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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231415/encapsulating-an-immunosuppressant-enhances-tolerance-induction-by-siglec-engaging-tolerogenic-liposomes
#1
Lijuan Pang, Matthew S Macauley, Britni M Arlian, Corwin M Nycholat, James C Paulson
Unwanted antibody responses significantly impact human health, and current options for treating deleterious antibody responses largely rely on broad immunosuppressants that can compromise overall immunity. A desirable alternative is to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance. We have shown that co-presentation of antigen and ligands of B cell Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) on a liposomal nanoparticle induces antigen-specific tolerance. Although Siglec-engaging tolerance-inducing antigenic liposomes (STALs) induce robust B cell tolerance in naïve mice, the full potential of STALs requires long-term tolerance induction and suppression of an ongoing immune response...
February 23, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229285/topics-on-vitamin-d-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-analysis-of-evidence-and-critical-literature-review
#2
António Marinho, Mariana Taveira, Carlos Vasconcelos
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiorgan inflammation, linked to the loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and the production of a diversity of autoantibodies. The phenotype and progression of SLE have been linked to a combination of environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. One such environmental factor is vitamin D, a vital hormone with well-established effects on mineral metabolism, skeletal health, and effects on cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to make the analysis of evidence and literature review of the pleomorphic effects of Vitamin D in SLE...
February 22, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229217/foxo3-estrogen-receptor-alpha-and-androgen-receptor-impact-tumor-growth-rate-and-infiltration-of-dendritic-cell-subsets-differentially-between-male-and-female-mice
#3
Matthew G Thompson, Daniel S Peiffer, Michelle Larson, Flor Navarro, Stephanie K Watkins
Tumors evade immune recognition and destruction in many ways including the creation of an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Dendritic cells (DC) that infiltrate the TME are tolerogenic, and suppress effector T cells and anti-tumor activity. Previous reports demonstrated that a key regulator of tolerance in DC is the transcription factor FOXO3. Gender disparity has been studied in cancer in relation to incidence, aggressiveness, and prognosis. Few studies have touched on the importance in relation to impact on the immune system...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228759/interleukin-35-producing-cd8%C3%AE-dendritic-cells-acquire-a-tolerogenic-state-and-regulate-t-cell-function
#4
Sergio Haller, Anaïs Duval, Romain Migliorini, Mathias Stevanin, Vanessa Mack, Hans Acha-Orbea
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in shaping immunogenic as well as tolerogenic adaptive immune responses and thereby dictate the outcome of adaptive immunity. Here, we report the generation of a CD8α(+) DC line constitutively secreting the tolerogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-35. IL-35 secretion led to impaired CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte proliferation and interfered with their function in vitro and also in vivo. IL-35 was furthermore found to induce a tolerogenic phenotype on CD8α(+) DCs, characterized by the upregulation of CD11b, downregulation of MHC class II, a reduced costimulatory potential as well as production of the immunomodulatory molecule IL-10...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228704/pd-1-and-pd-l1-immune-checkpoint-blockade-to-treat-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Andreas D Hartkopf, Florin-Andrei Taran, Markus Wallwiener, Christina B Walter, Bernhard Krämer, Eva-Maria Grischke, Sara Y Brucker
Immune checkpoint inhibition represents a major recent breakthrough in the treatment of malignant diseases including breast cancer. Blocking the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, has shown impressive antitumor activity and may lead to durable long-term disease control, especially in the triple-negative subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC). Although immune checkpoint blockade is generally well tolerated, specific immune-related adverse events (irAEs) may occur. This review summarizes the clinical efficacy, perspectives, and future challenges of using PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies in the treatment of breast cancer...
