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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785151/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-on-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
Dan L Dumitrascu, Manuela G Neuman
Background and aim: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its sub-entity, the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represent a field of a tremendous progress in recent years. Clinicians need to remain updated with new data on pathogenesis and therapy. The present mini review aims to present some new scientific reports on the diagnosis of NAFLD and NASH for clinical practitioners. Methods: A systematic literature search of the main international databases was performed...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781162/predictors-of-ultrasound-failure-to-detect-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Mariya L Samoylova, Neil Mehta, John P Roberts, Francis Y Yao
Current guidelines recommend ultrasound (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance in cirrhosis. We assess predictors of decreased US sensitivity for detecting HCC. At a single U.S. center, all HCC patients evaluated for liver transplant (LT) receive an abdominal US. In consecutive patients presenting 2007-2015, untreated lesions found on CT/MRI within 3 months of US were compared with US findings. Multivariable logistic regression models compared US sensitivities by patient characteristics. Of 1008 patients completing LT evaluation, 47...
May 21, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779170/histological-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-a-prebiotic-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#3
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774570/high-mobility-group-box-1-drives-fibrosis-progression-signaling-via-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-mice
#4
Xiaodong Ge, Elena Arriazu, Fernando Magdaleno, Daniel J Antoine, Rouchelle Dela Cruz, Neil Theise, Natalia Nieto
BACKGROUND & RATIONALE: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Since HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis via RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. RESULTS: liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774155/is-de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-increased
#5
A Hüsing-Kabar, T Meister, M Köhler, W Domschke, I Kabar, C Wilms, B Hild, H H Schmidt, H S Heinzow
Background: Portal hypertension is a major complication of liver cirrhosis. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is effective in treatment of portal hypertension. However, decreased parenchymal portal venous flow after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion favours ischaemic liver injury which has been discussed to induce hepatocarcinogenesis causing hepatocellular cancer. Aim: This study aimed to explore the association between transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement and the development of hepatocellular cancer...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765319/progression-and-regression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-a-mouse-model-of-nash-induced-by-dietary-intervention-and-its-implications-in-pharmacotherapy
#6
Zhi-Ming Ding, Yue Xiao, Xikun Wu, Haixia Zou, Shurong Yang, Yiyun Shen, Juehua Xu, Heather C Workman, Amy L Usborne, Haiqing Hua
Understanding of the temporal changes of hepatic lesions in the progression and regression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is vital to elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH, and critical to the development of a strategy for NASH pharmacotherapy. There are challenges in studying hepatic lesion progression and regression in NASH patients due to the slow development of NASH in humans, one being the requirement for multiple biopsies during the longitudinal follow-up. Here we studied lesion progression and regression in the diet-induced animal model of NASH by application or removal of the pathogenic diet for multiple time periods...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764908/management-of-endocrine-disease-which-metabolic-procedure-comparing-outcomes-in-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#7
Adrian T Billeter, Javier de la Garza Herrera, Katharina M Scheurlen, Felix Nickel, Franck Billmann, Beat Müller-Stich
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities have a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effect therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757947/membrane-remodeling-as-a-key-player-of-the-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-co-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-and-ethanol-of-obese-zebrafish-larvae
#8
Muhammad Imran, Odile Sergent, Arnaud Tête, Isabelle Gallais, Martine Chevanne, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Normand Podechard
The rise in prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes an important public health concern worldwide. Including obesity, numerous risk factors of NAFLD such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and ethanol have been identified as modifying the physicochemical properties of the plasma membrane in vitro thus causing membrane remodeling-changes in membrane fluidity and lipid-raft characteristics. In this study, the possible involvement of membrane remodeling in the in vivo progression of steatosis to a steatohepatitis-like state upon co-exposure to B[a]P and ethanol was tested in obese zebrafish larvae...
May 14, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750655/metabolic-risk-factors-in-adolescent-girls-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
Cíntia Castro-Correia, Rita Santos-Silva, Marta Pinheiro, Carla Costa, Manuel Fontoura
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) has progressively increased. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has also increased. Thus, some children and adolescents with T1DM exhibit MS parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of MS parameters in female adolescents with T1DM based on their nutritional status. METHODS: We evaluated 44 adolescents with T1DM (consecutive non-randomized sample) aged between 14 and 18 years, who were on intensive therapy with insulin...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735799/therapeutic-effect-of-hgf-on-nash-mice-through-hgf-c-met-and-jak2-stat3-signalling-pathway
#10
Ning Li, Zhangfeng Dou, Jinchun Liu, Bao Chai, Yue Li, Xiuqin An, Peiling Chu, Xiaolan Zhang
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to ameliorate liver inflammation and fibrosis; however, the mechanism underlying its effects in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between the JAK2-STAT3 signalling pathway and the ameliorating effect of HGF on NASH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks, and then plasma and hepatic tissues were collected...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735794/the-presence-and-severity-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-is-associated-with-specific-changes-in-circulating-bile-acids
#11
Aline Gottlieb, Lars Bechmann, Ali Canbay
