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immune tolerance OR anergy OR deletion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457268/the-lymphoid-cell-network-in-the-skin
#1
REVIEW
Shweta Tikoo, Rohit Jain, Angela R M Kurz, Wolfgang Weninger
Cutaneous immunity represents a crucial component of the mammalian immune response. The presence of a large array of commensal microorganisms along with a myriad of environmental stresses necessitates constant immuno-surveillance of the tissue. To achieve a perfect balance between immune-tolerance and immune-activation, the skin harbours strategically localised immune cell populations that modulate these responses. To maintain homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune cells assimilate microenvironmental cues and coordinate cellular and molecular functions in a spatiotemporal manner...
February 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456655/effect-of-immune-tolerance-induced-by-immature-dendritic-cells-and-ctla4-ig-on-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-an-in-vivo-study
#2
Cuili Huang, Lidan Zhang, Fang Ling, Sijian Wen, Yanyan Luo, Hui Liu, Jingping Liu, Wenjun Zheng, Ming Liang, Jian Sun, You-Kun Lin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease in which tissue damage is caused by autoantibodies. The induction of specific immune tolerance, including the utilization of immune regulatory cells, may enhance the therapeutic effects of organ transplantation in patients with SLE. Furthermore, inhibiting immune responses has been reported to be an effective treatment for SLE. However, few studies have explored the association between an increased immune tolerance and a decreased immune response in SLE treatment...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456534/critical-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-il-2-receptor-signaling-in-foxp3-induction-by-an-inhibitor-of-dna-methylation
#3
Kristin Freudenberg, Nadja Lindner, Sebastian Dohnke, Annette I Garbe, Sonja Schallenberg, Karsten Kretschmer
Under physiological conditions, CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are generated in the thymus [thymus-derived Foxp3+ Treg (tTregs) cells] and extrathymically at peripheral sites [peripherally induced Foxp3+ Treg (pTreg) cell], and both developmental subsets play non-redundant roles in maintaining self-tolerance throughout life. In addition, a variety of experimental in vitro and in vivo modalities can extrathymically elicit a Foxp3+ Treg cell phenotype in peripheral CD4+ Foxp3- T cells, which has attracted much interest as an approach toward cell-based therapy in clinical settings of undesired immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456513/stochastic-effects-in-autoimmune-dynamics
#4
Farzad Fatehi, Sergey N Kyrychko, Aleksandra Ross, Yuliya N Kyrychko, Konstantin B Blyuss
Among various possible causes of autoimmune disease, an important role is played by infections that can result in a breakdown of immune tolerance, primarily through the mechanism of "molecular mimicry". In this paper we propose and analyse a stochastic model of immune response to a viral infection and subsequent autoimmunity, with account for the populations of T cells with different activation thresholds, regulatory T cells, and cytokines. We show analytically and numerically how stochasticity can result in sustained oscillations around deterministically stable steady states, and we also investigate stochastic dynamics in the regime of bi-stability...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456159/cd150-high-bone-marrow-tregs-maintain-hematopoietic-stem-cell-quiescence-and-immune-privilege-via-adenosine
#5
Yuichi Hirata, Kazuhiro Furuhashi, Hiroshi Ishii, Hao Wei Li, Sandra Pinho, Lei Ding, Simon C Robson, Paul S Frenette, Joji Fujisaki
A crucial player in immune regulation, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are drawing attention for their heterogeneity and noncanonical functions. Here, we describe a Treg subpopulation that controls hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and engraftment. These Tregs highly expressed an HSC marker, CD150, and localized within the HSC niche in the bone marrow (BM). Specific reduction of BM Tregs achieved by conditional deletion of CXCR4 in Tregs increased HSC numbers in the BM. Adenosine generated via the CD39 cell surface ectoenzyme on niche Tregs protected HSCs from oxidative stress and maintained HSC quiescence...
February 7, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455706/review-the-potential-of-seminal-fluid-mediated-paternal-maternal-communication-to-optimise-pregnancy-success
#6
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455667/role-of-non-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-hematological-malignances-and-its-targeting-by-natural-products
#7
REVIEW
Kodappully S Siveen, Kirti S Prabhu, Iman W Achkar, Shilpa Kuttikrishnan, Sunitha Shyam, Abdul Q Khan, Maysaloun Merhi, Said Dermime, Shahab Uddin
Tyrosine kinases belong to a family of enzymes that mediate the movement of the phosphate group to tyrosine residues of target protein, thus transmitting signals from the cell surface to cytoplasmic proteins and the nucleus to regulate physiological processes. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) are a sub-group of tyrosine kinases, which can relay intracellular signals originating from extracellular receptor. NRTKs can regulate a huge array of cellular functions such as cell survival, division/propagation and adhesion, gene expression, immune response, etc...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455558/investigational-immunosuppressants-in-early-stage-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Alberto Gajofatto, Marco Turatti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an immune mediated pathogenesis. Several therapies that suppress or modulate diverse immune system functions have been used for decades with the aim of modifying the disease course. However, these treatments have either limited efficacy or potentially serious adverse events that prevent first-line use on large scale. Areas covered. The aim of the present article is to review ongoing or recently completed clinical trials investigating immunosuppressive drugs for MS...
February 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455107/helios-expression-in-regulatory-t-cells-promotes-immunosuppression-angiogenesis-and-the-growth-of-leukemia-cells-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Xue Li, Dong Li, Xiaoyang Huang, Panpan Zhou, Qing Shi, Bing Zhang, Xiuli Ju
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) are crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, FoxP3 does not function alone and Helios is considered a potential candidate for defining Treg subsets. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of Helios for identifying Tregs in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). Our results demonstrated that patients with pre-B ALL had a higher percentage of Helios+ FoxP3+ CD4+ Tregs...
