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domoic OR Pseudo-nitzschia

Lisa C Shriver-Lake, Jinny L Liu, P Audrey Brozozog Lee, Ellen R Goldman, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, George P Anderson
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv)...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
Pearse McCarron, Elliott Wright, Håkan Emteborg, Michael A Quilliam
A freeze-dried mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference material (CRM-FDMT1) was produced containing multiple groups of shellfish toxins. Homogeneity and stability testing showed the material to be fit for purpose. The next phase of work was to assign certified values and uncertainties to 10 analytes from six different toxin groups. Efforts involved optimizing extraction procedures for the various toxin groups and performing measurements using liquid chromatography-based analytical methods. A key aspect of the work was compensating for matrix effects associated with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry through standard addition, dilution, or matrix-matched calibration...
November 9, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sergio Balzano, Isabella Percopo, Raffaele Siano, Priscillia Gourvil, Mélanie Chanoine, Marie Dominique, Daniel Vaulot, Diana Sarno
Seventy-five diatoms strains isolated from the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) in the summer of 2009 were characterized by light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) as well as 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains group into 20 genotypes and 17 morphotypes and are affiliated with the genera Arcocellulus, Attheya, Chaetoceros, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Nitzschia, Porosira, Pseudo-nitzschia, Shionodiscus, Thalassiosira, Synedropsis. Most of the species have a distribution confined to the northern/polar area...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Lynn M Grattan, Carol Boushey, Kate Tracy, Vera Trainer, Sparkle M Roberts, Nicolas Schluterman, J Glenn Morris
This study represents a preliminary effort to examine the possible impacts of chronic, low level Domoic Acid (DA) exposure on memory in the CoASTAL cohort. Five hundred thirteen men and women representing three Native American Tribes were studied with standard measures of cognition and razor clam consumption (a known vector of DA exposure) over a four year period. In addition, a pilot metric of DA concentration exposure was used which took into consideration average DA concentration levels in source beaches as well as consumption...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Xiuning Du, William Peterson, Jennifer Fisher, Matt Hunter, Jay Peterson
In spring/summer 2015, a toxic bloom by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) occurred along the west coast of the United States which led to closures of the harvest of razor clams and Dungeness crabs. Twice monthly observations of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton species composition allowed us to track oceanographic conditions preceding and during the development of the bloom. PN cells were first detected during late winter 2015. A PN bloom was initiated following the onset of coastal upwelling in mid-April; subsequent peaks in May and June were sustained by episodic upwelling events and reached magnitudes of 105 cells/L and 106 cells/L, 40% and 90% of the total diatom abundance, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Marilou P Sison-Mangus, Sunny Jiang, Raphael M Kudela, Sanjin Mehic
Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carol J Boushey, Edward J Delp, Ziad Ahmad, Yu Wang, Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan
Three Tribal Nations in the Pacific Northwest United States comprise the members of the CoASTAL cohort. These populations may be at risk for neurobehavioral impairment, i.e., amnesic shellfish poisoning, from shellfish consumption as a result of repeated, low-level domoic acid (DA) exposure present in local clams. Previous work with this cohort confirmed a high proportion of clam consumers with varying levels of potential exposure over time. Since clams are an episodically consumed food, traditional dietary records do not fully capture exposure...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan, Alexandra C Toben, Christina Ausherman, Vera Trainer, Kate Tracy, J Glenn Morris
Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Kate Tracy, Carol Boushey, Sparkle M Roberts, J Glenn Morris, Lynn M Grattan
The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of domoic acid (DA) toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Sandeep Vasant More, Hemant Kumar, Duk-Yeon Cho, Yo-Sep Yun, Dong-Kug Choi
Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Majken B Thomsen, Thea P Lillethorup, Steen Jakobsen, Erik H Nielsen, Mette Simonsen, Gregers Wegener, Anne M Landau, R Andrew Tasker
RATIONALE: Epilepsy is a debilitating seizure disorder that affects approximately 50 million people. Noradrenaline reduces neuronal excitability, has anticonvulsant effects and is protective against seizure onset. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo in a neonatal domoic acid (DOM) rat model of epilepsy. METHODS: We injected male Sprague-Dawley rats daily from postnatal day 8-14 with saline or one of two sub-convulsive doses, 20 μg/kg (DOM20) or 60 μg/kg (DOM60) DOM, an AMPA/kainate receptor agonist...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Pearse McCarron, Kelley L Reeves, Sabrina D Giddings, Daniel G Beach, Michael A Quilliam
Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Daniel G Beach, Callee M Walsh, Pamela Cantrell, Wade Rourke, Sinead O'Brien, Kelley Reeves, Pearse McCarron
RATIONALE: Domoic acid (DA) is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in shellfish. Routine testing involves homogenization, extraction and chromatographic analysis, with a run time of up to 30 min. Improving throughput using ambient ionization for direct analysis of DA in tissue would result in significant time savings for regulatory testing labs. METHODS: We assess the suitability of laser ablation electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (LAESI-HRMS) for high-throughput screening or quantitation of DA in a variety of shellfish matrices...
