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Vagina and (biomechanical or mechanical or tensile)

Carla M S Ribeiro, Ramin Sarrami-Forooshani, Laurentia C Setiawan, Esther M Zijlstra-Willems, John L van Hamme, Wikky Tigchelaar, Nicole N van der Wel, Neeltje A Kootstra, Sonja I Gringhuis, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
The most prevalent route of HIV-1 infection is across mucosal tissues after sexual contact. Langerhans cells (LCs) belong to the subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that line the mucosal epithelia of vagina and foreskin and have the ability to sense and induce immunity to invading pathogens. Anatomical and functional characteristics make LCs one of the primary targets of HIV-1 infection. Notably, LCs form a protective barrier against HIV-1 infection and transmission. LCs restrict HIV-1 infection through the capture of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and subsequent internalization into Birbeck granules...
December 7, 2016: Nature
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Chiara Corno, Francesca Corcetto, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Maneschi, Elisa Maseroli, Edoardo Mannucci, Massimiliano Fambrini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual response is a complex phenomenon in which psychological, neurologic, and vascular mechanisms and hormonal factors interact. During the arousal phase, they cooperate to increase genital blood flow, thus inducing engorgement of the clitoris and lubrication of the vagina. Regulation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tone is the crucial event in the erectile process. Preclinical studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator neurotransmitter modulating, through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), clitoral flow vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul
Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
M Anastasiadou, G Michailidis
Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection...
September 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Christine E Larkins, Ana B Enriquez, Martin J Cohn
Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Abidullah Khan, Mohammad Humayun, Iqbal Haider, Maimoona Ayub, Zakir Shah, Fahad Ajmal
A previously well, 45-year-old Pakistani lady was admitted to the medical unit on-call of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) Peshawar with a 5-day history of fever, productive cough with copious mucoid sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. She also complained of dry eyes, mouth, and vagina. Her chest X-ray showed diffuse alveolar shadowing and arterial gas analysis confirmed type 1 respiratory failure. Over the next few days, she deteriorated rapidly making an urgent transfer to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) necessary, where she was mechanically ventilated...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Zhao Yang, Ma Ruixin, Yu Jing
OBJECTIVE: The role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the gene variants of its components in hypertension have been investigated in various studies. A local tissue-specific renin-angiotensin system (local RAS) has considered as a regulator of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis. However, no report has described the vagina protective efficacy of RAS inhibitors including ARB and ACEI. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effect of ARBs and ACEI on the vagina and cardiac expression of the local renin-angiotensin components...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael T France, Helena Mendes-Soares, Larry J Forney
: Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners are common inhabitants of the healthy human vagina. These two species are closely related and are thought to perform similar ecological functions in the vaginal environment. Temporal data on the vaginal microbiome have shown that nontransient instances of cooccurrence are uncommon, while transitions from an L. iners-dominated community to one dominated by L. crispatus, and vice versa, occur often. This suggests that there is substantial overlap in the fundamental niches of these species...
December 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Da Kyung Yoo, Sung-Ho Lee
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin, elicits strong immune responses in mammals. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that LPS challenge profoundly affects female reproductive function. For example, LPS exposure affects steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, resulting in delayed puberty onset. The present study was conducted to clarify the mechanism underlying the adverse effect of LPS on the delayed puberty in female rats. LPS was daily injected for 5 days (50 μg/kg, PND 25-29) to treated animals and the date at VO was evaluated through daily visual examination...
