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Vagina and (biomechanical or mechanical or tensile)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804623/recent-advances-in-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-mayer-rokitansky-k%C3%A3-ster-hauser-syndrome
#1
Keiko Watanabe, Yusuke Kobayashi, Kouji Banno, Yusuke Matoba, Haruko Kunitomi, Kanako Nakamura, Masataka Adachi, Kiyoko Umene, Iori Kisu, Eiichiro Tominaga, Daisuke Aoki
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is a disease caused by congenital absence of the uterus and two-thirds of the upper vagina. The pathogenic mechanism of MRKHS may involve gene abnormalities, and there are various case reports associating MRKHS with the Wnt family member 4 (Wnt4) mutation. Analysis of genes mapped to regions in which deletion and duplication are frequently detected in patients with MRKHS has shown involvement of LIM homeobox 1 (LHX1), HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and T-box 6 (TBX6)...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782658/patterns-of-treatment-of-accidental-genital-trauma-in-girls
#2
Tazim Dowlut-McElroy, Jeanette Higgins, Karen B Williams, Julie L Strickland
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of girls with accidental genital trauma (AGT) who can be managed in the emergency department (ED) versus the operating suite (OS). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: ED at a children's hospital in a metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Girls aged 0 to 18 years with AGT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors associated with need for evaluation and repair of AGT in the OS...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763709/similar-mechanisms-of-traumatic-rectal-injuries-in-patients-who-had-anal-sex-with-animals-to-those-who-were-butt-fisted-by-human-sexual-partner
#3
Damian Jacob Sendler
Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al.(1) shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728862/seminal-plasma-proteins-modify-the-distribution-of-sperm-subpopulations-in-cryopreserved-semen-of-rams-with-lesser-fertility
#4
Alba Ledesma, Lucía Zalazar, Estela Fernández-Alegre, Federico Hozbor, Andreina Cesari, Felipe Martínez-Pastor
Any physiological mechanism involved in sperm selection and semen improvement has effects on heterogeneous sperm populations. This is mainly due to the fact that sperm populations within a single ejaculate have considerable heterogeneity for many variables, such as motility which is meaningful in terms of understanding how some sperm cells possess fertility advantages as compared with other cells. In the present research, initially there was a multivariate and clustering analysis used to assess sperm motility data from cryopreserved ram semen to identify subpopulations and compare the distribution of these clusters between rams with lesser and greater fertility...
June 27, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709803/an-ocular-commensal-protects-against-corneal-infection-by-driving-an-interleukin-17-response-from-mucosal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#5
Anthony J St Leger, Jigar V Desai, Rebecca A Drummond, Abirami Kugadas, Fatimah Almaghrabi, Phyllis Silver, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Mihaela Gadjeva, Yoichiro Iwakura, Michail S Lionakis, Rachel R Caspi
Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. We isolated one such candidate commensal, Corynebacterium mastitidis, and showed that this organism elicited a commensal-specific interleukin-17 response from γδ T cells in the ocular mucosa that was central to local immunity...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708510/changes-in-localization-and-density-of-cd63-positive-exosome-like-substances-in-the-hen-oviduct-with-artificial-insemination-and-their-effect-on-sperm-viability
#6
A Huang, N Isobe, Y Yoshimura
Avian sperm are stored in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct for a prolonged period. However, the precise mechanisms by which sperm are kept alive in the SSTs are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether exosomes are secreted by SST cells and play a role in the survival of sperm. Utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) tissue from approximately 50 wk old White Leghorn hens was collected before (control group) and after intravaginal insemination with seminal plasma (SP group) or semen (AI group)...
