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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225903/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#1
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#2
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222699/suspicion-of-respiratory-tract-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-from-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#3
Hanna Renk, Lenja Stoll, Felix Neunhoeffer, Florian Hölzl, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck, Dominik Hartl
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infection, but underlying risk factors are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the incidence of children with suspected infection during mechanical ventilation and analyses risk factors for the finding of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre analysis of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014 was performed...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208889/management-of-pneumonia-and-blood-stream-infections-with-new-antibiotic-adjuvant-entity-ceftriaxone-sulbactam-disodium-edetate-a-novel-way-to-spare-carbapenems
#4
Mohammad Shameem, Mohammad Amin Mir
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections have been considered as a major health problem causing incremental morbidity, mortality and costs of therapy. AIM: This retrospective study was initiated with aim to analyse the comparative efficacy of a novel Antibiotic Adjuvant Entity (AAE), a combination of ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate and meropenem in combination with colistin, for the management of Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) nosocomial Gram-negative bacterial infections...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207768/prevalence-of-mdr-pathogens-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-egypt-and-new-synergistic-antibiotic-combinations
#5
Mona M Abdelkader, Khaled M Aboshanab, Marwa A El-Ashry, Mohammad M Aboulwafa
The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205160/non-fermentative-gram-negative-rods-bacteremia-in-children-with-cancer-a-14-year-single-center-experience
#6
D Averbuch, C Avaky, M Harit, P Stepensky, I Fried, T Ben-Ami, V Temper, Y Peled, H Troen, R Masarwa, W Abu Ahmad, M Weintraub, S Revel-Vilk, D Engelhard
PURPOSE: Data on non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NFGNR) bacteremia in children with malignancies are limited. The aim of this study was to present clinical picture, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, risk factors for resistance and outcome in NFGNR bacteremia in children with cancer. METHODS: All episodes of NFGNR bacteremia occurring during 2001-2014 in children with cancer in a tertiary-care hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp...
February 15, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#7
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198662/changes-in-bacterial-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-veterans-with-spinal-cord-injury-disorder-over-the-past-9-years
#8
Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Katie J Suda, Nasia Safdar, Stephen P Burns, Makoto M Jones, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Charlesnika T Evans
OBJECTIVE: Patients with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D) have an increased risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We described bacterial epidemiology and resistance in patients with SCI/D at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) for the past 9 years. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort Setting: One hundred thirty VAMCs. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans with SCI/D and bacterial cultures with antibiotic susceptibility testing performed between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195096/genotyping-of-clinical-and-environmental-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-strains
#9
Leili Shokoohizadeh, Ashraf Mohabati Mobarez, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali, Reza Ranjbar
CONTEXT: Multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecium is a nosocomial pathogen and clonal complex 17 (CC17) is the main genetic subpopulation of E. faecium in hospitals worldwide. AIMS: There has thus far been no report of major E. faecium clones in Iranian hospitals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The present study analyzed strains of MDR E. faecium obtained from patients and the Intensive Care Unit environments using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic features of the dominant...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193899/structure-of-a-lipid-a-phosphoethanolamine-transferase-suggests-how-conformational-changes-govern-substrate-binding
#10
Anandhi Anandan, Genevieve L Evans, Karmen Condic-Jurkic, Megan L O'Mara, Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Gary A Jarvis, Siobhan S Wills, Keith A Stubbs, Isabel Moraes, Charlene M Kahler, Alice Vrielink
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. One type of lipid A modification involves the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the 1 and 4' headgroup positions by phosphoethanolamine transferases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191309/co-existence-of-blaoxa-23-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-significance
#11
Prabhu Raj Joshi, Mahesh Acharya, Trishna Kakshapati, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Sutthirat Sitthisak
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. METHODS: A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified based on Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR amplification of organism specific 16S rRNA and blaOXA-51 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162982/revival-of-old-antibiotics-needs-the-state-of-evidence-and-expectations
#12
Hiba Zayyad, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
The gap between the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new antibiotic development has drawn attention to old antibiotics whose spectrum of coverage frequently comprises highly resistant bacteria. However, these antibiotics have frequently not undergone the structured process of antibiotic development of modern antibiotics, from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies establishing safe and effective dosing, establishment of susceptibility breakpoints, to clinical trials establishing clinical safety and effectiveness...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160952/antibiotic-trends-amid-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-intensive-care-units
#13
REVIEW
Leanne H Fowler, Susan Lee
Isolates from ICUs most commonly find multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria. The purpose of this article is to discuss the significant impact MDR gram-negative infections are having on ICUs, the threat on health and mortality, and effective and new approaches aimed to combat MDR gram-negative infections in critically ill populations. Inappropriate antibiotic therapies for suspected or documented infections are the leading cause of the emergence of bacterial resistance. A variety of strategies are aimed at combatting this international burden via antibiotic stewardship programs...
