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Amy Chadburn, Jonathan Said, Dita Gratzinger, John K C Chan, Daphne de Jong, Elaine S Jaffe, Yasodha Natkunam, John R Goodlad
Objectives: The 2015 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology aimed to review immunodeficiency-related lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmablastic and plasma cell differentiation. Methods: The workshop panel reviewed human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)/Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated lesions and other lesions exhibiting plasma cell differentiation, including plasmablastic proliferations with features of myeloma/plasmacytoma, plasmablastic neoplasms presenting in extranodal sites and effusion-based lymphomas, and rendered a consensus diagnosis...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
A Gregory Bruce, Serge Barcy, Terri DiMaio, Emilia Gan, H Jacques Garrigues, Michael Lagunoff, Timothy M Rose
The transcriptome of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) after primary latent infection of human blood (BEC), lymphatic (LEC) and immortalized (TIME) endothelial cells was analyzed using RNAseq, and compared to long-term latency in BCBL-1 lymphoma cells. Naturally expressed transcripts were obtained without artificial induction, and a comprehensive annotation of the KSHV genome was determined. A set of unique coding sequence (UCDS) features and a process to resolve overlapping transcripts were developed to accurately quantitate transcript levels from specific promoters...
March 19, 2017: Pathogens
Xiaoyan Liu, Christine Happel, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the most common malignancies in HIV-infected individuals. The responsible agent, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; HHV8), expresses multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), but the targets and functions of these miRNAs are not completely understood. After infection in primary endothelial cells with KSHV, growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 beta (GADD45B) is one of the most repressed genes using genomic expression profiling. GADD45B was also repressed in mRNA expression profiling experiments when KSHV miRNAs were introduced to uninfected cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Hao-Wei Wang, Stefania Pittaluga, Elaine S Jaffe
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) encompasses a spectrum of conditions that give rise to overlapping clinicopathological manifestations. The fundamental pathogenetic mechanism involves dysregulated cytokine activity that causes systemic inflammatory symptoms as well as lymphadenopathy. The histological changes in lymph nodes resemble in part the findings originally described in the unicentric forms Castleman disease, both hyaline vascular and plasma cell variants. In MCD caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8), the cytokine over activity is caused by viral products, which can also lead to atypical lymphoproliferations and potential progression to lymphoma...
September 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
A Gregory Bruce, Jeremy A Horst, Timothy M Rose
The envelope-associated glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae and plays a critical role in viral entry. We analyzed the evolutionary conservation of sequence and structural motifs within the Kaposi׳s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) gB and homologs of Old World primate rhadinoviruses belonging to the distinct RV1 and RV2 rhadinovirus lineages. In addition to gB homologs of rhadinoviruses infecting the pig-tailed and rhesus macaques, we cloned and sequenced gB homologs of RV1 and RV2 rhadinoviruses infecting chimpanzees...
July 2016: Virology
Dimitris P Stamatiou, Stavros P Derdas, Odysseas L Zoras, Demetrios A Spandidos
Thyroid cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects the endocrine system. Generally, thyroid cancer derives from follicular epithelial cells, and thyroid cancer is divided into well-differentiated papillary (80% of cases) and follicular (15% of cases) carcinoma. Follicular thyroid cancer is further divided into the conventional and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) type, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. Both poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma can arise either de novo, or secondarily from papillary and follicular thyroid cancer...
March 2016: Oncology Letters
Pravinkumar Purushothaman, Prerna Dabral, Namrata Gupta, Roni Sarkar, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is a major etiological agent for multiple severe malignancies in immune-compromised patients. KSHV establishes lifetime persistence in the infected individuals and displays two distinct life cycles, generally a prolonged passive latent, and a short productive or lytic cycle. During latent phase, the viral episome is tethered to the host chromosome and replicates once during every cell division. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a predominant multifunctional nuclear protein expressed during latency, which plays a central role in episome tethering, replication and perpetual segregation of the episomes during cell division...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hem Chandra Jha, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Erle S Robertson
Worldwide, one fifth of cancers in the population are associated with viral infections. Among them, gammaherpesvirus, specifically HHV4 (EBV) and HHV8 (KSHV), are two oncogenic viral agents associated with a large number of human malignancies. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms related to EBV and KSHV infection and their ability to induce cellular transformation. We describe their strategies for manipulating major cellular systems through the utilization of cell cycle, apoptosis, immune modulation, epigenetic modification, and altered signal transduction pathways, including NF-kB, Notch, Wnt, MAPK, TLR, etc...
2016: Pathogens
Thomas F Schulz, Ethel Cesarman
Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV8) causes three human malignancies, Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), an endothelial tumor, as well as Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and the plasma cell variant of Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD), two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. All three cancers occur primarily in the context of immune deficiency and/or HIV infection, but their pathogenesis differs. KS most likely results from the combined effects of an endotheliotropic virus with angiogenic properties and inflammatory stimuli and thus represents an interesting example of a cancer that arises in an inflammatory context...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Virology
Tao Ma, Harsh Patel, Savalan Babapoor-Farrokhran, Renty Franklin, Gregg L Semenza, Akrit Sodhi, Silvia Montaner
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm caused by infection of endothelial or endothelial precursor cells with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8). Research efforts have focused on defining the molecular events explaining how KSHV promotes pathological angiogenesis and KS tumor formation. mTOR/HIF-1 is a fundamental pathway driving these processes through the upregulation of angiogenic and inflammatory proteins, including VEGF, ANGPTL4, and ANGPT2. Interestingly, HIF-1 has also been implicated in the upregulation of metabolic genes associated with aerobic glycolysis and the growth of solid tumors...