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease nowadays with currently no approved therapies for the disease. The liver plays a pivotal role in lipid and glucose metabolism. The interactions of molecular mechanisms on the gut for example influences the development still needs to be understood. Bile acids (BA) have been shown to impact metabolic homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we comment on a study analyzing BA profiles in NAFLD patients addressing novel pathways involved in NAFLD progression...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735782/an-overview-of-liver-transplant-pathology-data-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-western-india
#12
Fiona Fonseca, Bijal Kulkarni, Meenal Hastak, Vinay Kumaran, Vibha Varma, Sorabh Kapoor
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: 1. Study of liver explants - Etiologic types of end-stage chronic liver disease (ESCLD) and acute liver failure (ALF) in adults and children. 2. Assessment of donor steatosis and incidental granulomas. 3. Post-transplant liver biopsies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of 180 explant hepatectomies, 173 donor wedge and 30 core liver biopsies, and 58 post transplant liver biopsies received in our department from April 2013 to March 2017. RESULTS: 1...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733743/use-of-an-animal-model-to-test-whether-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-increases-the-risk-of-idiosyncratic-drug-induced-liver-injury
#13
Alastair Mak, Tiffany Cho, Jack Uetrecht
Clinical evidence suggests that most idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is immune-mediated. The danger hypothesis suggests that liver injury and inflammation would increase the risk of an immune response leading to IDILI. Therefore, a reasonable hypothesis would be that an underlying chronic liver disease such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) would increase the risk of developing IDILI due to inflammation and release of danger signals from damaged cells. In order to test this hypothesis, mice were fed a methionine-/choline-deficient (MCD) diet that produces a consistent NASH phenotype, along with amodiaquine (AQ) - a drug known to cause IDILI in humans...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720855/analogy-between-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-hypertension-a-stepwise-patient-tailored-approach-for-nash-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Yaron Ilan
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disorder worldwide. Although there has been improvement in our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of the disease, there is still no approved therapy for NASH. NASH shares many similarities with primary hypertension, in that both are extremely common disorders that can easily lead to serious complications if left untreated. Both conditions are viewed as "silent killers", because the disease can progress over a period of time prior to the occurrence of potentially deadly outcomes...
May 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719629/improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-hepatocyte-like-cells-generated-from-ipscs-with-oct4-sox2-klf4-parp1
#15
Yueh Chien, Chi-Shuan Huang, Hsin-Chi Lin, Kai-Hsi Lu, Ping-Hsing Tsai, Ying-Hsiu Lai, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Shou-Dong Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chien-Ying Wang
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually increased with age. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a serious form of NAFLD, may lead to cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold promising potential in personalized medicine. Although obviation of c-Myc reduces tumorigenic risk, it also largely reduced the generation of iPSCs. Recently, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1) has been reported to enhance cell reprogramming. In this study, we demonstrated that forced expression of Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Parp1 (OSKP) effectively promoted iPSC generation from senescent somatic cells from 18-month-old mouse...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717168/allosteric-modulation-of-the-farnesoid-x-receptor-by-a-small-molecule
#16
Matthias Gabler, Jan Kramer, Jurema Schmidt, Julius Pollinger, Julia Weber, Astrid Kaiser, Frank Löhr, Ewgenij Proschak, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Daniel Merk
The bile acid activated transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates numerous metabolic processes and is a rising target for the treatment of hepatic and metabolic disorders. FXR agonists have revealed efficacy in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes and dyslipidemia. Here we characterize imatinib as first-in-class allosteric FXR modulator and report the development of an optimized descendant that markedly promotes agonist induced FXR activation in a reporter gene assay and FXR target gene expression in HepG2 cells...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717162/growth-differentiation-factor-15-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#17
Kook Hwan Kim, Seong Hun Kim, Dai Hoon Han, Young Suk Jo, Yong-Ho Lee, Myung-Shik Lee
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an endocrine hormone belonging to the TGFβ superfamily member. GDF15 administration or GDF15 overexpression has been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is frequently associated with obesity and insulin resistance, the functional role of endogenous GDF15 and therapeutic effect of GDF15 overexpression in NASH and related metabolic deterioration have not been evaluated...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708448/alcoholic-steatohepatitis-ash-and-alcoholic-hepatitis-ah-cascade-of-events-clinical-aspects-and-pharmacotherapy-options
#18
Rolf Teschke
Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity...
April 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704259/truss-exacerbates-nafld-development-by-promoting-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-degradation
#19
Chang-Jiang Yu, Qiu-Shi Wang, Ming-Ming Wu, Bin-Lin Song, Chen Liang, Jie Lou, Liang-Liang Tang, Xiao-Di Yu, Na Niu, Xu Yang, Bao-Long Zhang, Yao Qu, Yang Liu, Zhi-Chao Dong, Zhi-Ren Zhang
There is no effective treatment method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ubiquitous scaffolding and signaling protein (TRUSS) acts as a positive regulator of NAFLD and in a variety of metabolic disorders. TRUSS expression was respectively increased in the human liver specimens with NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and in the livers of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice...
April 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700216/-in-vivo-imaging-of-hepatic-neutrophil-migration-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-with-111-in-radiolabelled-leucocytes
#20
Jonathan R Potts, Neda Farahi, Mark R Howard, Mark R Taylor, Sarah Heard, Arun N Shankar, Graeme J Alexander, Edwin R Chilvers, Sumita Verma, A Michael Peters
The study aim was to image severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) using 111 In-labelled leucocytes with two objectives in mind: firstly for non-invasive diagnosis and secondly to provide a platform for experimental therapies aiming to inhibit intrahepatic neutrophil migration. 111 In-leucocyte scintigraphy was performed 30 min and 24 h post-injection in 19 patients with SAH, 14 abstinent patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and 11 normal controls. Eleven with SAH and 7 with cirrhosis also had 99m Tc-nanocolloid scintigraphy...
April 26, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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