November 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
S M Bengtson Nash, M C Baddock, E Takahashi, A Dawson, R Cropp
The periodic trend to cetacean mass stranding events in the Australian island state of Tasmania remains unexplained. This article introduces the hypothesis that domoic acid poisoning may be a causative agent in these events. The hypothesis arises from the previously evidenced role of aeolian dust as a vector of iron input to the Southern Ocean; the role of iron enrichment in Pseudo-nitzschia bloom proliferation and domoic acid production; and importantly, the characteristic toxicosis of domoic acid poisoning in mammalian subjects leading to spatial navigation deficits...
August 16, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Peter F Cook, Colleen Reichmuth, Andrew Rouse, Sophie Dennison, Bill Van Bonn, Frances Gulland
Domoic acid is a naturally occurring algal toxin that causes neurological symptoms and mortality in exposed marine life. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are the most visible victims, and suffer epilepsy and progressive hippocampal atrophy. Despite its reliable neurological effects, little is known about how exposure to domoic acid alters behavior, which is critical for understanding the impact of toxic exposure on long-term survival in sea lions and other exposed animals, including humans. Better understanding of the behavioral effects may also inform veterinary diagnosis and treatment...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
E M Hiolski, S Ito, J M Beggs, K A Lefebvre, A M Litke, D R Smith
Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by algae and is found in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As a glutamate agonist, domoic acid inappropriately stimulates excitatory activity in neurons. At high doses, this leads to seizures and brain lesions, but it is unclear how lower, asymptomatic exposures disrupt neuronal activity. Domoic acid has been detected in an increasing variety of species across a greater geographical range than ever before, making it critical to understand the potential health impacts of low-level exposure on vulnerable marine mammal and human populations...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Ines Rodriguez, Maria Fraga, Amparo Alfonso, Delphine Guillebault, Linda Medlin, Julia Baudart, Pauline Jacob, Karim Helmi, Thomas Meyer, Ulrich Breitenbach, Nicholas M Holden, Bas Boots, Roberto Spurio, Lucia Cimarelli, Laura Mancini, Stefania Marcheggiani, Meric Albay, Reyhan Akcaalan, Latife Köker, Luis M Botana
Monitoring the quality of freshwater is an important issue for public health. In the context of the European project μAqua, 150 samples were collected from several waters in France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Turkey for 2 yr. These samples were analyzed using 2 multitoxin detection methods previously developed: a microsphere-based method coupled to flow-cytometry, and an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The presence of microcystins, nodularin, domoic acid, cylindrospermopsin, and several analogues of anatoxin-a (ATX-a) was monitored...
August 9, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jasmine P Brown, Diana Hall, Christopher Frank, Kathleen Wallace, William R Mundy, Timothy J Shafer
Thousands of compounds in the environment have not been characterized for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard. To address this issue, methods to screen compounds rapidly for DNT hazard evaluation are necessary and are being developed for key neurodevelopmental processes. In order to develop an assay for network formation, the current study evaluated effects of a training set of chemicals on network ontogeny by measuring spontaneous electrical activity in neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEA)...
August 4, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Christophoros Christophoridis, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Theodoros M Triantis, Anastasia Hiskia
Cyanobacterial and algal toxins comprise a large group of harmful metabolites, belonging to different chemical classes, with a variety of chemical structures, physicochemical properties and toxic activities. In this study, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of multi-class cyanobacterial and algal toxins in water. The target compounds were: Cylindrospermopsin, Anatoxin-a, Nodularin, 12 Microcystins ([D-Asp3]MC-RR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-HtyR, [D-Asp3]MC-LR, MC-LR, MC-HilR, MC-WR, MC-LA, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF), Okadaic acid and Domoic acid...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sing Tung Teng, Suh Nih Tan, Hong Chang Lim, Viet Ha Dao, Stephen S Bates, Chui Pin Leaw
Forty-eight isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia species were established from the Miri coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and underwent TEM observation and molecular characterization. Ten species were found: P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. fukuyoi, P. kodamae, P. lundholmiae, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, as well as two additional new morphotypes, herein designated as P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. This is the first report of P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi and P. lundholmiae in coastal waters of Malaysian Borneo...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Phycology
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