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Antibiotic for MDR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147117/colistin-resistance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-snakes-in-taiwan
#1
Po-Yu Liu, Ling-Ling Weng, Shu-Ying Tseng, Chou-Chen Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Yan-Chiao Mao, Kwong-Chung Tung
This study included fifty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa from the oral cavity of snakes that were recruited from clinical cases, captive and wild snakes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the determination of susceptibility were identified by the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect β-lactamases genes. With regard to antipseudomonal antibiotics, the lowest nonsusceptible rates were in aztreonam (15%), piperacillin/tazobactam (12%), and amikacin (9%)...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141347/-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-typhi-and-salmonella-paratyphoid-isolates-from-jiangsu-province-2012-2015
#2
X X Kong, C Dong, H Ji, Y Wang, C C Bao, X Huo, H M Qian
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype and molecular typing characteristics of Salmonella (S.) typhi and S. paratyphi in Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015. Methods: The samples were collected from typhoid and paratyphoid patients in Jiangsu province. The biochemical identification and serotyping were carried out after isolation and culture. Kirby-Bauer (K-B) testing was used to detect the drug susceptibility of the strains. The molecular typing characteristics of S. typhi and S...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133567/risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-upon-icu-admission
#3
Natalia Blanco, Anthony D Harris, Clare Rock, J Kristie Johnson, Lisa Pineles, Robert A Bonomo, Arjun Srinivasan, Melinda M Pettigrew, Kerri A Thom
Introduction: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic use, is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MDR A. baumannii perirectal colonization among adult patients at ICU admission over a 5-year period, and to identify risk factors and outcomes associated with colonization.Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of patients admitted to the medical (MICU) and surgical intensive care units (SICU) at the University of Maryland Medical Center from May 2005 to September 2009 was performed using perirectal surveillance cultures on admission...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130630/a-structure-based-strategy-toward-the-development-of-novel-candidates-for-antimycobacterial-activity-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-docking-study
#4
Linhu Li, Yuanyuan Jin, Bin Wang, Zhaoyong Yang, Mingliang Liu, Huiyuan Guo, Jun Zhang, Yu Lu
Bacterial resistance to most of the available antibiotics has stimulated the discovery of novel efficacious antibacterial agents. Bedaquiline is first of its type that has been specifically introduced for the management of MDR-TB in combination with other drugs. In the current study, a series of isoniazid/ethambutol/pyrazinamide -quinoline conjugates based on the structures of Bedaquiline were designed and synthesized. Biological activity tests revealed that some of isoniazid/ethambutol-quinoline conjugates have useful antibiotic activity against MTB H37Rv (MIC: 2...
November 11, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113712/prior-antimicrobial-therapy-duration-influences-causative-pathogens-identification-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#5
Jean-François Llitjos, Marlène Amara, Ahlem Benzarti, Guillaume Lacave, Jean-Pierre Bedos, Béatrice Pangon
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy, divided in recent or current antibiotic treatment, influences the identification rate and/or the type of causative pathogens in patients with suspected episodes of ventilator-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: Monocentric retrospective study. SETTING: Intensive car unit in a universitary hospital. PATIENTS: 230 episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia with a Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score≥6 were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104932/multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-isolates-are-resistant-to-antibiotics-that-influence-their-swimming-and-swarming-motility
#6
Brian W Brunelle, Bradley L Bearson, Shawn M D Bearson, Thomas A Casey
Motile bacteria employ one or more methods for movement, including darting, gliding, sliding, swarming, swimming, and twitching. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella carries acquired genes that provide resistance to specific antibiotics, and the goal of our study was to determine how antibiotics influence swimming and swarming in such resistant Salmonella isolates. Differences in motility were examined for six MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates grown on swimming and swarming media containing subinhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, or tetracycline...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101081/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteroides-isolates-from-hungarian-clinical-samples
#7
Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Katalin Kristóf, Emese Juhász, Cecilia Miszti, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Krisztina Latkóczy, Edit Urbán
INTRODUCTION: Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are the most important components of the normal human gut microbiota, but these bacteria can cause severe infections as well. Due to the frequent usage of antibiotics, the spreading of the MDR strains is a real threat worldwide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicentre study 400 Bacteroides isolates from five Hungarian microbiological laboratories were cultured and identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The MIC values of ten antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method and evaluated by the breakpoints of EUCAST or CLSI...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099921/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-minas-frescal-cheese-evaluation-of-classic-enterotoxin-genes-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clonal-diversity
#8
Alice Gonçalves Martins Gonzalez, Leila Márcia Peres Marques, Marcel da Silva Amorim Gomes, JhonathanCampos do Couto Beltrão, Marcos Gabriel Pinheiro, Luciana Maria Ramires Esper, Geraldo Renato de Paula, Lenise Arneiro Teixeira, Fábio Aguiar-Alves
This study aimed to investigate classical enterotoxin (sea to see) and mecA genes, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anitimicrobial susceptibility, by disc diffusion test of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from minas frescal cheese (MFC). All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were investigated for the presence of PVL genes and clonal diversity. Thirty-one S. aureus were isolated from four MFC samples. Seven (22.6%) S. aureus carried mecA gene and two of them carried enterotoxin genes seb/sec and sea/seb...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098998/the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-on-inhaled-antibiotics
#9
Atqah AbdulWahab, Khalid Zahraldin, Mazen A Sid Ahmed, Sulieman Abu Jarir, Mohammed Muneer, Shehab F Mohamed, Jemal M Hamid, Abubaker A I Hassan, Emad Bashir Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) is an important and growing issue in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of MDR-PA recovered from the lower respiratory samples of pediatric and adult CF patients, and its antibiotic resistance pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094001/in-vitro-synergy-of-antibiotic-combinations-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Hossein Ghorbani, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Fatemeh Yeganeh Sefidan, Mina Yekani, Reza Ghotaslou
Aim: The combination of different antimicrobial agents and subsequent synergetic effects may be beneficial in treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. The aim of the present study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and the effect of different antibiotic combinations against the multidrug-resistant (MDR), biofilm-producing bacterium P. aeruginosa. Methods: Thirty-six P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were evaluated. The disk diffusion method was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091221/screening-for-synergistic-activity-of-antimicrobial-combinations-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-using-inkjet-printer-based-technology
#12
Thea Brennan-Krohn, Katherine A Truelson, Kenneth P Smith, James E Kirby
Background: Synergistic combination antimicrobial therapy may provide new options for treatment of MDR infections. However, comprehensive in vitro synergy data are limited and facile methods to perform synergy testing in a clinically actionable time frame are unavailable. Objectives: To systematically investigate a broad range of antibiotic combinations for evidence of synergistic activity against a collection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091209/determination-of-alternative-ceftolozane-tazobactam-dosing-regimens-for-patients-with-infections-due-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-mic-values-between-4-and-32%C3%A2-mg-l
#13
Senthil Natesan, Manjunath P Pai, Thomas P Lodise
Background: Optimization of the antibiotics for patients with infections due to MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) often requires consideration of alternate dose and infusion times that can be influenced by renal function. Objectives: We sought to identify ceftolozane/tazobactam dosing schemes that optimized the probability of target attainment (PTA) against infections due to MDR-PA with ceftolozane/tazobactam MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L across different categories of renal function...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091182/quinolone-resistant-gyrase-mutants-demonstrate-decreased-susceptibility-to-triclosan
#14
Mark A Webber, Michelle M C Buckner, Liam S Redgrave, Gyles Ifill, Lesley A Mitchenall, Carly Webb, Robyn Iddles, Anthony Maxwell, Laura J V Piddock
