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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691994/chemical-biochemical-preclinical-and-clinical-studies-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharide-as-an-approved-drug-for-treating-myopathy-and-other-diseases-in-china
#1
REVIEW
Pengjiao Zeng, Zhihua Guo, Xuan Zeng, Cui Hao, Yiran Zhang, Meng Zhang, Yong Liu, Hui Li, Juan Li, Lijuan Zhang
Ganoderma lucidum is an edible medicinal mushroom known as "Lingzhi" in China and "Reishi or Manetake" in Japan. It is a highly prized vitality-enhancing herb for more than 2000 years. G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) has been identified as one of the major bioactive components and developed into a drug named "Ji 731 Injection" in China since 1973. The large-scale production of the drug began in 1985 and approved by the Chinese FDA as "Polysaccharidum of G. lucidum Karst Injection" (Ling Bao Duo Tang Zhu She Ye) in 2000, which is applied intramuscularly...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691600/a-proinflammatory-cd4-t-cell-phenotype-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Angela Sheu, Yixian Chan, Angela Ferguson, Mohammad B Bakhtyari, Wendy Hawke, Chris White, Yuk Fun Chan, Patrick J Bertolino, Heng G Woon, Umaimainthan Palendira, Frederic Sierro, Sue Mei Lau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous adaptations of the maternal immune system are necessary during pregnancy to maintain immunological tolerance to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Several complications of pregnancy have been associated with dysregulation of these adaptive mechanisms. While gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with upregulation of circulating inflammatory factors linked to innate immunity, polarisation of the adaptive immune system has not been extensively characterised in this condition...
April 24, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691338/the-efficacy-of-the-interferon-alpha-beta-response-versus-arboviruses-is-temperature-dependent
#3
Whitney C Lane, Matthew D Dunn, Christina L Gardner, L K Metthew Lam, Alan M Watson, Amy L Hartman, Kate D Ryman, William B Klimstra
Interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) is a critical mediator of protection against most viruses, with host survival frequently impossible in its absence. Many studies have investigated the pathways involved in the induction of IFN-α/β after virus infection and the resultant upregulation of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through IFN-α/β receptor complex signaling. However, other than examining the effects of genetic deletion of induction or effector pathway components, little is known regarding the functionality of these responses in intact hosts and whether host genetic or environmental factors might influence their potency...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691324/suppression-of-costimulation-by-human-cytomegalovirus-promotes-evasion-of-cellular-immune-defenses
#4
Eddie C Y Wang, Mariana Pjechova, Katie Nightingale, Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Mihil Patel, Eva Ruckova, Simone K Forbes, Luis Nobre, Robin Antrobus, Dawn Roberts, Ceri A Fielding, Sepehr Seirafian, James Davies, Isa Murrell, Betty Lau, Gavin S Wilkie, Nicolás M Suárez, Richard J Stanton, Borivoj Vojtesek, Andrew Davison, Paul J Lehner, Michael P Weekes, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Peter Tomasec
CD58 is an adhesion molecule that is known to play a critical role in costimulation of effector cells and is intrinsic to immune synapse structure. Herein, we describe a virally encoded gene that inhibits CD58 surface expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL148 was necessary and sufficient to promote intracellular retention of CD58 during HCMV infection. Blocking studies with antagonistic anti-CD58 mAb and an HCMV UL148 deletion mutant (HCMV∆UL148) with restored CD58 expression demonstrated that the CD2/CD58 axis was essential for the recognition of HCMV-infected targets by CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691293/immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma-playing-chess-not-checkers
#5
Christopher M Jackson, Michael Lim
Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a complex state of immune dysfunction involving multiple mechanisms of local, regional, and systemic immune suppression and tolerance. These pathways are now being identified and their relative contributions explored. Delineating how these pathways are interrelated is paramount to effectively implementing immunotherapy for GBM.