June 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700439/genital-rhabdomyoma-of-the-lower-female-genital-tract-a-study-of-12-cases-with-molecular-cytogenetic-findings
#7
J Kenneth Schoolmeester, Deyin Xing, Gary L Keeney, William R Sukov
Of the subtypes of extracardiac rhabdomyoma, genital rhabdomyoma is most uncommon and is occasionally classified as fetal rhabdomyoma due to morphologic similarities. In contrast to other forms of rhabdomyoma, the genetic alterations of genital rhabdomyoma are unknown. The clinical and pathologic findings in 12 cases were reviewed and 2 cases were processed for whole genome copy number analysis by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray. Twelve patients ranged in age from 43 to 65 yr (mean: 50.2 yr). Nine tumors arose in the vagina and 3 in the cervix, with their greatest dimension spanning 0...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696484/vaginal-changes-due-to-varying-degrees-of-rectocele-prolapse-a-computational-study
#8
Arnab Chanda, Isuzu Meyer, Holly E Richter, Mark E Lockhart, Fabia R D Moraes, Vinu U Unnikrishnan
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the United States annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall prolapse of the rectum is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multi-compartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667298/evolution-of-gene-expression-in-the-uterine-cervix-related-to-steroid-signaling-conserved-features-in-the-regulation-of-cervical-ripening
#9
Günter P Wagner, Mauris C Nnamani, Arun Rajendra Chavan, Jamie Maziarz, Stella Protopapas, Jennifer Condon, Roberto Romero
The uterine cervix is the boundary structure between the uterus and the vagina and is key for the maintenance of pregnancy and timing of parturition. Here we report on a comparative transcriptomic study of the cervix of four placental mammals, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit and armadillo, and one marsupial, opossum. Our aim is to investigate the evolution of cervical gene expression as related to putative mechanisms for functional progesterone withdrawal. Our findings are: 1) The patterns of gene expression in eutherian (placental) mammals are consistent with the notion that an increase in the E/P4 signaling ratio is critical for cervical ripening...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621044/haemophilus-influenzae-vulvovaginitis-associated-with-rhinitis-caused-by-the-same-clone-in-a-prepubertal-girl
#10
Xiao Chen, Lifeng Chen, Wenjie Zeng, Xiaofeng Zhao
Vulvovaginitis caused by upper respiratory flora is generally considered to be the most common gynecological problem in prepubertal girls. To date, however, no direct evidence has been obtained for the underlying mechanism of transmission. This report describes a case of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in a 6-year-old girl with a history of foreign bodies (cotton wool) in her vagina. Moreover, this girl had recurrent rhinitis for approximately 3 years. On Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis the H...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620304/pu-erh-tea-extract-ameliorates-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro
#11
Titi Liu, Shihua Ding, Dan Yin, Xiangdan Cuan, Chuanqi Xie, Huanhuan Xu, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB) groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614296/selective-depletion-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-from-the-gut-by-a-fimh-antagonist
#12
Caitlin N Spaulding, Roger D Klein, Ségolène Ruer, Andrew L Kau, Henry L Schreiber, Zachary T Cusumano, Karen W Dodson, Jerome S Pinkner, Daved H Fremont, James W Janetka, Han Remaut, Jeffrey I Gordon, Scott J Hultgren
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) affect 150 million people annually. Despite effective antibiotic therapy, 30-50% of patients experience recurrent UTIs. In addition, the growing prevalence of UPEC that are resistant to last-line antibiotic treatments, and more recently to carbapenems and colistin, make UTI a prime example of the antibiotic-resistance crisis and emphasize the need for new approaches to treat and prevent bacterial infections. UPEC strains establish reservoirs in the gut from which they are shed in the faeces, and can colonize the periurethral area or vagina and subsequently ascend through the urethra to the urinary tract, where they cause UTIs...
June 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599153/effects-of-repeated-biaxial-loads-on-the-creep-properties-of-cardinal-ligaments
#13
Adwoa Baah-Dwomoh, Raffaella De Vita
The cardinal ligament (CL) is one of the major pelvic ligaments providing structural support to the vagina/cervix/uterus complex. This ligament has been studied mainly with regards to its important function in the treatment of different diseases such as surgical repair for pelvic organ prolapse and radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer. However, the mechanical properties of the CL have not been fully determined, despite the important in vivo supportive role of this ligament within the pelvic floor. To advance our limited knowledge about the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the CL, we conducted three consecutive planar equi-biaxial tests on CL specimens isolated from swine...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554813/impact-of-exopolysaccharides-epss-of-lactobacillus-gasseri-strains-isolated-from-human-vagina-on-cervical-tumor-cells-hela
#14
Tolga Sungur, Belma Aslim, Cagtay Karaaslan, Busra Aktas
Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response...
