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Vagina and (biomechanical or mechanical or tensile)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747756/veratrum-nigrum-inhibits-the-estrogenic-activity-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Ying Xu, Ting Chen, Xin Li, Qu Ya Kun, Jin Na An, Hong Xia Zheng, Yuan Zhao, Zi Jia Zhang, Na Lin
BACKGROUND: As recorded in the 18 incompatible medicaments of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, the combined use of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (SM) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) could induce toxicity and has been prohibited for thousands of years in China. However, the theory has been validated due to lack of evidence. Previous studies have focused on the chemical constituents that are responsible for the toxicity of the two agents. PURPOSE: This study offers preliminary insight into the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of estrogenic activity responsible for their incompatibility...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721802/microbiota-and-metabolic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Alessia Pascale, Nicoletta Marchesi, Cristina Marelli, Adriana Coppola, Livio Luzi, Stefano Govoni, Andrea Giustina, Carmine Gazzaruso
The microbiota is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, living in different districts of the human body, such as the gastro-enteric tube, skin, mouth, respiratory system, and the vagina. Over 70% of the microbiota lives in the gastrointestinal tract in a mutually beneficial relationship with its host. The microbiota plays a major role in many metabolic functions, including modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, regulation of satiety, production of energy and vitamins...
May 2, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684807/development-of-urogenital-system-in-the-spix-cavy-a-model-for-studies-on-sexual-differentiation
#3
Amilton Cesar Dos Santos, Alan James Conley, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto
This study documented, for the first time, the morphological patterns of differentiation of male and female genital organs of Spix cavy (Galea spixii) using histological and ultrastructural analyses, with immuno-localization of steroidogenic enzymes, cytochromes P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17), involved in the synthesis of estrogens and androgens respectively throughout fetal sexual development. Undifferentiated gonads of Spix cavy develop into ovaries in females after 25 days of gestation (DG), exhibiting P450arom immunoreactivity...
April 13, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684056/bifidobacteria-isolated-from-vaginal-and-gut-microbiomes-are-indistinguishable-by-comparative-genomics
#4
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
Bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, vagina, oral cavity and breast milk. They influence human physiology and nutrition through health-promoting effects, play an important role as primary colonizers of the newborn gut, and contribute to vaginal microbiome homeostasis by producing lactic acid. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria are transmitted from mother to infant remains in discussion. Moreover, studies have suggested that Bifidobacterium spp. have specializations for gut colonization, but comparisons of strains of the same bifidobacteria species from different body sites are lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595052/mucoadhesion-of-progesterone-loaded-drug-delivery-nanofibre-constructs
#5
Francis Brako, Richard Thorogate, Suntharavathanan Mahalingam, Bahijja Raimi-Abraham, Duncan Q M Craig, Mohan Edirisinghe
Mucoadhesive delivery systems have attracted remarkable interest recently, especially for their potential to prolong dosage form resident times at sites of application such as the vagina or nasal cavity, thereby improving convenience and compliance as a result of less frequent dosage. Mucoadhesive capabilities need to be routinely quantified during development of these systems. This is however logistically challenging due to difficulties in obtaining and preparing viable mucosa tissues for experiments. Utilising artificial membranes as a suitable alternative for quicker and easier analyses of mucoadhesion of these systems is currently being explored...
