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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#1
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916560/cmeabc-multidrug-efflux-pump-contributes-to-antibiotic-resistance-and-promotes-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-and-multiplication-in-acanthamoeba-polyphaga
#2
Ana Vieira, Amritha Ramesh, Alan M Seddon, Andrey V Karlyshev
Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904944/antibacterial-and-antibiotic-modifying-activity-of-methanol-extracts-from-six-cameroonian-food-plants-against-multidrug-resistant-enteric-bacteria
#3
Joachim K Dzotam, Victor Kuete
The present work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from six Cameroonian edible plants and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and the microdilution broth method was used for antibacterial assays. The results of phytochemical tests indicate that all tested crude extracts contained polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, and steroids...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900246/maldi-tof-ms-based-identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-food-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
H M Manukumar, S Umesha
Food-borne methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in two-fold higher mortality rate compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Eventhough Mysuru recognized as cleanest city in the world, prevalence of food contamination is not detailed. The aim is to screen food samples from Mysuru area and to characterize MRSA strain, employing MALDI-Biotyper, multiplex PCR to distinguish between MRSA and MSSA by PCR-coupled single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Of all the food-borne pathogens, S...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888884/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-integron-gene-cassettes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-poephagus-grunniens-in-aba-tibetan-autonomous-prefecture-china
#5
Xin Yang, Wencheng Zou, Jinxin Zeng, Shengze Xie, Tianwu An, Xiaolin Luo, Danyu Chen, Lan Feng, Guangyang Cheng, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Hongning Wang
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic bacteria as it may cause severe morbidity and mortality in yaks (poephagus grunniens). In recent years, several kinds of antibiotics have been widely used in Tibetan areas to treat the bacterial diseases, resulting in serious repercussions on the bacterial antibiotic resistance in yaks. This investigation was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888660/time-for-a-change-in-how-new-antibiotics-are-reimbursed-development-of-an-insurance-framework-for-funding-new-antibiotics-based-on-a-policy-of-risk-mitigation
#6
Adrian Towse, Christopher K Hoyle, Jonathan Goodall, Mark Hirsch, Jorge Mestre-Ferrandiz, John H Rex
Healthcare systems depend on the availability of new antibiotics. However, there is a lack of treatments for infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens and a weak development pipeline of new therapies. One core challenge to the development of new antibiotics targeting MDR pathogens is that expected revenues are insufficient to drive long-term investment. In the USA and Europe, financial incentives have focussed on supporting R&D, reducing regulatory burden, and extending market exclusivity. Using resistance data to estimate global revenues, we demonstrate that the combined effects of these incentives are unlikely to rekindle investment in antibiotics...
August 5, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882020/non-antibiotic-treatment-for-infectious-diseases
#7
REVIEW
J Ruiz, I Castro, E Calabuig, M Salavert
The abuse and uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. The utility of conventional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections has become increasingly strained due to increased rates of resistance coupled with reduced rates of development of new agents. As a result, multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pan-drug-resistant bacterial strains are now frequently encountered. This has led to fears of a "post-antibiotic era" in which many bacterial infections could be untreatable...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882007/epidemiology-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-implications-for-empiric-and-definitive-therapy
#8
REVIEW
P Ruiz-Garbajosa, R Cantón
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired infections. It can easily develop antibiotic resistance through chromosomal mutations or by horizontal acquisition of resistant determinants. The increasing prevalence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) or extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa isolates is associated with the dissemination of the so-called high-risk-clones, such as ST175. Infections caused by MDR/XDR are a cause of concern as they compromise the selection of appropriate empiric and definitive antimicrobial treatments...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881862/use-of-antimicrobial-agents-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-travellers-diarrhoea-in-the-face-of-enhanced-risk-of-transient-fecal-carriage-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-setting-the-stage-for-consensus-recommendations
#9
Herbert L DuPont, Robert Steffen
Background: The recommendation that antibiotics should be used for routine therapy of travellers' diarrhoea is being reconsidered in view of growing evidence that the therapy may lead to intestinal carriage of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonic microbiota. This review attempts to put the issues of therapy and MDR acquisition in perspective to help in the establishment of therapeutic recommendations for travellers' diarrhoea. Methods: The existing literature showing the risk and consequences of acquisition of MDR microbiota in antibiotic-treated travellers was reviewed...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876284/in-vitro-synergy-testing-of-gentamicin-an-old-drug-suggested-as-future-treatment-option-for-gonorrhoea-in-combination-with-six-other-antimicrobials-against-multidrug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-strains
#10
Vikram Singh, Manju Bala, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Ravi Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious concern and combination therapy has been recommended to delay the onset of treatment failures. Gentamicin, an old and inexpensive antibiotic, is recommended in combination with azithromycin for treatment failures cases with the first-line regimen as per the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. However, not much literature is available on in vitro and in vivo efficacy of this combination...
