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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#1
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087809/trim13-potentiates-tlr2-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-via-k29-linked-polyubiquitination-of-traf6
#2
Bin Huang, Suk-Hwan Baek
Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification involved in NF-κB activation of TLR signaling. Here, we demonstrated that Trim13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is up-regulated in macrophages upon stimulation with TLR2 ligand. Knock-down of Trim13 attenuated TLR2-mediated production of cytokines/chemokines and formation of foam cells, as well as activation of NF-κB. Trim13 interacts with TRAF6 and potentiates NF-κB activity via ubiquitination of TRAF6. Overexpression of inactive mutant (C10/13A) or RING deletion mutant of Trim13 did not potentiate ubiquitination of TRAF6 or activation of NF-κB...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087664/human-blood-cd1c-dendritic-cells-encompass-cd5high-and-cd5low-subsets-that-differ-significantly-in-phenotype-gene-expression-and-functions
#3
Xiangyun Yin, Haisheng Yu, Xiaoyang Jin, Jingyun Li, Hao Guo, Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Yong Xu, Xuefei Wang, Rong Liu, Shouli Wang, Liguo Zhang
There are three major dendritic cell (DC) subsets in both humans and mice, that is, plasmacytoid DCs and two types of conventional DCs (cDCs), cDC1s and cDC2s. cDC2s are important for polarizing CD4(+) naive T cells into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, and regulatory T cells. In mice, cDC2s can be further divided into phenotypically and functionally distinct subgroups. However, subsets of human cDC2s have not been reported. In the present study, we showed that human blood CD1c(+) cDCs (cDC2s) can be further separated into two subpopulations according to their CD5 expression status...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087382/efficacy-and-safety-of-high-dose-rush-oral-immunotherapy-in-persistent-egg-allergic-children-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Inmaculada Pérez-Rangel, Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Carmelo Escudero, Silvia Sánchez-García, José Javier Sánchez-Hernández, María Dolores Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: Egg oral immunotherapy is effective but time consuming. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of egg rush oral immunotherapy (ROIT) with a targeted dose equivalent to a raw egg white. METHODS: Thirty-three persistent egg allergic children confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) were randomized to receive egg ROIT immediately after randomization (ROIT1 group), or to continue an egg avoidance diet for 5 months after randomization (control group [CG])...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086852/pd-l1-expression-in-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Takanobu Motoshima, Yoshihiro Komohara, Chaoya Ma, Arni Kusuma Dewi, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Sohsuke Yamada, Toshiyuki Nakayama, Shohei Kitada, Yoshiaki Kawano, Wataru Takahashi, Masaaki Sugimoto, Motohiro Takeya, Naohiro Fujimoto, Yoshinao Oda, Masatoshi Eto
BACKGROUND: The immune escape or tolerance of cancer cells is considered to be closely involved in cancer progression. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on activating T cells, and several types of cancer cells were found to express PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and ligand 2 (PD-L2). METHODS: In the present study, we investigated PD-L1/2 expression in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). RESULT: We found PD-L1 expression in 29 of 102 cases, but no PD-L2 expression was seen...
January 13, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#6
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081591/new-perspectives-of-biomarkers-for-the-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#7
REVIEW
Chih-Lin Lin, Jia-Horng Kao
With recent advances in molecular and genomic investigations, the impact of hepatitis B viral and host factors on the progression of chronic HBV infection has been explored. For viral factors, hepatitis B viral load is a strong predictor for liver disease progression. Hepatitis B viral kinetics appear to be important for successful anti-viral therapy. Serum HBsAg level serves as a complementary marker to viral load for the prediction of HBV-related adverse outcomes in patients with low viral load. In those with low viral load, high serum HBsAg level is associated with higher risks of cirrhosis and HCC...
December 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081217/collective-genetic-interaction-effects-and-the-role-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases
#8
Hyung Jun Woo, Chenggang Yu, Jaques Reifman
Autoimmune diseases occur when immune cells fail to develop or lose their tolerance toward self and destroy body's own tissues. Both insufficient negative selection of self-reactive T cells and impaired development of regulatory T cells preventing effector cell activation are believed to contribute to autoimmunity. Genetic predispositions center around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II loci involved in antigen presentation, the key determinant of CD4+ T cell activation. Recent studies suggested that variants in the MHC region also exhibit significant non-additive interaction effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081204/deletion-of-ssna-attenuates-the-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-suis-and-confers-protection-against-serovar-2-strain-challenge
#9
Miao Li, Ru-Jian Cai, Chun-Ling Li, Shuai Song, Yan Li, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Dong-Xia Yang
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is a major porcine and human pathogen which causes arthritis, meningitis, and septicemia. Streptococcus suis nuclease A (SsnA) is a recently discovered deoxyribonuclease (DNase), which has been demonstrated to contribute to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). To further determine the effects of ssnA on virulence, the ssnA deletion mutant (ΔssnA) and its complemented strain (C-ΔssnA) were constructed. The ability of ΔssnA mutant to interact with human laryngeal epithelial cell (Hep-2) was evaluated and it exhibited dramatically decreased ability to adhere to and invade Hep-2 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081194/t-cell-epitope-containing-domains-of-ragweed-amb-a-1-and-mugwort-art-v-6-modulate-immunologic-responses-in-humans-and-mice
#10
Ana I Sancho, Michael Wallner, Michael Hauser, Birgit Nagl, Martin Himly, Claudia Asam, Christof Ebner, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Barbara Bohle, Fatima Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) are the major cause of pollen allergy in late summer. Allergen-specific lymphocytes are crucial for immune modulation during immunotherapy. We sought to generate and pre-clinically characterise highly immunogenic domains of the homologous pectate lyases in ragweed (Amb a 1) and mugwort pollen (Art v 6) for immunotherapy. METHODS: Domains of Amb a 1 (Amb a 1α) and Art v 6 (Art v 6α) and a hybrid molecule, consisting of both domains, were designed, expressed in E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#11
