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Vagina and (biomechanical or mechanical or tensile)

Przemysław Janas, Iwona Kucybała, Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Hubert Huras
Telocytes are emerging cell population localized in the stroma of numerous organs, characterized by a distinctive morphology - small cell body with very long, slender prolongations, termed telopodes. Those cells can be found in the whole female reproductive system: in the vagina, uterus, oviducts and ovaries, mammary glands and also in the placenta. In our review, we aim at complete and transparent revision of the current knowledge of telocytes' localization and function, enriched by the analysis of the possible future direction of development of their clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Anzu Yamamoto, Takuya Omotehara, Yuuka Miura, Tadashi Takada, Naoki Yoneda, Tetsushi Hirano, Youhei Mantani, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced in the developing testis induces the regression of the Müllerian duct, which develops into the oviducts, uterus and upper vagina. In our true hermaphrodite mouse with an ovary on one side and a testis on the other (O/T), the oviduct and uterus are present only on the ovary side, and nothing derived from the Müllerian duct is present on the testis side. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying the unilateral Müllerian duct regression and the mode of AMH signaling, by performing immunohistology, Western blotting, and organ culture analyses...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Michiyo Kobayashi-Sakamoto, Riyoko Tamai, Emiko Isogai, Yusuke Kiyoura
Normally, Candida albicans is a commensal microbe that resides in the human oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, the fungus can cause mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism by which local mucosal infections progress to systemic candidiasis is poorly understood. Here, a murine model of gastrointestinal (GI) candidiasis was developed by inoculation of the oral cavity, followed by treatment with tetracycline (TC) and prednisolone (PSL). Temporal progression from a local infection of the oral cavity to a systemic infection was then monitored...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
James Tankel, Shlomo Yellineck, Petachia Reissman
Formation of a colonic J-pouch with anastomosis to the rectal stump is an accepted form of reconstruction after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. It is thought this can help prevent the onset of LAR syndrome as well as improve the quality of life in the first two years following surgery. Rectovaginal fistulation is a recognised complication of this form of surgery usually occurring because of technical failure leading to inclusion of the vaginal wall into the stapled anastomosis. We present an as of yet unreported case of fistulation between the upper horizontal staple line of a colonic J-pouch-the tip of the 'J'-which was formed extracorporeally with the posterior vaginal fornix...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Anthony Levasseur, Oleg Mediannikov, Catherine Robert, Nicholas Armstrong, Carine Couderc, Florence Bretelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%)...
February 15, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Richard Tester, Farage H Al-Ghazzewi
The reasons for (i) the presence and (ii) mechanisms of utilisation of glycogen by the lactic acid bacteria in the human vaginal tract are not well understood. It is probable that the vaginal epithelia produce both glycogen and α-amylase where the enzyme depolymerises the polysaccharide within the vagina itself. Only these depolymerised residues are then utilised for growth by the lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria cannot metabolise the glycogen directly due to their incapacity to produce the α-amylase enzyme...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
O Lara-García, M Lara-García, D Perez-Hernandez, E Cuevas, M Martínez-Gómez, P Pacheco
Evoked EMG reflex activity from the pubococcygeus muscle of female Wistar rats has been reported, but has not been carefully analyzed. Here, we studied this reflex activity through mechanical stimulation of the clitoris, perigenital skin, caudal vagina and foot, all of which produced bilateral reflex multiunit electromyographic (MEMG) tonic "on" activity and displayed a rapid adaptation. However, deep vagina and cervical stimulation did not modify MEMG baseline activity even if it was combined with clitoris, perigenital skin and foot stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
E Gabrielli, E Pericolini, N Ballet, E Roselletti, S Sabbatini, P Mosci, A Cayzeele Decherf, F Pélerin, S Perito, P Jüsten, A Vecchiarelli
Previously we demonstrated that the treatment with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae exerts beneficial therapeutic effects against vaginal candidiasis. Here, we address potential mechanisms particularly examining the probiotic capacity to modulate both fungus and host-related factors. We show that the S. cerevisiae-based probiotic markedly affects the expression of virulence traits of Candida albicans such as aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) as well as hyphae-associated proteins Hwp1 and Ece1 in the vaginal cavity. On the host side, the probiotic suppression of the influx of neutrophils caused by the fungus into the vaginas of the mice is likely related to: (1) lower production of interleukin-8; and (2) inhibition of SAPs expression...
January 30, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Jun-Mo Kim, Yoo Jin Park
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level...
