h prior to exercise...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ryan N Moran, John M Hauth, Robert Rabena
PURPOSE: To examine the acute effects of pre-competition massage on acceleration and sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. METHODS: Seventeen collegiate male (n = 9) and female (N = 8) track and field athletes participated in the study. Athletes were assigned to a counterbalanced, repeated measures designed experiment testing four treatment conditions of a pre-competition massage, dynamic warm-up, combination of a massage and warm-up, and a placebo ultrasound...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
The warm-up is an integral component of a middle- and long-distance athlete's pre-performance routine. The use of a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which elicits a post-activation potentiation (PAP) response to acutely enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into the warm-up of a middle- or long-distance athlete potentially provides a novel strategy to augment performance. Mechanisms that underpin a PAP response, relating to acute adjustments within the neuromuscular system, should theoretically improve middle- and long-distance performance via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Estibaliz Romaratezabala, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Daniel Castillo, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Javier Yanci
The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of two warm-up protocols of different duration on physical performance, perceived load and perception of being ready for a match in handball players. Eighteen handball players were randomly divided into two groups (Wup34min, warm-up protocol of 34 min, Wup17min, warm-up protocol of 17 min). Before and after the warm-up protocols, they performed a battery of physical tests and recorded their perception of feeling ready for a match. At the end of the warm-up protocols, all the players evaluated their differentiated perceived effort (dRPE)...
January 31, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Tatsuhito Himeno, Hideki Kamiya, Jiro Nakamura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a prolonged warm-up period of basic research, several modalities of cell replacement therapies are under development for diseases with no available cure. Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is one of the most prevalent chronic diabetes complications that causes sensorimotor dysfunction, subsequent high risks for lower limb amputations, and high mortality. Currently, no disease modifying therapy exists for DPN. RECENT FINDINGS: Several types of well-documented stem/progenitor cells have been utilized for cell transplantation therapies in DPN model rodents: mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and cells with similar characteristics of MSCs or EPCs derived from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells...
January 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ailsa Niven, Jacqueline Thow, Jack Holroyd, Anthony P Turner, Shaun M Phillips
This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ollie Jay, Nathan B Morris
Cold water or ice slurry ingestion during exercise seems to be an effective and practical means to improve endurance exercise performance in the heat. However, transient reductions in sweating appear to decrease the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin by a magnitude that at least negates the additional internal heat loss as a cold ingested fluid warms up to equilibrate with body temperature; thus explaining equivalent core temperatures during exercise at a fixed heat production irrespective of the ingested fluid temperature...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
A Colclough, A G Munro, L C Herrington, J J McMahon, P Comfort
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a four week jump training program on frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) in young female gymnasts. DESIGN: Intervention study, consisting of a four week jump training program performed for 15 min as part of a warm-up, three days per week for four weeks. SETTING: Gymnastics training center. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen youth female gymnasts (age: 13.5 ± 2.14 years, height: 1.54 ± 0...
November 7, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
Brett S Nickerson, Gerald T Mangine, Tyler D Williams, Ismael A Martinez
The purpose of this study was to determine if back squat cluster sets (CS) with varying inter-repetition rest periods would potentiate greater sprint performance compared to a traditional set parallel back squat in collegiate soccer players. Twelve collegiate male soccer players (21.0 ± 2.0 years; 180.0 ± 9.0 cm; 79.0 ± 9.5 kg) performed a 20-meter sprint prior to (PRE) a potentiation complex and at 1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-minutes post-exercise on three separate, randomized occasions. On each occasion, the potentiation complex consisted of 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% one-repetition maximum (1RM) for the traditional parallel back squat...
January 24, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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