December 2016: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228426/probiotics-lactobacillus-gasseri-ks-13-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-and-bifidobacterium-longum-mm-2-improve-rhinoconjunctivitis-specific-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-seasonal-allergies-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#6
Jennifer C Dennis-Wall, Tyler Culpepper, Carmelo Nieves, Cassie C Rowe, Alyssa M Burns, Carley T Rusch, Ashton Federico, Maria Ukhanova, Sheldon Waugh, Volker Mai, Mary C Christman, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken
Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228278/immunopathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Gary S Firestein, Iain B McInnes
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory arthropathy. The majority of evidence, derived from genetics, tissue analyses, models, and clinical studies, points to an immune-mediated etiology associated with stromal tissue dysregulation that together propogate chronic inflammation and articular destruction. A pre-RA phase lasting months to years may be characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies, increasing concentration and range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and altered metabolism...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228257/t-regulatory-cells-support-plasma-cell-populations-in-the-bone-marrow
#8
Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Christoph Konradt, Fabien Dépis, James B Wing, Radhika Goenka, Daniela Gomez Atria, Jonathan S Silver, Sunglim Cho, Amaya I Wolf, William J Quinn, Julie B Engiles, Dorothy C Brown, Daniel Beiting, Jan Erikson, David Allman, Michael P Cancro, Shimon Sakaguchi, Li-Fan Lu, Christophe O Benoist, Christopher A Hunter
Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM) are a critical source of antibodies after infection or vaccination, but questions remain about the factors that control PCs. We found that systemic infection alters the BM, greatly reducing PCs and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a population that contributes to immune privilege in the BM. The use of intravital imaging revealed that BM Treg cells display a distinct behavior characterized by sustained co-localization with PCs and CD11c-YFP(+) cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that BM Treg cells express high levels of Treg effector molecules, and CTLA-4 deletion in these cells resulted in elevated PCs...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#9
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225165/the-contrasting-role-of-th17-immunity-in-human-health-and-disease
#10
Edwin Hoe, Jeremy Anderson, Jordan Nathanielsz, Zheng Quan Toh, Rachel Marimla, Anne Balloch, Paul V Licciardi
The human immune system is a tightly regulated network that protects the host from disease. An important aspect of this is the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and anti-inflammatory Treg cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Foxp3+ Treg are critical for sustaining immune tolerance through IL-10 and TGF-β while RORγt+ Th17 cells promote immunopathology and auto-inflammatory diseases through the actions of IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-22. Therefore, the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells can result in serious pathology in many organs and tissues in the body...
February 22, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224680/aberrant-expressions-of-endometrial-id3-and-ctla-4-are-associated-with-unexplained-repeated-implantation-failure-and-recurrent-miscarriage
#11
Jin-Li Ding, Liang-Hui Diao, Tai-Lang Yin, Chun-Yu Huang, Biao Yin, Cong Chen, Yi Zhang, Jie Li, Yan-Xiang Cheng, Yong Zeng, Jing Yang
Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 3 (Id3) is required for tumor angiogenesis and regulatory T-cell generation. However, the involvement of Id3 in unexplained repeated implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriage (RM) remains poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Id3, CD34, CTLA-4, and FOXP3 in the endometrium taken from the women with RIF (n=16), RM (n=16) and matched controls (n=8). The images were acquired and analyzed by the Vectra(®) automated quantitative pathology imaging system...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224362/analysis-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-and-tissue-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Angelika Schmidt, Cosima C Rieger, Ram Kumar Venigalla, Szabolcs Éliás, Regina Max, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Peter H Krammer, Annegret Kuhn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical mediators of immune tolerance, yet their involvement in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is incompletely understood. We analyzed CD4(+) T cell subpopulations with Treg-related phenotypes and their association with disease activity in peripheral blood (PB) and tissues of patients with SLE. In detail, we quantified subpopulations regarding CD25, FOXP3, CD62L, CCR6, CD27, CD45RA, and CD45RO expression in PB from 31 patients with SLE divided into two disease activity groups and 32 healthy controls using flow cytometry...
