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Developmental optometrics

Imran H Yusuf, Chetan Kantibhai Patel, John F Salmon
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8 weeks of life...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Mabel M P Leung, Carly S Y Lam, Sutie S T Lam, Natalie W Y Pao, Cecilia W P Li-Tsang
The purpose of this study was to find out the visual profiles of children with handwriting difficulties (HWD) in Hong Kong Chinese. Forty-nine children with HWD (mean age 8.4 ± 1.1 years) and 27 controls (mean age 7.7 ± 0.7 years) were recruited. All subjects received eye examination and vision assessment included ocular health, refraction, accommodative functions, binocularity, visual perception (by Gardner reversal frequency test: recognition subtest; Test of visual perceptual skills (non-motor)-revised) and motor skills (by The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual motor integration; Detroit test of motor speed and precision)...
January 2014: Research in Developmental Disabilities
G U Burton, M Southam
This case study was designed to determine whether an adult with definable visual problems and sensory motor dysfunction would respond to a prescribed, periodically monitored home program of sensory motor activities. The subject was a 27-year-old college student who reported lifelong difficulties in visual-postural mechanisms which were documented through an Occupational Therapy initial evaluation, administered by Occupational Therapists, and the Functional Visual Evaluation, administered by a Vision Therapist...
1992: Occupational Therapy in Health Care
Gale Orlansky, Kristine B Hopkins, G Lynn Mitchell, Kristine Huang, Marcela Frazier, Catherine Heyman, Mitchell Scheiman
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the repeatability of the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM) with three consecutive administrations on two separate visits to 181 children between the ages of 6 years and 11 years 11 months. METHODS: Children with visual acuity of ≥ 20/25, normal binocularity, and accommodation were administered three different versions of the DEM test. One to 4 weeks after the first administration of the DEM, the children were tested again using the same order for the three versions of the DEM...
December 2011: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Jonathan S Pointer, Bernard Gilmartin
PURPOSE: Changes in refractive error are well documented over the typical human lifespan. However, a relatively neglected period of investigation appears to be during the late fourth decade; this is at the incipient phase of presbyopia (IP), where the amplitude of accommodation is much reduced and approaches the level where a first reading addition is anticipated. Significantly, informal clinical observation has suggested a low incidence of an unexpected abrupt increase in myopia during IP...
September 2011: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Catalina Palomo-Alvarez, María C Puell
BACKGROUND: The relationship between oculomotor scanning and reading in poor readers of primary school age is not well known. This study was designed to assess this relationship by determining mean Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test times and reading speeds in a Spanish non-clinical population of children with poor reading skills but without dyslexia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 81 poor readers (8-11 years of age) in the third to fifth grades recruited from 11 elementary schools in Madrid, Spain...
September 2009: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Jonathan S Pointer
PURPOSE: The maintenance of a good level of vision is desirable for developmental and social reasons; it is also a requirement that should not be overlooked in the clinical research environment. This study set out to quantify and analyse any difference between 'habitual' (pre-sight test) and 'optimal' (post-refraction) distance visual acuity in an optometric population. It is intended that the outcome of this work will inform not only clinicians but also those undertaking vision research...
September 2008: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Barry S Kran, Darick W Wright
The scope of clinical low vision services and access to comprehensive eye care through U.S. schools for the blind and visually impaired is not well known. Advances in medicine and educational trends toward inclusion have resulted in higher numbers of visually impaired children with additional cognitive, motor, and developmental impairments enrolled in U.S. schools for the blind and visually impaired. The availability and frequency of eye care and vision education services for individuals with visual and multiple impairments at schools for the blind is explored in this report using data collected in a 24-item telephone survey from 35 of 42 identified U...
July 2008: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
Christine L Allison, Helen Gabriel, Darrell Schlange, Sara Fredrickson
BACKGROUND: Sensory integration dysfunction is a neurologic condition that can cause children to process environmental sensations in an inappropriate way. As a result, they may either seek out strong sensations or avoid even mild sensations. Some of the characteristics of these children may be hyperactivity, poor awareness of pain, high risk taking, listening to loud sounds, clumsiness, poor fine motor skills, poor gross motor skills, poor visual tracking, problems with sequencing, and problems with balance...
December 2007: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
S C Larter, P R Herse, T J Naduvilath, S J Dain
Abstract This study investigated whether there is a relationship between reading age and clinical optometric tests that have varying degrees of spatial loading in their design. Spatial loading in this context is the demand on the visual system to process information about the relative position and orientation of stimuli. A total of 112 children aged 8-11 years were assessed using saccadic eye movement and rapid naming tasks with varying spatial loads. All were subtests of Garzia's Developmental Eye Movement test and Liubinas' SeeRite Reading Diagnostic Programme...
September 2004: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
R Jiménez, M D González, M A Pérez, J A García
The evolution of the accommodative function and development of ocular movement are evaluated in a non-clinical paediatric population (1056 subjects) aged 6-12 years, providing means for each age in the optometric tests that evaluate the accommodative amplitude, accommodative facility, accommodative response (lag), and saccadic movements. A comparison of these values between ages (anova) established three distinct trends in the behaviour of these parameters. The accommodative amplitude, measured by modified dynamic retinoscopy, and the evaluation of the saccadic movements by the development of ocular movements [developmental eye movement (DEM)] test showed continuous change with age...