Objectives: Cross-resistance between antibiotics and biocides is a potentially important driver of MDR. A relationship between susceptibility of Salmonella to quinolones and triclosan has been observed. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the mechanism underpinning this; (ii) determine whether the phenotype is conserved in Escherichia coli; and (iii) evaluate the potential for triclosan to select for quinolone resistance. Methods: WT E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and gyrA mutants were used...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091031/inter-species-population-dynamics-enhance-microbial-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Robert M Cooper, Lev Tsimring, Jeff Hasty
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern are Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria, which recently emerged as global pathogens, with nosocomial mortality rates reaching 19-54% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; Joly Guillou, 2005; Talbot et al., 2006). Acinetobacter gains antibiotic resistance remarkably rapidly (Antunes et al., 2014; Joly Guillou, 2005), with multi drug-resistance (MDR) rates exceeding 60% (Antunes et al., 2014; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013)...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079115/molecular-characterization-of-glycopeptide-and-macrolide-resistance-genes-among-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-strains
#16
Asieh Taji, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari
BACKGROUND: Multiple-drug-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major cause of healthcare associated infections due to their antibiotic resistance traits. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: A total of 51 E. faecalis strains were isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs), bloodstream infections, respiratory tract infections, abdominal infections, and eye infection...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077920/metronidazole-an-update-on-metabolism-structure-cytotoxicity-and-resistance-mechanisms
#17
Simon A Dingsdag, Neil Hunter
Metronidazole, a nitroimidazole, remains a front-line choice for treatment of infections related to inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including colitis linked to Clostridium difficile. Despite >60 years of research, the metabolism of metronidazole and associated cytotoxicity is not definitively characterized. Nitroimidazoles are prodrugs that are reductively activated (the nitro group is reduced) under low oxygen tension, leading to imidazole fragmentation and cytotoxicity. It remains unclear if nitroimidazole reduction (activation) contributes to the cytotoxicity profile, or whether subsequent fragmentation of the imidazole ring and formed metabolites alone mediate cytotoxicity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072532/antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-ethyl-acetate-s-metabolites-of-the-potent-halophilic-marine-bacterium-bacillus-cereus-a30-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#18
Dhayalan Arul, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Velramar Balasubramanian, Thillainathan Natarajan, Pachiappan Perumal
Bacteria are generally responsible for the prevalence of several diseases and pathogenic bacteria are showing increasing resistance to different antibacterials. During the present study an extremophilic bacterium-A30 isolated from the marine waters was characterized and evaluated against four multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens, viz; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensitivity pattern of the selected pathogens was tested with 31 antibiotics...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071232/vancomycin-capped-with-silver-nanoparticles-as-an-antibacterial-agent-against-multi-drug-resistance-bacteria
#19
Mahsa Esmaeillou, Gholamreza Zarrini, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Javid Shahbazi Mojarrad, Ali Bahadori
Purpose: Many antimicrobial medications are available to combat infections. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance in the case of many bacterial pathogens. This study focuses on the development of nanoparticles (NPs) that enhance the in vitro antibiotic activity of vancomycin against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. Methods: Spherical shaped thioglycolic acid-stabilized silver nanoparticles (TGA-AgNPs) were prepared by using a simple chemical reduction method...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067199/antibiotic-resistance-in-conjunctival-and-enteric-bacterial-flora-in-raptors-housed-in-a-zoological-garden
#20
Andrea Sala, Simone Taddei, Davide Santospirito, Camillo Sandri, William Magnone, Clotilde S Cabassi
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a wide range of infectious agents is a growing public health threat. Birds of prey are considered indicators of the presence of AMR bacteria in their ecosystem because of their predatory behaviour. Only few data are reported in the literature on AMR strains isolated from animals housed in zoos and none about AMR in raptors housed in zoological gardens. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity profile of the isolates obtained from the conjunctival and cloacal bacterial flora of 14 healthy birds of prey, 6 Accipitriformes, 3 Falconiformes and 5 Strigiformes, housed in an Italian zoological garden...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
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