August 30, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874102/ertapenem-associated-neurotoxicity-in-the-spinal-cord-injury-sci-population-a-case-series
#11
Ursula C Patel, Mallory A Fowler
Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870767/broadening-the-spectrum-of-small-molecule-antibacterials-by-metallic-nanoparticles-to-overcome-microbial-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Mahendra Rai, Avinash P Ingle, Raksha Pandit, Priti Paralikar, Indarchand Gupta, Marco V Chaud, Carolina Alves Dos Santos
Now-a-days development of microbial resistancce have become one of the most important global public health concerns. It is estimated that about 2 million people are infected in USA with multidrug resistant bacteria and out of these, about 23,000 die per year. In Europe, the number of deaths associated with infection caused by MDR bacteria is about 25,000 per year, However, the situation in Asia and other devloping countries is more critical. Considering the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance in various pathogens, it is estimated that MDR organisms can kill about 10 million people every year by 2050...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870265/predicting-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-associated-infection-on-hospital-admission
#13
Wen-Pin Tseng, Yee-Chun Chen, Bey-Jing Yang, Shang-Yu Chen, Jr-Jiun Lin, Ya-Huei Huang, Chia-Ming Fu, Shan-Chwen Chang, Shey-Ying Chen
OBJECTIVE Isolation of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) from patients in the community has been increasingly observed. A prediction model for MDR-GNB colonization and infection risk stratification on hospital admission is needed to improve patient care. METHODS A 2-stage, prospective study was performed with 995 and 998 emergency department patients enrolled, respectively. MDR-GNB colonization was defined as isolates resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics, identified in either the surveillance or early (≤48 hours) clinical cultures...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870091/high-prevalence-of-oxa-type-carbapenemases-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-a-teaching-hospital-of-tehran
#14
Mandana Zafari, Mohamad Mehdi Feizabadi, Sirous Jafari, Alireza Abdollahi, Azar Sabokbar
Nosocomial infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has created a public health concern all around the world. In this study, 100 isolates of CRAB from hospitalized patients during 2015-2016 at Imam Khomeini Hospital were investigated to determine the rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of six antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution method...
September 5, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867170/assessment-of-pit-latrines-in-a-peri-urban-community-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-as-a-source-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-strains
#15
Lorika S Beukes, Tracy L B King, Stefan Schmidt
Due to the frequent use of antibiotics and recurring illnesses related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in South Africa, we determined if MDR Escherichia coli were present in pit latrine fecal sludge samples obtained from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The abundance of E. coli in pit latrine samples was established using a most probable number (MPN) method with species confirmation done using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-four randomly selected E. coli pit latrine isolates were further characterized, using the European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion method to establish antibiotic resistance profiles for these E...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861062/evolutionary-genetic-analysis-uncovers-multiple-species-with-distinct-habitat-preferences-and-antibiotic-resistance-phenotypes-in-the-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-complex
#16
Luz E Ochoa-Sánchez, Pablo Vinuesa
The genus Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria) has a broad environmental distribution. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is its best known species because it is a globally emerging, multidrug-resistant (MDR), opportunistic pathogen. Members of this species are known to display high genetic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, forming the so-called S. maltophilia complex (Smc). Heterogeneous resistance and virulence phenotypes have been reported for environmental Smc isolates of diverse ecological origin. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity could be in part due to the potential lumping of several cryptic species in the Smc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858116/risk-factors-of-mortality-in-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-klebsiella-pneumonia-a-single-center-retrospective-study-in-china
#17
Lanyu Li, Huan Huang
The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumonia bloodstream infections (KP-BSIs) is increasing worldwide. Few study reports focus on the KP-BSIs published in Mainland China over the previous years. This study aimed to describe the risk factors of mortality from KP-BSIs.A retrospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China, for a period of 4 years. Risk factors related to the patient mortality were analyzed using the binary logistic regression model.Of 104 patients with KP-BSIs, the overall 30-day mortality rate was 25%...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853989/genomic-analysis-and-resistance-mechanisms-in-shigella-flexneri-2a-strain-301
#18
Zhen Zhu, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Sihan Wang, Fusheng Cheng, Jiyu Zhang
Shigella flexneri is one of the most prominent pathogenic bacteria in developing countries. In the battle against shigellosis and other bacterial diseases, antibiotic resistance has become an increasing global public health threat. Although the serious phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has been identified as one of the top three burdens on human health, resistance mechanisms are still poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we analyzed genomic data and the evolution of resistance in Shigella flexneri under sequential selection stress from three separate antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), ceftriaxone (CRO), and tetracycline...
August 30, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845973/human-microbiome-inspired-antibiotics-with-improved-%C3%AE-lactam-synergy-against-mdr-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
John Chu, Xavier Vila Farres, Daigo Inoyama, Ricardo Gallardo-Macias, Mark Jaskowski, Shruthi Satish, Joel Stephen Freundlich, Sean F Brady
The flippase MurJ is responsible for transporting the cell wall intermediate lipid II from the cytoplasm to the outside of the cell. While essential for the survival of bacteria it remains an underexploited target for antibacterial therapy. The humimycin antibiotics are lipid II flippase (MurJ) inhibitors that were synthesized based on bioinformatic predictions derived from secondary metabolite gene clusters found in the human microbiome. Here we describe an SAR campaign around humimycin A that produced humimycin 17S...
August 28, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841421/tannic-acid-affects-the-phenotype-of-staphylococcus-aureus-resistant-to-tetracycline-and-erythromycin-by-inhibition-of-efflux-pumps
#20
Saulo R Tintino, Cícera D Morais-Tintino, Fábia F Campina, Maria do S Costa, Irwin R A Menezes, Yedda Maria L S de Matos, João T Calixto-Júnior, Pedro S Pereira, José P Siqueira-Junior, Teresa C Leal-Balbino, Henrique D M Coutinho, Valdir Q Balbino
The widespread use of antibiotics created selective pressure for the emergence of strains that would persist despite antibiotic toxicity. The bacterial resistance mechanisms are several, with efflux pumps being one of the main ones. These pumps are membrane proteins with the function of removing antibiotics from the cell cytoplasm. Due to this importance, the aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of tannic acid against efflux pumps expressed by the Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and IS-58 strains...
August 12, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
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