March 2003: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
M Taylor Kulp
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between visual motor integration skill and academic performance in kindergarten through third grade. METHODS: One hundred ninety-one (N = 191) children in kindergarten through third grade (mean age = 7.78 years; 52% male) from an upper-middle class, suburban, primarily Caucasian, elementary school near Cleveland, Ohio were included in this investigation. Visual analysis and visual motor integration skill were assessed with the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) long form because it is a commonly used test in both optometric and educational practice and has a detailed scoring system...
March 1999: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
M T Kulp, P P Schmidt
The effect of visual skills, such as binocularity, on saccadic eye movement test performance is currently unknown. Therefore, the relationship between performance on commonly used clinical saccadic eye movement tests and visual skill was studied in a masked investigation of 181 kindergartners and first graders (mean age 6.25 years) from a middle class, suburban, elementary school near Cleveland, Ohio. The New York State Optometric Association King-Devick saccade test (NYSOA K-D) and the Developmental Eye Movement test (DEM) were employed because they are two commonly used clinical saccadic eye movement tests...
April 1998: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
P M Leary
OBJECTIVES: To review studies in the scientific literature of five physical interventions commonly recommended for children with neurodevelopmental delay. DESIGN: A literature search for and a review of the results of controlled and other studies conducted in the course of the last 25 years. SETTING: Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town. SUBJECTS: Patterning; neurodevelopmental therapy; sensory integrative therapy; optometric visual training; auditory integration therapy...
December 1997: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
M T Kulp, P P Schmidt
Although a substantial body of research has demonstrated an association between reading and eye movements, this association has not been examined in kindergartners. Therefore, the relation between psychometric eye movement scores and reading skill was studied in a masked investigation with 181 kindergartners and first graders (mean age 6.25 years) from a middle class, suburban, elementary school near Cleveland, Ohio. Eye movements were evaluated with the New York State Optometric Association King-Devick (NYSOA K-D; Bernell Corporation, South Bend, IN) and the Developmental Eye Movement tests (DEM; Bernell Corporation, South Bend, IN)...
January 1997: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
J M Woodhouse, J S Meades, S J Leat, K J Saunders
PURPOSE: To examine the accommodative accuracy and amplitude in children with Down syndrome. Accommodation is usually assumed to be good in children and is rarely measured. METHODS: A dynamic retinoscopy technique was developed that allows rapid and reliable measures of accuracy and amplitude of accommodation in infants and children. RESULTS: Use of the dynamic technique with a small sample of schoolchildren with Down syndrome shows that 80% have reduced amplitude of accommodation, in comparison to a control group of developmentally normal children...
June 1993: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
G Haegerstrom-Portnoy
Research over the last few decades has demonstrated the rapid development of vision function that occurs in infancy with near-adult levels reached before the age of 1 year. This period of rapid development coincides with the period of maximum sensitivity to insult. These facts emphasize the importance of effective screening techniques for visual disorders. Off-axis photorefraction is described as a new and effective screening technique for detection of refractive errors, media opacities, and strabismus. Separate from screening, a significant need exists for optometric vision evaluations in special populations...
April 1993: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
V Lakshminarayanan, J M Enoch, R A Knowles
In the presence of one or two intraocular lenses (IOL's; pseudophakic corrections) or in the presence of naturally occurring or developmental anisometropia (due to a tumescent cataract) some induced or residual refractive aniseikonia is usually encountered. We wish to call this problem to the attention of the optometric practitioner. We provide a discussion of the resultant aniseikonia and simple rules of thumb for management of such patients with refractive aniseikonia. Aniseikonia in these patients may be less important than once had been suggested, but certainly it is more significant than it is currently being considered...
February 1993: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
B B Schneider, D M Maino
BACKGROUND: Angelman (happy puppet) syndrome is a neuro-developmental condition characterized by an ataxic gait with puppet-like limb movements, paroxysmal bouts of laughter and severe mental retardation. Although considered a rare condition, over 140 cases have been documented since its designation in 1965. To date, only one study has been published investigating the ocular defects of Angelman syndrome. METHODS: In this paper we report the cognitive, motor, systemic, and oculo-visual findings of a 3 year old child with Angelman syndrome...
July 1993: Journal of the American Optometric Association
A J Libov, D M Maino
BACKGROUND: First described in 1956, Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurogenetic condition characterized by infantile hypotonia, hypogonadism and obesity. Mental deficiency, behavioral abnormalities, and obvious dysmorphic features are frequently found as well. It is a relatively common condition, with an incidence estimated to be between 1 in 10,000 to 25,000 live births. Few studies have been published that investigated the ocular defects associated with this syndrome. METHODS: This case report discusses the systemic and oculo-visual abnormalities of a 34-year-old white male enrolled in the Easter Seal Society of Metropolitan Chicago/Illinois College of Optometry Eye Care and Treatment Program...
May 1994: Journal of the American Optometric Association
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