February 14, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454391/type-1-diabetes-susceptibility-alleles-are-associated-with-distinct-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota
#10
Jane A Mullaney, Juliette E Stephens, Mary-Ellen Costello, Cai Fong, Brooke E Geeling, Patrick G Gavin, Casey M Wright, Timothy D Spector, Matthew A Brown, Emma E Hamilton-Williams
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes (T1D). It is unknown whether changes in the gut microbiota observed in T1D are due to environmental drivers, genetic risk factors, or both. Here, we have performed an analysis of associations between the gut microbiota and T1D genetic risk using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D and the TwinsUK cohort. RESULTS: Through the analysis of five separate colonies of T1D susceptible NOD mice, we identified similarities in NOD microbiome that were independent of animal facility...
February 17, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453977/amelioration-of-progressive-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-epigenetic-regulation-involves-selective-repression-of-mature-neutrophils-during-the-preclinical-phase
#11
Arathi Jayaraman, Monica Sharma, Bellur Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
We have recently demonstrated that treatment of NOD mice with the epigenetic drug Trichostatin A (TSA) ameliorated myelin peptide induced progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P-EAE). Protection was accompanied by induction of antigen-specific T-cell tolerance in the periphery and reduced the influx of T cells into the spinal cord. In this investigation, we examined whether the epigenetic drug could impact the innate immune system as well. Whereas the mature (MHC class II + ) CD11b + Ly-6G + neutrophils expanded substantially in the peripheral lymphoid compartment during the preclinical phase, the MHC class II + , CD11b + Ly-6C + mature monocytes increased modestly throughout the disease course...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453041/microrna-signature-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-health-and-autoimmunity
#12
REVIEW
Mehdi Soltanzadeh-Yamchi, Mehdi Shahbazi, Saeed Aslani, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules with regulatory functions on the expression of genes through binding directly to target messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, eventuating in gene expression suppression via translational hindrance and/or target mRNA cleavage. These molecules have been established to participate in numerous critical cellular settings, including differentiation, development, and function of immune cells. As an important suppressor cell of immune system, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in modulating the immune homeostasis as well as tolerance to self-antigens...
February 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452963/chemical-sensing-in-development-and-function-of-intestinal-lymphocytes
#13
REVIEW
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The immune system of the intestinal tract has the challenging task of recognizing and eliminating intestinal pathogens while maintaining tolerance to dietary and commensal antigens; therefore, it must be able to sense environmental cues within the intestine and mount suitable responses dictated by their pathogenic or nonpathogenic nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was originally characterized as a chemical sensor of the environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) [12]. More recently, AHR has emerged as a major chemical sensor expressed in many intestinal immune cells that enables them to distinguish nutritional and microbial cues and is, therefore, important for development, maintenance and function of the intestinal immune system...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452935/e3-ligase-vhl-promotes-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-maturation-and-function-via-glycolysis-inhibition-and-induction-of-interleukin-33-receptor
#14
Qian Li, Dulei Li, Xian Zhang, Qingqing Wan, Wen Zhang, Mingke Zheng, Le Zou, Chris Elly, Jee H Lee, Yun-Cai Liu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a specialized subset of lymphoid effector cells that are critically involved in allergic responses; however, the mechanisms of their regulation remain unclear. We report that conditional deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL in innate lymphoid progenitors minimally affected early-stage bone marrow ILC2s but caused a selective and intrinsic decrease in mature ILC2 numbers in peripheral non-lymphoid tissues, resulting in reduced type 2 immune responses. VHL deficiency caused the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and attenuated interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor ST2 expression, which was rectified by HIF1α ablation or inhibition...
February 6, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452225/seminars-in-cell-and-developmental-biology-human-dendritic-cell-immunodeficiencies
#15
REVIEW
Venetia Bigley, Urszula Cytlak, Matthew Collin
The critical functions of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunity and tolerance have been demonstrated in many animal models but their non-redundant roles in humans are more difficult to probe. Human primary immunodeficiency (PID), resulting from single gene mutations, may result in DC deficiency or dysfunction. This relatively recent recognition illuminates the in vivo role of human DCs and the pathophysiology of the associated clinical syndromes. In this review, the development and function of DCs as established in murine models and human in vitro systems, is discussed...
February 13, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characters-a-pilot-open-lable-randomized-study
#16
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450658/modified-allergens-for-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Pattraporn Satitsuksanoa, Anna Głobińska, Kirstin Jansen, Willem van de Veen, Mübeccel Akdis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. RECENT FINDINGS: In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449897/atezolizumab-feasible-second-line-therapy-for-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Fanny Jean, Pascale Tomasini, Fabrice Barlesi
Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis is still poor and has recently been reformed by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the approval of anti-PD-1 (programmed cell-death 1) treatments such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab in second line. More recently, atezolizumab (MDPL 3280A), a programmed cell-death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, was also studied in this setting. Here, we report a review of the literature assessing the efficacy, safety, and place of atezolizumab in the second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449887/role-of-the-t-and-b-lymphocytes-in-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#19
Marta Rydzewska, Michał Jaromin, Izabela Elżbieta Pasierowska, Karlina Stożek, Artur Bossowski
Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escaping tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of various T cell subsets...
2018: Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449841/langerhans-cells-sensing-the-environment-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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