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Fridolin Mujuni, Mariam M Mirambo, Peter Rambau, Korn Klaus, Muller Andreas, Dismas Matovelo, Mtebe Majigo, Christa Kasang, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: High risk (HR) human papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes have been associated with cervical cancer. In Tanzania there is a limited data on the epidemiology of HPV and genotypes distribution among HIV infected women. Here we document varieties of HPV genotypes associated with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV- infected women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza-Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional hospital based study involving HIV infected women was conducted between August and October, 2014...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Tian Zhou, Minlu Hu, Andrew Pearlman, Lisa C Rohan
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) are three efflux transporters that play key roles in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV sexual transmission. In this study, we investigated the expression, regulation, and function of these transporters in cervicovaginal tissues of a mouse model. Expression and regulation were examined using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, in the mouse tissues harvested at estrus and diestrus stages under natural cycling or after hormone synchronization...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Uma Shanmugasundaram, Joan F Hilton, J William Critchfield, Ruth M Greenblatt, Linda C Giudice, Sarah Averbach, Dominika Seidman, Barbara L Shacklett, Karen Smith-McCune
PROBLEM: There is little information regarding the impact of the intrauterine device on immune parameters of the upper female reproductive tract related to risk of HIV acquisition. METHOD OF STUDY: We collected cervical and endometrial samples from women using the hormonal intrauterine device to study its effects on endocervical cytokines/chemokine concentrations, phenotypic markers of T cells, responses of endometrial T cells to activation, and alterations of endometrial cellular infiltrates...
August 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Chang-Tsu Yuan, Ming-Chieh Lin, Kuang-Ting Kuo, Tsung-Hsi Wang, Tsui-Lien Mao
Benign, premalignant, and malignant endocervical glandular lesions occasionally show a gastric phenotype. We report 2 cases of gastric-type adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the endocervix, not associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia or gastric-type adenocarcinoma. Cytologically, both showed endocervical glands with slightly enlarged nuclei, distinctive nucleoli, pseudostratified strips, and intracytoplasmic golden yellow mucin. Histologically, both lesions were situated in preexisting endocervical glands and presented columnar cells with voluminous pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and evident nuclear atypia...
September 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Zheng Shen, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Mickey V Patel, Fiona D Barr, Charles R Wira
PROBLEM: The programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway regulates peripheral tolerance, immune responses, and is up-regulated in chronic viral infections, including HIV infection. However, expression of PD-1/PD-L1 on immune cells from the human female reproductive tract (FRT) and possible regulation by menopause and sex hormones are poorly understood. METHOD OF STUDY: PD-1/PD-L1 expression was analyzed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD163(+) macrophages, and CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DC) from endometrium (EM), endocervix (CX) and ectocervix (ECX)...
August 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Sevim Yildiz-Arslan, John S Coon, Thomas J Hope, J Julie Kim
The endocervix plays an important role in providing appropriate protective mechanisms of the upper female reproductive tract (FRT) while at the same time providing the appropriate milieu for sperm transport. Hormone fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle contribute to changes in the mucosal environment that render the FRT vulnerable to infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to identify genes in human endocervix tissues that were differentially expressed in the follicular versus the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle using gene expression profiling...
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Nigel Pereira, Anne P Hutchinson, Jovana P Lekovich, Elie Hobeika, Rony T Elias
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased steadily. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of ART-related procedures such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), saline infusion sonography (SIS), hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer (ET). While performing these procedures, the abdomen, upper vagina, and endocervix are breached, leading to the possibility of seeding pelvic structures with microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is therefore important to prevent or treat any procedure-related infections...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Sakiko Kageyama, Masafumi Kanoto, Yukio Sugai, Takeshi Suto, Satoru Nagase, Mitsumasa Osakabe, Takaaki Hosoya
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare gestational trophoblastic neoplasm of chorionic-type intermediate trophoblasts, and it is most frequently located in the lower uterine segment and endocervix. Due to the epithelial-growth pattern with geographic necrosis exhibited by the neoplastic cells, ETT is commonly confused, both clinically and pathologically, with squamous cell carcinoma. Although there have been no previous reports of ETT focusing on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, we report a case of uterine ETT with special attention to the MRI findings referring to the pathological findings and MR images of previous reports...
March 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Piotr Rzymski, Przemysław Niedzielski, Paweł Rzymski, Katarzyna Tomczyk, Lidia Kozak, Barbara Poniedziałek
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the content of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in human endometrium (END), endocervix (ECX), and endometrial (END-P) and endocervical (ECX-P) polyps in relation to histologic image and female demographic characteristics and habits. DESIGN: Tissues were collected during curettage of the uterine cavity, subjected to histopathologic examination, digested, and analyzed with the use of a microwave induced nitrogen plasma atomic emission spectrometer...