May 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523400/long-term-effect-of-thermoablative-fractional-co2-laser-treatment-as-a-novel-approach-to-urinary-incontinence-management-in-women-with-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause
#15
Pablo González Isaza, Kinga Jaguszewska, Jose Luis Cardona, Mariusz Lukaszuk
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of thermoablative fractional CO2 laser (TACO2L) as an alternative treatment for early stages of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in postmenopausal women with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. METHODS: A total of 161 postmenopausal patients (age 53.38 ± 5.1 years, range 45-65 years) with a clinical diagnosis of mild SUI were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients received one treatment with TACO2L every 30-45 days, each treatment comprising four sessions, followed in all patients by a yearly treatment session at 12, 24 and 36 months...
May 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512410/rrx-001-priming-of-pd-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-vagina-a-rare-gynecological-tumor
#16
Christina Brzezniak, Bryan Oronsky, Jane Trepel, Thomas A Summers, Pedro Cabrales, Min-Jung Lee, Regina Day, Saheli Jha, Scott Caroen, Karen Zeman, Lindsey Ferry, Cindy Harmer, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Harry E Lybeck, James F Brown, Tony R Reid, Corey A Carter
Small cell carcinoma of the vagina is rare, so rare in fact that the total number reported in English-language journals is less than 30. Due to this extremely low incidence, no specific treatment guidelines have been established, and most of what is clinically known is derived from a handful of single case reports. However, as befitting its highly aggressive histologic features, which are reminiscent of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), first-line treatment is modeled after SCLC. Herein is reported the case of a 51-year-old African-American patient with metastatic biopsy-proven small cell carcinoma of the vagina that progressed through multiple therapies: first-line cisplatin and etoposide (making it platinum-resistant) and radiotherapy, followed by the tumor macrophage-stimulating agent RRx-001 in a clinical trial called QUADRUPLE THREAT, which per protocol preceded a mandated rechallenge with cisplatin and etoposide...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487243/towards-rebuilding-vaginal-support-utilizing-an-extracellular-matrix-bioscaffold
#17
Rui Liang, Katrina Knight, Deanna Easley, Stacy Palcsey, Steven Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
As an alternative to polypropylene mesh, we explored an extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold derived from urinary bladder matrix (MatriStem™) in the repair of vaginal prolapse. We aimed to restore disrupted vaginal support simulating application via transvaginal and transabdominal approaches in a macaque model focusing on the impact on vaginal structure, function, and the host immune response. In 16 macaques, after laparotomy, the uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments to pelvic side wall were completely transected (IACUC# 13081928)...
May 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457203/bypassing-the-rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer-a-fourth-mechanism-to-explain-how-concurrency-enhances-sti-spread
#18
Chris R Kenyon
A number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) persist for a considerably shorter period in the male urethra than the vagina. If the gap between sequential partnerships is longer than the duration of STI colonization in males, then this would protect future female partners from this STI in a setting of serial monogamy. If, however, males have more than one partner at a time (concurrency), then this would enable the STI to bypass this gap/buffer. We therefore propose bypassing the rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer as a fourth mechanism, whereby concurrency could enhance the spread of STIs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454911/biomechanical-and-morphological-properties-of-the-multiparous-ovine-vagina-and-effect-of-subsequent-pregnancy
#19
Rita Rynkevic, Pedro Martins, Lucie Hympanova, Henrique Almeida, Antonio A Fernandes, Jan Deprest
Pelvic floor soft tissues undergo changes during the pregnancy. However, the degree and nature of this process is not completely characterized. This study investigates the effect of subsequent pregnancy on biomechanical and structural properties of ovine vagina. Vaginal wall from virgin, pregnant (in their third pregnancy) and parous (one year after third vaginal delivery) Swifter sheep (n=5 each) was harvested. Samples for biomechanics and histology, were cut in longitudinal axis (proximal and distal regions)...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434752/effects-of-intrauterine-infusion-of-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-on-uterine-health-resolution-of-purulent-vaginal-discharge-and-reproductive-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#20
João G N Moraes, Paula R B Silva, Luís G D Mendonça, Alexandre A Scanavez, Joseane C C Silva, Ricardo C Chebel
The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of PVD, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the Metricheck device to diagnose PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable in the vagina...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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