February 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224212/upregulation-of-thioredoxin-1-in-activated-human-nk-cells-confers-increased-tolerance-to-oxidative-stress
#13
Kousaku Mimura, Ley-Fang Kua, Noriko Shimasaki, Kensuke Shiraishi, Shotaro Nakajima, Lim Kee Siang, Asim Shabbir, Jimmy So, Wei-Peng Yong, Koji Kono
Adoptive transfer of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes and NK cells, has potential to control cancer growth. However, this can be counteracted by immune escape mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment, including those mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we determined the levels of anti-oxidant molecules in NK cells and their capacity to overcome ROS-induced immune suppression. We investigated the effect of H2O2 on resting NK cells, IL-2-activated NK cells and NK cells expanded by coculture with the K562 leukemia cell line genetically modified to express membrane-bound IL-15 and 4-1BB ligand (K562-mb15-41BBL)...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223917/gene-expression-profiling-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-of-trachemys-scripta-elegans-an-amniote-with-self-repair-capabilities
#14
Adrián Valentin-Kahan, Gabriela B García-Tejedor, Carlos Robello, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo, Fernando Alvarez-Valin
Slider turtles are the only known amniotes with self-repair mechanisms of the spinal cord that lead to substantial functional recovery. Their strategic phylogenetic position makes them a relevant model to investigate the peculiar genetic programs that allow anatomical reconnection in some vertebrate groups but are absent in others. Here, we analyze the gene expression profile of the response to spinal cord injury (SCI) in the turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. We found that this response comprises more than 1000 genes affecting diverse functions: reaction to ischemic insult, extracellular matrix re-organization, cell proliferation and death, immune response, and inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223693/single-cd28-stimulation-induces-stable-and-polyclonal-expansion-of-human-regulatory-t-cells
#15
Xuehui He, Ruben L Smeets, Esther van Rijssen, Annemieke M H Boots, Irma Joosten, Hans J P M Koenen
CD4+FOXP3+ Treg are essential for immune tolerance. Phase-1 clinical trials of Treg-therapy to treat graft-versus-host-disease reported safety and potential therapeutic efficacy. Treg-based trials have started in organ-transplant patients. However, efficient ex vivo expansion of a stable Treg population remains a challenge and exploring novel ways for Treg expansion is a pre-requisite for successful immunotherapy. Based on the recent finding that CD28-signaling is crucial for survival and proliferation of mouse Treg, we studied single-CD28 stimulation of human Treg, without T cell receptor stimulation...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223366/la-deletion-from-mouse-brain-alters-pre-trna-metabolism-and-accumulation-of-pre-5-8s-rrna-with-neuron-death-and-reactive-astrocytosis
#16
Nathan H Blewett, James R Iben, Sergei Gaidamakov, Richard J Maraia
Human La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B, SSB) is an abundant multifunctional RNA-binding protein. In the nucleoplasm, La binds to and protects from 3' exonucleases, the ends of precursor-tRNAs and other transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III, and facilitates their maturation, while a nucleolar isoform has been implicated in rRNA biogenesis by multiple independent lines of evidence. We showed earlier that conditional La knockout (La cKO) from mouse cortex neurons results in defective tRNA processing although pathway(s) involved in neuronal loss thereafter was unknown...
February 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223291/ctrp7-deletion-attenuates-obesity-linked-glucose-intolerance-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-hepatic-stress
#17
Pia S Petersen, Xia Lei, Risa M Wolf, Susana Rodriguez, Stefanie Y Tan, Hannah C Little, Michael A Schweitzer, Thomas H Magnuson, Kimberley E Steele, G William Wong
Chronic low-grade inflammation and cellular stress are important contributors to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction. Here, we uncover an immune-metabolic role for C1q/TNF-related protein 7 (CTRP7), a secretory protein of the C1q family with previously unknown function. In obese humans, circulating CTRP7 levels were markedly elevated and positively correlated with BMI, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels. Expression of CTRP7 in liver was also significantly upregulated in obese humans and positively correlated with gluconeogenic genes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223062/nivolumab-for-previously-treated-unresectable-metastatic-anal-cancer-nci9673-a-multicentre-single-arm-phase-2-study
#18
Van K Morris, Mohamed E Salem, Halla Nimeiri, Syma Iqbal, Preet Singh, Kristen Ciombor, Blase Polite, Dustin Deming, Emily Chan, James L Wade, Lianchun Xiao, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Luis Vence, Jorge Blando, Armeen Mahvash, Wai Chin Foo, Chimela Ohaji, Manolo Pasia, Gail Bland, Aki Ohinata, Jane Rogers, Amir Mehdizadeh, Kimberly Banks, Richard Lanman, Robert A Wolff, Howard Streicher, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Cathy Eng
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. METHODS: We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222746/c-terminal-region-of-apoptin-affects-chicken-anemia-virus-replication-and-virulence
#19
REVIEW
Yongqiang Wang, Xiuqing Song, Honglei Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Yonghao Hu, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Liting Qin, Huan Lin, Li Gao, Shuai Yao, Chunyan Han, Xiaomei Wang, Hualan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes anemia and immune suppression, which are important diseases in the poultry industry. CAV VP3, also referred as 'apoptin', has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells, raising great hopes for its utilization as an anticancer therapy. The ability of apoptin to induce apoptosis is closely related to its nuclear localization. The C-terminal region of apoptin contains a bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLS), and a nuclear export signal (NES) is located between the arms of the NLS...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222174/slmapk3-enhances-tolerance-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-tylcv-by-regulating-salicylic-acid-and-jasmonic-acid-signaling-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#20
Yunzhou Li, Lei Qin, Jingjing Zhao, Tayeb Muhammad, Hehe Cao, Hailiang Li, Yan Zhang, Yan Liang
Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus...
2017: PloS One
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