June 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Zhao Yang, Ma Ruixin, Yu Jing
OBJECTIVE: The role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the gene variants of its components in hypertension have been investigated in various studies. A local tissue-specific renin-angiotensin system (local RAS) has considered as a regulator of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis. However, no report has described the vagina protective efficacy of RAS inhibitors including ARB and ACEI. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effect of ARBs and ACEI on the vagina and cardiac expression of the local renin-angiotensin components...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rui Liang, Katrina Knight, William Barone, Robert W Powers, Alexis Nolfi, Stacy Palcsey, Steven Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
BACKGROUND: The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lei Fang, Lingwei Wang, Yingyi Yao, Jian Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Xue Li, Hanjie Wang, Xuening Zhang, Xiaoqun Gong, Jin Chang
Mucus is a viscoelastic and adhesive obstacle which protects vaginas, eyes and other mucosal surfaces against foreign pathogens. Numerous diseases that affect the mucosa could be afforded prophylactic and therapeutic treatments with fewer systemic side effects if drugs and genes could be sufficiently delivered to the target mucosal tissues. But drugs and genes are trapped effectively like other pathogens and rapidly removed by mucus clearance mechanism. The emergence of micro- and nano-delivery technologies combined with the realization of non-invasive and painless administration routes brings new hope for the treatment of disease...
August 31, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hazem Orabi, Alexandre Rousseau, Stephane Bolduc
Many diseases necessitate the substitution of vaginal tissues. Current replacement therapies are associated with many complications. In this study, we aimed to create bioengineered neovaginas with the self-assembly technique using autologous vaginal epithelial (VE) and vaginal stromal (VS) cells without the use of exogenous materials and to document the survival and incorporation of these grafts into the tissues of nude female mice. Epithelial and stromal cells were isolated from vaginal biopsies. Stromal cells were driven to form collagen sheets, 3 of which were superimposed to form vaginal stromas...
August 1, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Meng Li, Guangyong Li, Hongen Lei, Ruili Guan, Bicheng Yang, Zhezhu Gao, Yu Hui, Fubao Chen, Zhongcheng Xin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential and mechanism of three-dimensional (3D) cultures of ADSCs in the treatment of SUI in a rat model simulating menopause combined with preceding childbirth injury. METHODS: ADSCs were used to generate microtissues (MTs) with a hanging drop method. 48 postpartum Sprague-Dawley rats were developed SUI models by 4 hours vagina dilation (VD) followed by bilateral ovariectomy (OV). 10 rats underwent sham OV without VD served as control group...
August 15, 2016: Urology
Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
Several healthy developmental processes such as pregnancy, fetal development, and infant development include a multitude of physiological changes: weight gain, hormonal, and metabolic changes, as well as immune changes. In this review, we present an additional important factor which both influences and is affected by these physiological processes-the microbiome. We summarize the known changes in microbiota composition at a variety of body sites including gut, vagina, oral cavity, and placenta, throughout pregnancy, fetal development, and early childhood...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Erica Boldenow, Sean Merillat, Christopher Whidbey, Lisa Y Ngo, K M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
UNLABELLED: Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood...
2016: MBio
Tania Furst, George R Dakwar, Elisa Zagato, Anna Lechanteur, Katrien Remaut, Brigitte Evrard, Kevin Braeckmans, Geraldine Piel
Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is desirable, as it could allow a prolonged delivery and increase the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this project is to develop a polymeric solid mucoadhesive system, loaded with lipoplexes, able to be progressively rehydrated by the vaginal fluids to form a hydrogel and to deliver siRNA to vaginal tissues...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Arely Anaya-Hernández, Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Francisco Castelán, Estela Cuevas-Romero
PURPOSE: Thyroid dysfunctions are related to anovulation, miscarriages, and infertility in women and laboratory animals. Mechanisms associated with these effects are unknown, although indirect or direct actions of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin could be assumed. The present study aimed to identify the distribution of thyroid hormones (TRs) and thyrotropin (TSHR) receptors in reproductive organs of female rabbits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ovary of virgin and pregnant rabbits, as well as the oviduct, uterus, and vagina of virgin rabbits were excised, histologically processed, and cut...
June 7, 2016: Endocrine Research
L Maruccio, L Castaldo, L D'Angelo, C Gatta, C Lucini, C Cotea, C Solcan, E L Nechita
Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts...
May 25, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Ying Xu, Jie Ding, Jin-Na An, Ya-Kun Qu, Xin Li, Xiao-Ping Ma, Yi-Min Zhang, Guo-Jing Dai, Na Lin
Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism...
2016: Scientific Reports
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