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689313/alpha-lactose-reverses-liver-injury-via-blockade-of-tim-3-mediated-cd8-apoptosis-in-sepsis
#6
Zhengping Wei, Pingfei Li, Yao Yao, Hai Deng, Shengwu Yi, Cong Zhang, Han Wu, Xiuxiu Xie, Minghui Xia, Ran He, Xiang-Ping Yang, Zhao-Hui Tang
In sepsis, the liver plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and is also a target organ for immune-related injury. Despite the critical function of CD8+ T cells against opportunistic viral infections, the CD8 immune response in the liver during sepsis remains elusive. Here we found that Tim-3 is highly up-regulated in liver CD8+ T cells in a mouse cecal ligation and puncture model and in peripheral blood CD8+ T cells of human patients with sepsis. The expression of Tim-3 in liver CD8+ T cells displayed a bi-phasic pattern and deletion of Tim-3 led to reduction of CD8+ T cell apoptosis...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689122/efficacy-and-safety-of-peginterferon-alfa-2a-40kd-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-peg-b-active-study
#7
Stefan Wirth, Hongfei Zhang, Winita Hardikar, Kathleen B Schwarz, Etienne Sokal, Weibo Yang, Huimin Fan, Vyacheslav Morozov, Qing Mao, Hong Deng, Yang Huang, Lei Yang, Nicolas Frey, Clare Nasmyth-Miller, Vedran Pavlovic, Cynthia Wat
Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) represent an area of unmet medical need, due to increased lifetime risk of CHB sequelae and limited therapeutic options compared with adult CHB patients. The PEG-B-ACTIVE (NCT01519960) phase III study evaluated peginterferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a treatment in children aged 3 to <18 years with CHB. A total of 161 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive immune-active patients without advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis were randomized (2:1) to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group A, n = 101) or no treatment (Group B, n = 50); patients with advanced fibrosis were assigned to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group C, n = 10)...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688994/generation-of-immunodeficient-rats-with-rag1-and-il2rg-gene-deletions-and-human-tissue-grafting-models
#8
Séverine Ménoret, Laure-Hélène Ouisse, Laurent Tesson, Frédéric Delbos, Delphine Garnier, Séverine Remy, Claire Usal, Jean-Paul Concordet, Carine Giovannangeli, Vanessa Chenouard, Lucas Brusselle, Emmanuel Merieau, Véronique Nerrière-Daguin, Franck Duteille, Frédérique Bellier-Waast, Alexandre Fraichard, Tuan H Nguyen, Ignacio Anegon
BACKGROUND: Immunodeficient mice are invaluable tools to analyze the long-term effects of potentially immunogenic molecules in the absence of adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, there are models and experimental situations that would beneficiate of larger immunodeficient recipients. Rats are ideally suited to perform experiments in which larger size is needed and are still a small animal model suitable for rodent facilities. Additionally, rats reproduce certain human diseases better than mice, such as ankylosing spondylitis and Duchenne disease and these disease models would greatly benefit of immunodeficient rats to test different immunogenic treatments...
April 23, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688817/current-status-of-messenger-rna-delivery-systems
#9
Matthew G Stanton
Messenger RNA is emerging as a highly versatile biological construct for creation of impactful medicines. mRNA vaccines directed toward infectious disease and cancer are in clinical development with encouraging early reads on tolerability and efficacy. The use of mRNA to direct intense but transient expression of paracrine factors is finding utility in reprogramming progenitor cells for wound healing and cardiac regeneration and for stimulation of antitumor immune responses, at least preclinically as we await clinical results...