December 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
Luciana P Chamié, Duarte Miguel Ferreira Rodrigues Ribeiro, Dario A Tiferes, Augusto Cesar de Macedo Neto, Paulo C Serafini
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue that is located outside the uterine cavity and associated with fibrosis and inflammatory reaction. It is a polymorphic and multifocal disease with no known cure or preventive mechanisms. Patients may be asymptomatic or may experience chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, or infertility. The pelvic cavity is the most common location for endometriotic implants, which usually affect the retrocervical space, ovaries, vagina, rectosigmoid colon, bladder dome, and round ligaments...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Iva Urbankova, Geertje Callewaert, Silvia Blacher, Dries Deprest, Lucie Hympanova, Andrew Feola, Laurent De Landsheere, Jan Deprest
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Animal models are useful for investigating the genesis of pelvic floor dysfunction and for developing novel therapies for its treatment. There is a need for an alternative large-animal model to the nonhuman primate. Therefore we studied the effects of the first vaginal delivery, ovariectomy and systemic hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on the biomechanical and structural properties of the ovine vagina. METHODS: We examined the gross anatomical properties of nulliparous, primiparous, ovariectomized multiparous, and ovariectomized hormone-replaced multiparous sheep (six animals per group)...
January 8, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Vladimir Egorov, Miles Murphy, Vincent Lucente, Heather van Raalte, Sonya Ephrain, Nina Bhatia, Noune Sarvazyan
INTRODUCTION: Few means exist to provide quantitative and reproducible assessment of vaginal conditions from biomechanical and functional standpoints. AIM: To develop a new approach for quantitative biomechanical characterization of the vagina. METHODS: Vaginal tactile imaging (VTI) allows biomechanical assessment of soft tissue and function along the entire length of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vaginal walls. This can be done at rest, with applied vaginal deformation, and with pelvic muscle contraction...
December 19, 2017: Sexual Medicine
Michael T Cook, Marc B Brown
Intravaginal drug delivery can elicit a local effect, or deliver drugs systemically without hepatic first pass metabolism. There are a number of emerging areas in intravaginal drug delivery, but the vagina is a challenging route of administration, due to the clearance mechanisms present which result in poor retention of dosage forms, and the potential for irritation and other adverse reactions. Gel formulations are desirable due to the ease of application, spreading and that they cause little to no discomfort to the patient...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia L R Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
February 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Han-Qing Liu, Ying-Ming Wang, Wan-Fang Li, Chao Li, Zhi-Huan Jiang, Jie Bao, Jin-Feng Wei, Hong-Tao Jin, Ai-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the anti-psoriasis effects of α-(8-quinolinoxy) zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-F7)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and to reveal its mechanisms. METHODS: HaCaT cells were used to observe the influence of ZnPc-F7-PDT on cell proliferation in vitro. The in vivo anti-psoriasis effects of ZnPc-F7-PDT were evaluated using a mouse vagina model, a propranolol-induced cavy psoriasis model and an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced nude mouse psoriasis model...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Krešimir Živković, Nikica Živković, Tomislav Župić, Damir Hodžić, Vjekoslav Mandić, Slavko Orešković
Episiotomy is obstetric procedure during which the incision extends the vestibule of the vagina during the second stage of labor. Episiotomy was extensively spread with gradual increase of rates in the first half of the 20th century and was performed medio-laterally in all nulliparous women with the idea to protect fetal head from trauma and pelvic floor from injuries. However, reports claiming that episiotomy had no such benefits were published. It was shown that routine medio-lateral episiotomy did not protect against the appearance of urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery, while the risk of anal incontinence could be increased...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Farhan Taherali, Felipe Varum, Abdul W Basit
The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, nose, lungs, cervix and vagina is lined by epithelium interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells, all of which contribute to their unique functions. This mucus provides an integral defence to the epithelium against noxious agents and pathogens. However, it can equally act as a barrier to drugs and delivery systems targeting epithelial passive and active transport mechanisms. This review highlights the various mucins expressed at different mucosal surfaces on the human body, and their role in creating a mucoid architecture to protect epithelia with specialized functions...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Ke-Di Wang, Dong-Jiang Xu, Bao-Ya Wang, Dong-Hui Yan, Zhi Lv, Jian-Rong Su
Lactobacilli have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of several types of cancer cells, but the effects of vaginal Lactobacilli on cervical cancer cells have seldom been reported. We incubated Caski cells with supernatants of predominant strains in the vagina and investigated their effects on cell growth and the possible mechanisms. Cell-free supernatants of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were prepared and purified. Caski cells were treated with various concentrations of Lactobacillus supernatants (LS)...
October 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Stanley Robboy, Laurence Baskin
Human female reproductive tract development rests mostly upon hematoxilyn and eosin stained sections despite recent advances on molecular mechanisms in mouse studies. We report application of immunohistochemical methods to explore the ontogeny of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers (keratins, homobox proteins, steroid receptors), transcription factors and signaling molecules (TP63 and RUNX1) during human female reproductive tract development. Keratins 6, 7, 8, 10, 14 and 19 (KRT6, KRT7, KRT8, KRT10, KRT14, KRT19) were expressed in a temporally and spatially dynamic fashion...
September 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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