June 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Odigie Bolaji Efosa, Achukwu Peter Uwadiegwu
BACKGROUND: llicit sexual behavior by commercial sex workers (CSW) may have a disproportionate impact on the reproductive health of a woman that often leads to cervicitis. This study aimed at examining the cytopathology, patterns, prevalence and burden of cervicitis in CSW in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. METHODS: Cervical smear was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method...
July 2015: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Lidia Santos Silva, Luis Gafeira Goncalves, Fernanda Silva, Germana Domingues, Valdemar Maximo, Joana Ferreira, Eric W-F Lam, Sergio Dias, Ana Felix, Jacinta Serpa
Uterine cervix cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide with human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor. The two main histological variants, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinomas (AC), resemble the cell morphology of exocervix and endocervix, respectively. Cancer metabolism is a cancer hallmark conditioned by the microenvironment. As uterine cervix homeostasis is dependent on lactate, we hypothesized lactate plays a role in uterine cervix cancer progression. Using in vitro (SiHa-SCC and HeLa-AC) and BALB-c/SCID models, we demonstrated that lactate metabolism is linked to histological types, with SCC predominantly consuming and AC producing lactate...
April 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Naguib Salleh, Nurain Ismail, Sekaran Muniandy, Praveen Kumar Korla, Nelli Giribabu
The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC...
December 2015: Reproductive Toxicology
An-Jen Chiang, Di-Rong Chen, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng, Tsung-Hsien Chang
OBJECTIVE: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ovary in humans is rare. Most cases represent a malignant transformation of ovarian teratoma, Brenner tumor, or endometriosis. The etiology of this cancer remains largely unknown. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a critical factor that induces tumor formation, particularly cervical cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association of HPV with malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma (MCT) into SCC of the ovary...
October 2015: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Marcelo de Andrade Vieira, Geórgia Fontes Cintra, Ricardo dos Reis, Carlos Eduardo Andrade, Audrey Tieko Tsunoda
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a laparoscopic vaginal-assisted nerve-sparing radical trachelectomy. DESIGN: An edited educational video, including a step-by-step description of the procedure. SETTING: Radical trachelectomy is the main surgical indication for selected cases of initial cervical cancer with a fertility-sparing approach. Although transvaginal access is the most traditional route, this technique has not gained widespread acceptance because of the complexity of the ureteral dissection and the limited amount of resected parametrial tissue...
March 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Shogo Tajima, Kenji Koda
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) most frequently involve the uterus, particularly the uterine corpus and very occasionally the cervix. One case of PEComa identified using a conventional cervical smear has previously been documented. Herein, we present the second such case. The patient was a 51-year-old woman with abnormal genital tract bleeding. Samples collected for conventional cervical smears were submitted for cytopathological examination, which revealed discohesive monotonous tumor cells showing epithelioid morphology, ample cytoplasm that was pale to weakly eosinophilic, and mildly enlarged nuclei...
December 2015: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Shaila Talengala Bhat, Archana Shivamurthy, Anuradha Calicut Kini Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Iranian Journal of Pathology
Linda M Gorgos, Laura K Sycuro, Sujatha Srinivasan, Tina L Fiedler, Martin T Morgan, Jennifer E Balkus, Scott R McClelland, David N Fredricks, Jeanne M Marrazzo
BACKGROUND: Cervicitis is an inflammatory condition of the cervix associated with upper genital tract infection and reproductive complications. Although cervicitis can be caused by several known pathogens, the etiology frequently remains obscure. Here we investigate vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis as potential causes of cervicitis. METHODS: Associations between vaginal bacteria and cervicitis were assessed in a retrospective case-control study of women attending a Seattle sexually transmitted disease clinic...
September 2015: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Stewart F Cramer, Assaf Oshri, Debra S Heller
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myometrial growth and development. DESIGN: Thirty-five autopsy uteri, ranging from 10 weeks' gestation to age 18 years, acquired over 3 decades from 2 hospitals, were studied based on specimen availability, photographed for documentation, and reviewed at the end of the study. Most were embedded in toto, with 1 block and 1 slide per case. Some were immunostained for actin, CD10, MIB-1, and/or trichrome stain for collagen and muscle. Myometrial thickness was measured by ocular micrometry when sections were nontangential and analyzed by paired-sample t tests and bivariate linear regression...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Nagayasu Egawa, Kiyofumi Egawa, Heather Griffin, John Doorbar
Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity...
July 2015: Viruses
Karen Smith-McCune, Joseph C Chen, Ruth M Greenblatt, Uma Shanmugasundaram, Barbara L Shacklett, Joan F Hilton, Brittni Johnson, Juan C Irwin, Linda C Giudice
Intravaginal anti-HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. Our objective was to study the effects of intravaginal gels on the immune microenvironment of the cervix and uterus. In this randomized crossover study, 27 healthy female volunteers used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 (N9) gel as a "failed" microbicide or the universal placebo gel (UPG) as a "safe" gel (intervention cycles), or nothing (control cycle) from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase...
2015: PloS One
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