March 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533546/telocytes-in-the-female-reproductive-system-an-overview-of-up-to-date-knowledge
#6
REVIEW
Przemysław Janas, Iwona Kucybała, Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Hubert Huras
Telocytes are emerging cell population localized in the stroma of numerous organs, characterized by a distinctive morphology - small cell body with very long, slender prolongations, termed telopodes. Those cells can be found in the whole female reproductive system: in the vagina, uterus, oviducts and ovaries, mammary glands and also in the placenta. In our review, we aim at complete and transparent revision of the current knowledge of telocytes' localization and function, enriched by the analysis of the possible future direction of development of their clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526868/the-mechanisms-underlying-the-effects-of-amh-on-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-regression-in-male-mice
#7
Anzu Yamamoto, Takuya Omotehara, Yuuka Miura, Tadashi Takada, Naoki Yoneda, Tetsushi Hirano, Youhei Mantani, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced in the developing testis induces the regression of the Müllerian duct, which develops into the oviducts, uterus and upper vagina. In our true hermaphrodite mouse with an ovary on one side and a testis on the other (O/T), the oviduct and uterus are present only on the ovary side, and nothing derived from the Müllerian duct is present on the testis side. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying the unilateral Müllerian duct regression and the mode of AMH signaling, by performing immunohistology, Western blotting, and organ culture analyses...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495215/-progress-on-influencing-factors-regarding-the-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-infectious-diseases
#8
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477742/gastrointestinal-colonisation-and-systemic-spread-of-candida-albicans-in-mice-treated-with-antibiotics-and-prednisolone
#9
Michiyo Kobayashi-Sakamoto, Riyoko Tamai, Emiko Isogai, Yusuke Kiyoura
Normally, Candida albicans is a commensal microbe that resides in the human oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, the fungus can cause mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism by which local mucosal infections progress to systemic candidiasis is poorly understood. Here, a murine model of gastrointestinal (GI) candidiasis was developed by inoculation of the oral cavity, followed by treatment with tetracycline (TC) and prednisolone (PSL). Temporal progression from a local infection of the oral cavity to a systemic infection was then monitored...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453211/fistulation-between-a-colonic-j-pouch-and-the-upper-vagina-in-an-irradiated-pelvis-a-rare-complication-following-low-anterior-resection-with-colonic-j-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-rectal-cancer
#10
James Tankel, Shlomo Yellineck, Petachia Reissman
Formation of a colonic J-pouch with anastomosis to the rectal stump is an accepted form of reconstruction after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. It is thought this can help prevent the onset of LAR syndrome as well as improve the quality of life in the first two years following surgery. Rectovaginal fistulation is a recognised complication of this form of surgery usually occurring because of technical failure leading to inclusion of the vaginal wall into the stapled anastomosis. We present an as of yet unreported case of fistulation between the upper horizontal staple line of a colonic J-pouch-the tip of the 'J'-which was formed extracorporeally with the posterior vaginal fornix...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447068/microbial-culturomics-broadens-human-vaginal-flora-diversity-genome-sequence-and-description-of-prevotella-lascolaii-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-patient-with-bacterial-vaginosis
#11
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Anthony Levasseur, Oleg Mediannikov, Catherine Robert, Nicholas Armstrong, Carine Couderc, Florence Bretelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 anteiso (36%), C16:0 (19%), and C15:0 iso (10%)...
March 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391223/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-carbohydrates-in-the-vagina-a-short-review-on-vaginal-glycogen
#12
REVIEW
Richard Tester, Farage H Al-Ghazzewi
The reasons for (i) the presence and (ii) mechanisms of utilisation of glycogen by the lactic acid bacteria in the human vaginal tract are not well understood. It is probable that the vaginal epithelia produce both glycogen and α-amylase where the enzyme depolymerises the polysaccharide within the vagina itself. Only these depolymerised residues are then utilised for growth by the lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria cannot metabolise the glycogen directly due to their incapacity to produce the α-amylase enzyme...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391219/spinal-cord-neuronal-components-involved-in-the-reflex-activity-of-female-rat-pubococcygeus-motoneurons
#13
O Lara-García, M Lara-García, D Perez-Hernandez, E Cuevas, M Martínez-Gómez, P Pacheco
Evoked EMG reflex activity from the pubococcygeus muscle of female Wistar rats has been reported, but has not been carefully analyzed. Here, we studied this reflex activity through mechanical stimulation of the clitoris, perigenital skin, caudal vagina and foot, all of which produced bilateral reflex multiunit electromyographic (MEMG) tonic "on" activity and displayed a rapid adaptation. However, deep vagina and cervical stimulation did not modify MEMG baseline activity even if it was combined with clitoris, perigenital skin and foot stimulation...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380641/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-based-probiotic-as-novel-anti-fungal-and-anti-inflammatory-agent-for-therapy-of-vaginal-candidiasis
#14
E Gabrielli, E Pericolini, N Ballet, E Roselletti, S Sabbatini, P Mosci, A Cayzeele Decherf, F Pélerin, S Perito, P Jüsten, A Vecchiarelli
Previously we demonstrated that the treatment with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae exerts beneficial therapeutic effects against vaginal candidiasis. Here, we address potential mechanisms particularly examining the probiotic capacity to modulate both fungus and host-related factors. We show that the S. cerevisiae-based probiotic markedly affects the expression of virulence traits of Candida albicans such as aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) as well as hyphae-associated proteins Hwp1 and Ece1 in the vaginal cavity. On the host side, the probiotic suppression of the influx of neutrophils caused by the fungus into the vaginas of the mice is likely related to: (1) lower production of interleukin-8; and (2) inhibition of SAPs expression...