March 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160023/the-intensive-care-medicine-research-agenda-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-antibiotics-and-stewardship
#14
REVIEW
Marin H Kollef, Matteo Bassetti, Bruno Francois, Jason Burnham, George Dimopoulos, Jose Garnacho-Montero, Jeffrey Lipman, Charles-Edouard Luyt, David P Nicolau, Maarten J Postma, Antonio Torres, Tobias Welte, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE: To concisely describe the current standards of care, major recent advances, common beliefs that have been contradicted by recent trials, areas of uncertainty, and clinical studies that need to be performed over the next decade and their expected outcomes with regard to the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, antibiotic use, and antimicrobial stewardship in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. METHODS: Narrative review based on a systematic analysis of the medical literature, national and international guidelines, and expert opinion...
February 4, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159661/molecular-characteristics-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-bacteremia-based-on-mlst-sccmec-spa-and-agr-locus-types-analysis
#15
Mehdi Goudarzi, Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Hossein Goudarzi, Raheleh Sajadi Nia, Hossein Dabiri
The widespread emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a common cause of nosocomial infections, is becoming a serious concern in global public health. The objective of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, frequency of virulence genes and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with bacteremia. A total of 128 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected during February 2015 to January 2016...
February 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154812/qivas-therapy-for-treatment-of-implant-associated-mdr-bacterial-infection
#16
Varun Chouhan
INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implant-associated infections are difficult to treat, both physically and psychologically, for the patient and the surgeon as well. Organisms capable of forming biofilms tend to be more virulent and have ability of causing chronic infections. Chronic implant associated infections are very difficult to treat, requires a lot of time, money and other resources. Chronic infections produce a lot of morbidity and sometimes mortality to the patient. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old male treated for bilateral acetabular fracture sustained after fall from height due to an episode of seizure...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150578/resistotyping-phenotyping-and-genotyping-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ndm-among-gram-negative-bacilli-from-iranian-patients
#17
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Abbas Soleimani-Delfan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was investigation of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) production among gram negative bacilli. METHODOLOGY: Antibiogram-Resistotyping and detection of NDM in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of three phenotypic methods for NDM detection considering PCR as gold standard were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against NDM positive strains by E-test and clonal relationship analysis using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) in these strains were determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149487/clinical-response-and-outcome-of-pneumonia-due-to-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-critically-ill-patients
#18
Lida Shojaei, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Mahsa Doomanlou, Alireza Abdollahi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi, Hossein Khalili
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp. infections is increasing in Iran. Considering availability of limited therapeutic options, clinical response and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multi-drug resistant A.baumannii were evaluated in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 29 patients with carbapenem resistance A. baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia were enrolled...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141590/detection-of-virulence-genes-phylogenetic-group-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-mongolia
#19
Yandag Munkhdelger, Nyamaa Gunregjav, Altantsetseg Dorjpurev, Nishi Juniichiro, Jav Sarantuya
INTRODUCTION: The severity of urinary tract infection (UTI) produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is due to the expression of a wide spectrum of virulence genes. E. coli strains were divided into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) based on their virulence genes. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, and antibiotic resistance of UPEC. METHODOLOGY: A total of 148 E. coli were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 10 drugs using the disk diffusion method...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139466/one-pot-synthesis-of-multifunctional-nanoscale-metal-organic-frameworks-as-an-effective-antibacterial-agent-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Angshuman Ray Chowdhuri, Balaram Das, Amit Kumar, Satyajit Tripathy, Somenath Roy, Sumanta Kumar Sahu
Drug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to global public health. In particular, infections from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus) are growing global health concerns. In this work, we report the first use of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) coencapsulating an antibiotic (vancomycin) and targeting ligand (folic acid) in one pot to enhance therapeutic efficacy against MDR S. aureus. Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) NMOFs, which have globular morphologies coencapsulating vancomycin and folic acid, are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, ulltraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and dynamic light-scattering techniques...
March 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
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