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079123/trim22-mediated-apoptosis-is-associated-with-bak-oligomerization-in-monocytes
#12
Chi Chen, DongYan Zhao, Shu Fang, QiXing Chen, BaoLi Cheng, XiangMing Fang, Qiang Shu
Monocyte apoptosis is a key mechanism that orchestrates host immune responses during sepsis. TRIM22 is constitutively expressed at high levels in monocytes and plays important roles in the antiviral response and inflammation. Overexpression of TRIM22 interferes with the clonogenic growth of monocytic cells, suggesting that TRIM22 may regulate monocyte survival. However, the effect of TRIM22 on monocyte apoptosis remains unknown. In the present report, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-primed human peripheral blood monocytes expressing higher levels of TRIM22 were more sensitive to apoptosis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077657/lmp1-and-lmp2a-collaborate-to-promote-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-induced-b-cell-lymphomas-in-a-cord-blood-humanized-mouse-model-but-are-not-essential
#13
Shi-Dong Ma, Ming-Han Tsai, James C Romero-Masters, Erik A Ranheim, Shane M Huebner, Jillian Bristol, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Shannon C Kenney
: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with B cell lymphomas in humans. The ability of EBV to convert human B cells into long-lived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro requires the collaborative effects of EBNA2 (which hijacks notch signaling), LMP1 (which mimics CD40 signaling), and EBNA 3A/3C (which inhibit oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis). However, we recently showed that an LMP1-deleted EBV mutant induces B cell lymphomas in a newly developed cord blood-humanized mouse model that allows EBV-infected B cells to interact with CD4 T cells (the major source of CD40 ligand)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#14
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077588/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-intranasally-administered-replication-competent-sendai-virus-vectored-hiv-type-1-gag-vaccine-induction-of-potent-t-cell-or-antibody-responses-in-prime-boost-regimens
#15
Julien Nyombayire, Omu Anzala, Brian Gazzard, Etienne Karita, Philip Bergin, Peter Hayes, Jakub Kopycinski, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Akil Jackson, Jean Bizimana, Bashir Farah, Eddy Sayeed, Christopher L Parks, Makoto Inoue, Takashi Hironaka, Hiroto Hara, Tsugumine Shu, Tetsuro Matano, Len Dally, Burc Barin, Harriet Park, Jill Gilmour, Angela Lombardo, Jean-Louis Excler, Patricia Fast, Dagna S Laufer, Josephine H Cox
BACKGROUND:  We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. METHODS:  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077574/platelet-activating-factor-mediates-endotoxin-tolerance-by-regulating-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-dependent-expression-of-the-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3
#16
Kyung Tae Noh, In Duk Jung, Gil Sun Cha, Myung-Kwan Han, Yeong-Min Park
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediates immune tolerance, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. We previously determined plateletactivating factor (PAF) protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock, but its detailed mechanism of action was unknown. We performed survival experiments in IDO+/+ and IDO-/- mice using an LPSinduced endotoxemia model and rated organ injury (neutrophil infiltration, and liver function)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077404/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-pitfalls-and-opportunities
#17
James M Heather, Mazlina Ismail, Theres Oakes, Benny Chain
T-cell specificity is determined by the T-cell receptor, a heterodimeric protein coded for by an extremely diverse set of genes produced by imprecise somatic gene recombination. Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing allows millions of different T-cell receptor genes to be characterized from a single sample of blood or tissue. However, the extraordinary heterogeneity of the immune repertoire poses significant challenges for subsequent analysis of the data. We outline the major steps in processing of repertoire data, considering low-level processing of raw sequence files and high-level algorithms, which seek to extract biological or pathological information...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074830/tet1-in-nucleus-accumbens-opposes-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#18
Jian Feng, Catherine J Pena, Immanuel Purushothaman, Olivia Engmann, Deena Walker, Amber N Brown, Orna Issler, Marie Doyle, Eileen Harrigan, Ezekiell Mouzon, Vincent Vialou, Li Shen, Meelad M Dawlaty, Rudolf Jaenisch, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, yet current therapies fully treat <50% of affected individuals. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in depression and antidepressant action. Here, we examined a possible role for the DNA dioxygenase, ten eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), in depression-related behavioral abnormalities. We applied chronic social defeat stress, an ethologically validated mouse model of depression-like behaviors, and examined Tet1 expression changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074676/potential-route-of-th17-treg-cell-dynamics-in-targeting-type-1-diabetes-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-autoimmune-disorder-perspective
#19
Suresh Kumar Karri, A Sheela
Cytokines, small secreted proteins, have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells. They play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Factors in the breakdown of self-tolerance and the subsequent events leading to the induction of pathogenic responses remain unclear for most of the autoimmune diseases. Large numbers of studies have revealed a general scheme in which pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the initiation and propagation of autoimmune inflammation, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines facilitate the regression of inflammation and thereby recovery from the disease...
January 11, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073373/t-cell-exhaustion-from-pathophysiological-basics-to-tumor-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Kemal Catakovic, Eckhard Klieser, Daniel Neureiter, Roland Geisberger
The immune system is capable of distinguishing between danger- and non-danger signals, thus inducing either an appropriate immune response against pathogens and cancer or inducing self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity and immunopathology. One of the mechanisms that have evolved to prevent destruction by the immune system, is to functionally silence effector T cells, termed T cell exhaustion, which is also exploited by viruses and cancers for immune escape In this review, we discuss some of the phenotypic markers associated with T cell exhaustion and we summarize current strategies to reinvigorate exhausted T cells by blocking these surface marker using monoclonal antibodies...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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