April 24, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688492/adverse-events-in-vaccinations-for-travelers-a-1-year-prospective-survey-in-a-travel-clinic-in-germany
#10
Günther Slesak, Ralf Fleck, Helmut Scherbaum, Gunnar Blumenstock, Johannes Schäfer
Background: The study goal was to assess and compare adverse events (AE) of current vaccinations for travelers under 'real-life conditions'. Methods: A prospective observational online questionnaire study was performed from May 2015 till April 2016 in a travel clinic in Germany. Online questionnaire links were sent 1 week after the first vaccination date. Severity was rated on a scale from 1 to 5 (minor to very severe AE). Results: Of 1357 vaccinees 781 (57...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688444/identification-of-a-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-system-in-the-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917
#11
Chen Hanna, Fang Qian, Tu Qiang, Liu Chenlang, Yin Jia, Yin Yulong, Xia Liqiu, Bian Xiaoying, Zhang Youming
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a type of competitive mechanisms, and has been identified in various strains including Burkholderia, Dickeya, E. coli, and Yersinia. Classical CDI systems contain three genes, cdiB, cdiA and cdiI. CdiB encoded by cdiB gene is a conserved β-barrel protein and required for export of CdiA. CdiA protein encoded by cdiA gene includes a conserved N-terminal domain, and variable C-terminal toxic domain (CdiA-CT). Immunity protein CdiI binds and inactivates toxin protein CdiA-CT...
April 23, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687651/tlr9-deficiency-breaks-tolerance-to-rna-associated-antigens-and-upregulates-tlr7-protein-in-sle1-mice
#12
Teja Celhar, Hiroko Yasuga, Hui-Yin Lee, Olga Zharkova, Shubhita Tripathi, Susannah I Thornhill, Hao K Lu, Bijin Au, Lina H K Lim, Thomas P Thamboo, Shizuo Akira, Edward K Wakeland, John E Connolly, Anna-Marie Fairhurst
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 are important innate signaling molecules with opposing roles in the development and progression of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). While multiple studies support a dependency on TLR7 for disease development, genetic ablation of TLR9 results in severe disease with glomerulonephritis (GN) by a largely unknown mechanism. The present study was designed to examine the suppressive role of TLR9 in the development of severe lupus. METHODS: We crossed Sle1 lupus-prone mice with TLR9-deficient mice to generate Sle1TLR9-/- ...
April 24, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686676/interleukin-10-producing-dc-10-is-a-unique-tool-to-promote-tolerance-via-antigen-specific-t-regulatory-type-1-cells
#13
REVIEW
Michela Comi, Giada Amodio, Silvia Gregori
The prominent role of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) in promoting immune tolerance and the development of efficient methods to generate clinical grade products allow the application of tolDCs as cell-based approach to dampen antigen (Ag)-specific T cell responses in autoimmunity and transplantation. Interleukin (IL)-10 potently modulates the differentiation and functions of myeloid cells. Our group contributed to the identification of IL-10 as key factor in inducing a subset of human tolDCs, named dendritic cell (DC)-10, endowed with the ability to spontaneously release IL-10 and induce Ag-specific T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686675/pathogenetic-and-clinical-aspects-of-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibody-associated-vasculitides
#14
REVIEW
Peter Lamprecht, Anja Kerstein, Sebastian Klapa, Susanne Schinke, Christian M Karsten, Xinhua Yu, Marc Ehlers, Jörg T Epplen, Konstanze Holl-Ulrich, Thorsten Wiech, Kathrin Kalies, Tanja Lange, Martin Laudien, Tamas Laskay, Timo Gemoll, Udo Schumacher, Sebastian Ullrich, Hauke Busch, Saleh Ibrahim, Nicole Fischer, Katrin Hasselbacher, Ralph Pries, Frank Petersen, Gesche Weppner, Rudolf Manz, Jens Y Humrich, Relana Nieberding, Gabriela Riemekasten, Antje Müller
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase expressed by innate immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes) are salient diagnostic and pathogenic features of small vessel vasculitis, comprising granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic GPA. Genetic studies suggest that ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) constitute separate diseases, which share common immunological and pathological features, but are otherwise heterogeneous...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686669/nuclear-factor-kappab-in-autoimmunity-man-and-mouse
#15
REVIEW
Bahar Miraghazadeh, Matthew C Cook
NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a transcription complex crucial for host defense mediated by innate and adaptive immunity, where canonical NF-κB signaling, mediated by nuclear translocation of RelA, c-Rel, and p50, is important for immune cell activation, differentiation, and survival. Non-canonical signaling mediated by nuclear translocation of p52 and RelB contributes to lymphocyte maturation and survival and is also crucial for lymphoid organogenesis. We outline NF-κB signaling and regulation, then summarize important molecular contributions of NF-κB to mechanisms of self-tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686668/emerging-concepts-of-adaptive-immunity-in-leprosy
#16
REVIEW
Soumi Sadhu, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Leprosy is a chronic intracellular infection caused by the acid-fast bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae . The disease chiefly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The damage to peripheral nerves results in sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities and disability. Presently, the disease remains concentrated in resource-poor countries in tropical and warm temperate regions with the largest number of cases reported from India. Even though innate immunity influences the clinical manifestation of the disease, it is the components of adaptive immune system which seem to tightly correlate with the characteristic spectrum of leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686089/skin-microbiota-and-allergic-symptoms-associate-with-exposure-to-environmental-microbes
#17
Jenni Lehtimäki, Hanna Sinkko, Anna Hielm-Björkman, Elina Salmela, Katriina Tiira, Tiina Laatikainen, Sanna Mäkeläinen, Maria Kaukonen, Liisa Uusitalo, Ilkka Hanski, Hannes Lohi, Lasse Ruokolainen
A rural environment and farming lifestyle are known to provide protection against allergic diseases. This protective effect is expected to be mediated via exposure to environmental microbes that are needed to support a normal immune tolerance. However, the triangle of interactions between environmental microbes, host microbiota, and immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we have studied these interactions using a canine model (two breeds, n = 169), providing an intermediate approach between complex human studies and artificial mouse model studies...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686086/myb72-dependent-coumarin-exudation-shapes-root-microbiome-assembly-to-promote-plant-health
#18
Ioannis A Stringlis, Ke Yu, Kirstin Feussner, Ronnie de Jonge, Sietske Van Bentum, Marcel C Van Verk, Roeland L Berendsen, Peter A H M Bakker, Ivo Feussner, Corné M J Pieterse
Plant roots nurture a tremendous diversity of microbes via exudation of photosynthetically fixed carbon sources. In turn, probiotic members of the root microbiome promote plant growth and protect the host plant against pathogens and pests. In the Arabidopsis thaliana - Pseudomonas simiae WCS417 model system the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 and the MYB72-controlled β-glucosidase BGLU42 emerged as important regulators of beneficial rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and iron-uptake responses...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686053/identification-of-a-transcriptionally-forward-%C3%AE-gene-and-two-%C3%AF-genes-within-the-pigeon-columba-livia-igh-gene-locus
#19
Tian Huang, Xifeng Wang, Run Si, Hao Chi, Binyue Han, Haitang Han, Gengsheng Cao, Yaofeng Zhao
Compared with mammals, the bird Ig genetic system relies on gene conversion to create an Ab repertoire, with inversion of the IgA-encoding gene and very few cases of Ig subclass diversification. Although gene conversion has been studied intensively, class-switch recombination, a mechanism by which the IgH C region is exchanged, has rarely been investigated in birds. In this study, based on the published genome of pigeon ( Columba livia ) and high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we identified a transcriptionally forward α gene and found that the pigeon IgH gene locus is arranged as μ-α-υ1-υ2...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685106/tolerability-of-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-2015
#20
Suvanna Asavapiriyanont, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Surasak Kaoiean, Podjanee Phadungkiatwatana, Nattinee Srisantiroj, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Fatimah S Dawood, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Thailand recommends influenza vaccination among pregnant women. We conducted a cohort study to determine if the prevalence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with influenza vaccine among Thai pregnant women was similar to that often cited among healthy adults. METHODS: Women who were ≥17 gestational weeks and ≥18 years of age were recruited. Demographic and health history data were collected using structured questionnaires. Women were provided with symptom diary, ruler to measure local reaction(s), and thermometer to measure body temperature...
April 23, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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