February 27, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354612/probiotics-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-postmenopausal-vaginal-infections-review-article
#15
REVIEW
Jun-Mo Kim, Yoo Jin Park
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level...
December 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320327/atypical-sites-of-deeply-infiltrative-endometriosis-clinical-characteristics-and-imaging-findings
#16
Luciana P Chamié, Duarte Miguel Ferreira Rodrigues Ribeiro, Dario A Tiferes, Augusto Cesar de Macedo Neto, Paulo C Serafini
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue that is located outside the uterine cavity and associated with fibrosis and inflammatory reaction. It is a polymorphic and multifocal disease with no known cure or preventive mechanisms. Patients may be asymptomatic or may experience chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, or infertility. The pelvic cavity is the most common location for endometriotic implants, which usually affect the retrocervical space, ovaries, vagina, rectosigmoid colon, bladder dome, and round ligaments...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313089/first-delivery-and-ovariectomy-affect-biomechanical-and-structural-properties-of-the-vagina-in-the-ovine-model
#17
Iva Urbankova, Geertje Callewaert, Silvia Blacher, Dries Deprest, Lucie Hympanova, Andrew Feola, Laurent De Landsheere, Jan Deprest
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Animal models are useful for investigating the genesis of pelvic floor dysfunction and for developing novel therapies for its treatment. There is a need for an alternative large-animal model to the nonhuman primate. Therefore we studied the effects of the first vaginal delivery, ovariectomy and systemic hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on the biomechanical and structural properties of the ovine vagina. METHODS: We examined the gross anatomical properties of nulliparous, primiparous, ovariectomized multiparous, and ovariectomized hormone-replaced multiparous sheep (six animals per group)...
January 8, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273316/quantitative-assessment-and-interpretation-of-vaginal-conditions
#18
Vladimir Egorov, Miles Murphy, Vincent Lucente, Heather van Raalte, Sonya Ephrain, Nina Bhatia, Noune Sarvazyan
INTRODUCTION: Few means exist to provide quantitative and reproducible assessment of vaginal conditions from biomechanical and functional standpoints. AIM: To develop a new approach for quantitative biomechanical characterization of the vagina. METHODS: Vaginal tactile imaging (VTI) allows biomechanical assessment of soft tissue and function along the entire length of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vaginal walls. This can be done at rest, with applied vaginal deformation, and with pelvic muscle contraction...
March 2018: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223536/polymeric-gels-for-intravaginal-drug-delivery
#19
REVIEW
Michael T Cook, Marc B Brown
Intravaginal drug delivery can elicit a local effect, or deliver drugs systemically without hepatic first pass metabolism. There are a number of emerging areas in intravaginal drug delivery, but the vagina is a challenging route of administration, due to the clearance mechanisms present which result in poor retention of dosage forms, and the potential for irritation and other adverse reactions. Gel formulations are desirable due to the ease of application, spreading and that they cause little to no discomfort to the patient...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134627/the-evolution-of-genital-shape-variation-in-female-cetaceans
#20
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia L R Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
February 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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