October 2015: Angiogenesis
A Antar, H El Hajj, M Jabbour, I Khalifeh, F El-Merhi, R Mahfouz, A Bazarbachi
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare aggressive subset of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. It is caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV/HHV8). It occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in HIV-positive patients. PEL predominantly develops in serous cavities and occasionally in extracavitary regions. PEL carries a very poor prognosis with a median survival time of <6 months. Indeed, currently used treatment modalities such as CHOP chemotherapy are far from achieving complete and sustainable remission...
2014: Blood Cancer Journal
Patrick S Moore, Yuan Chang
Controversy has plagued tumor virology since the first tumor viruses were described over 100 years ago. Methods to establish cancer causation, such as Koch's postulates, work poorly or not at all for these viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) were both found using nucleic acid identification methods but they represent opposite poles in the patterns for tumor virus epidemiology. KSHV is uncommon and has specific risk factors that contribute to infection and subsequent cancers...
June 2014: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Alina Badescu, Anne Couvelard, Adriana Handra-Luca
Gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is classical, but rare. The AKT signaling pathway plays a central role in G protein-coupled receptor, key protein of KS histogenesis, encoded by KSHV/HHV8. There is increasing evidence that rapamycin, acting on AKT pathway, may be useful in the treatment of KS, including in HIV patients. We aimed to study the expression pattern of AKT pathway proteins in gastrointestinal KS. Expression of AKT, 4EBP1, PTEN, mTOR was assessed in 19 gastrointestinal KS biopsies by immunohistochemistry (17 patients)...
June 2014: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Milon Amin, Liron Pantanowitz
INTRODUCTION: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm with distinct clinical-epidemiological subtypes and varied clinical presentations. While the association of KS with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8, KSHV) infection is well known, additional factors are needed for tumorigenesis. The precise sequence of events involved in KS development, progression and regression continues to be investigated. The discovery of KSHV biomarkers is helpful for diagnostic purposes, for understanding KS pathogenesis and for identifying potential druggable targets...
November 2013: Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics
Ana Maria Catrina Ene, Ioana Borze, Mohamed Guled, Mariana Costache, Gayle Leen, Maria Sajin, Elena Ionica, Aura Chitu, Sakari Knuutila
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a mesenchymal tumor, caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) with molecular and cytogenetic changes poorly understood. To gain further insight on the underlying molecular changes in KS, we performed microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis of 17 Kaposi's sarcoma specimens. Three normal skin specimens were used as controls. The most significant differentially expressed miRNA were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We detected in KS versus normal skin 185 differentially expressed miRNAs, 76 were upregulated and 109 were downregulated...
January 2014: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Fabíola Fernandes, Catarina Eloy, Awa Carimo, Paula Pinto, Susannah Graves, Joana Simões, Carla Carrilho, José Manuel Lopes
PATIENT: Female, 18 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Simultanous presentation of Kaposi Sarcoma and Lymphoma Symptoms: - MEDICATION: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. OBJECTIVE: Rare disease. BACKGROUND: KSHV/HHV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as with a few categories of lymphoproliferative diseases, mostly occurring in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Although the association between lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma has been described, the simultaneous presence of the 2 entities within the same organ is rare and mainly associated with HIV/ AIDS...
2013: American Journal of Case Reports
Jingnan Xiao, Suzanne M Selvaggi, Catherine P Leith, Sean A Fitzgerald, Jimmie Stewart
BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma that arises in body cavities without detectable tumor masses. PEL is universally associated with Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8). Despite overlapping features, KSHV/HHV8-negative effusion-based lymphoma is a distinct entity from PEL. To date, 52 cases have been reported. The authors report 3 additional cases received in their laboratory from 2007 to 2012. METHODS: Clinical data, cytomorphologic features, and immunophenotypic features of the 3 cases were described and compared with those reported in the literature...
November 2013: Cancer Cytopathology
Ameer Rasheed, Viswanath Vasudevan, Farhad Arjomand
SESSION TYPE: Cancer Case Report Posters IIPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: PEL is a rare form of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma that involves serous body cavities with lymphomatous effusions in absence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Extracavity involvement is a rarity and only two cases have been described since its recognition in 1995. We report PEL presenting with hemolytic anemia, hepatomegaly and abdominal lymphadenoapthy and bowel wall thickening.CASE PRESENTATION: A 53 yr old male with HIV on ART presented with sudden onset of generalized weakness...
October 1, 2012: Chest
Amy Chadburn
The World Health Organization recognizes four categories of immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (ID-LPDs): (1) lymphoproliferative diseases associated with primary immune disorders, (2) lymphomas associated with HIV infection, (3) post-transplant LPDs, and (4) other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated LPDs. Although these lesions are heterogeneous, due to their various underlying causes, they share several features, including frequent involvement of extranodal sites, diffuse aggressive histology, B-cell lineage, associated herpesvirus infection, and rapid clinical progression...
May 2013: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Neeraj Saini, Ephraim P Hochberg, Erica A Linden, Smita Jha, Heinz K Grohs, Aliyah R Sohani
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma that typically presents in a body cavity in the absence of a detectable tumor mass and that occurs predominantly in immunosuppressed individuals. The neoplastic lymphoid cells are frequently infected with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV). We describe two HIV-negative patients who presented with primary effusion lymphoma of B-cell lineage involving the pleural cavity, but whose tumor cells lacked infection by HHV8...
2013: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
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