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Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212538/sevoflurane-preconditioning-induced-endogenous-neurogenesis-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-promoting-microglial-activation
#1
Li Li, Hexige Saiyin, Jingmo Xie, Lixiang Ma, Lei Xue, Wei Wang, Weimin Liang, Qiong Yu
Brain ischemia causes irreversible damage to functional neurons in cases of infarct. Promoting endogenous neurogenesis to replace necrotic neurons is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemia patients. The neuroprotective role of sevoflurane preconditioning implies that it might also enhance endogenous neurogenesis and functional restoration in the infarct region. By using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, we discovered that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#2
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#3
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210207/cannabinoid-receptor-2-signaling-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-from-pathogenesis-to-a-promising-therapeutic-target
#4
REVIEW
Tommaso Cassano, Silvio Calcagnini, Lorenzo Pace, Federico De Marco, Adele Romano, Silvana Gaetani
As a consequence of an increasingly aging population, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, is rapidly increasing. Although the etiology of these diseases has not been completely defined, common molecular mechanisms including neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been confirmed and can be targeted therapeutically. Moreover, recent studies have shown that endogenous cannabinoid signaling plays a number of modulatory roles throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including the neuroinflammation and neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#5
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203608/modeling-fragile-x-syndrome-in-neurogenesis-an-unexpected-phenotype-and-a-novel-tool-for-future-therapies
#6
Barbara Bardoni, Maria Capovilla, Enzo Lalli
FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in synaptic translation. Its absence causes a form of intellectual disability, the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Small neuroanatomical abnormalities, present both in human and mouse FMRP-deficient brains, suggest a subtle critical role of this protein in neurogenesis. Stable depletion of FMRP has been obtained in a mouse embryonic stem cell line Fmr1 (shFmr1 ES) that does not display morphological alterations, but an abnormal expression of a subset of genes mainly involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203140/tamoxifen-activation-of-cre-recombinase-has-no-persisting-effects-on-adult-neurogenesis-or-learning-and-anxiety
#7
Peter Rotheneichner, Pasquale Romanelli, Lara Bieler, Sebastian Pagitsch, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Richard König, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sébastien Couillard-Després
Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2)-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreER(T2) activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199018/preface-60th-anniversary-of-the-japanese-society-for-neurochemistry
#8
REVIEW
Kazunori Imaizumi
To welcome the 60th anniversary of the Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, in this issue, we publish five Review articles from the society's leading groups in the Journal of Neurochemistry, and introduce what we have achieved in the neurochemical fields of research, including Ca2+ neurobiology, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuroregeneration. With the achievements in the past decades in mind, we will continue to contribute to the development of neurochemistry from now on too. This article is protected by copyright...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197172/the-dynamics-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-human-hippocampus
#9
REVIEW
Amadi O Ihunwo, Lackson H Tembo, Charles Dzamalala
The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197080/intense-exercise-promotes-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-not-spatial-discrimination
#10
Ji H So, Chao Huang, Minyan Ge, Guangyao Cai, Lanqiu Zhang, Yisheng Lu, Yangling Mu
Hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout adult life and plays an important role in learning and memory. Although the influence of physical exercise on neurogenesis has been intensively studied, there is controversy in regard to how the impact of exercise may vary with its regime. Less is known about how distinct exercise paradigms may differentially affect the learning behavior. Here we found that, chronic moderate treadmill running led to an increase of cell proliferation, survival, neuronal differentiation, and migration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#11
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195036/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibition-induced-neuroprotection-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhagic-stroke
#12
Yingying Zhao, Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Yongbo Zhang, Soonmi Won, Jinmei Sun, Shan Ping Yu, Jimei Li, Ling Wei
Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating disease that lacks effective therapies. In the present investigation, we tested 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) as a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ICH was induced by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum of 8 to 10-week old C57BL/6 mice. BIO (8 µg/kg, i.p.) was administered following either an acute delivery (0 - 2 hr delay) or a prolonged regimen (every 48 hrs starting at 3 days postICH)...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194885/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-of-neurogenesis-the-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Inga B Fricke, Sonja Schelhaas, Bastian Zinnhardt, Thomas Viel, Sven Hermann, Sébastien Couillard-Després, Andreas H Jacobs
Bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase in Doublecortin(+) (Dcx) neuroblasts might serve as a powerful tool to study the role of neurogenesis in models of brain injury and neurodegeneration using non-invasive, longitudinal in vivo imaging. Therefore, we aimed to use BLI in B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J Dcx-Luc (Doublecortin-Luciferase, Dcx-Luc) mice to investigate its suitability to assess neurogenesis in a unilateral injection model of Parkinson's disease. We further aimed to assess the blood brain barrier leakage associated with the intranigral 6-OHDA injection to evaluate its impact on substrate delivery and bioluminescence signal intensity...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194262/protective-effects-of-blueberry-drink-on-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress-in-adult-rats
#14
Qian Guo, Young-Nam Kim, Bog-Hieu Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Stress-induced cognitive impairment is related to the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis that results from an increase of oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administration of a blueberry drink, having a high antioxidant power, on the cognitive performance of adult rats exposed to chronic mild stress. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomly divided into four groups: control (CO), stress (ST), control + 5% blueberry drink (CO + B), and stress + 5% blueberry drink (ST + B)...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194007/jnk1-controls-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-imposes-cell-autonomous-control-of-anxiety-behaviour-from-the-neurogenic-niche
#15
H Mohammad, F Marchisella, S Ortega-Martinez, P Hollos, K Eerola, E Komulainen, N Kulesskaya, E Freemantle, V Fagerholm, E Savontous, H Rauvala, B D Peterson, H van Praag, E T Coffey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193719/brain-specific-ablation-of-efr3a-promotes-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pathway
#16
Qi Qian, Qiuji Liu, Dongming Zhou, Hongyu Pan, Zhiwei Liu, Fangping He, Suying Ji, Dongpi Wang, Wangxiao Bao, Xinyi Liu, Zhaoling Liu, Heng Zhang, Xiaoqin Zhang, Ling Zhang, Mingkai Wang, Ying Xu, Fude Huang, Benyan Lao, Binggui Sun
Efr3 is a newly identified plasma membrane protein and plays an important role in the phosphoinositide metabolism on the plasma membrane. However, although it is highly expressed in the brain, the functional significance of Efr3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we generated Efr3a(f/f) mice and then crossed them with Nestin-Cre mice to delete Efr3a, one of the Efr3 isoforms, specifically in the brain. We found that brain-specific ablation of Efr3a promoted adult hippocampal neurogenesis by increasing survival and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting their dendritic tree morphology...
February 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193596/vegf-regulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-immature-rats-after-status-epilepticus-through-the-vegf-r2-signaling-pathway
#17
Wei Han, Xiaojie Song, Rong He, Tianyi Li, Li Cheng, Lingling Xie, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
Epilepsy is the most common chronic disease in children, who exhibit a higher risk for status epilepticus (SE) than adults. Hippocampal neurogenesis is altered by epilepsy, particularly in the immature brain, which may influence cognitive development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents an attractive target to modulate brain function at the neurovascular interface and is a double-edged sword in seizures. We used the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in immature Sprague-Dawley rats to study the effects of VEGF on hippocampal neurogenesis in the acute phase and on long-term cognitive behaviors in immature rats following status epilepticus (SE)...
February 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193234/differential-timing-of-neurogenesis-underlies-dorsal-ventral-topographic-projection-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#18
Eerdunfu, Naoki Ihara, Bao Ligao, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The mammalian primary olfactory system has a spatially-ordered projection in which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the dorsomedial (DM) and ventrolateral (VL) region of the olfactory epithelium (OE) send their axons to the dorsal and ventral region of the olfactory bulb (OB), respectively. We previously found that OSN axonal projections occur sequentially, from the DM to the VL region of the OE. The differential timing of axonal projections is important for olfactory map formation because early-arriving OSN axons secrete guidance cues at the OB to help navigate late-arriving OSN axons...
February 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191785/impact-of-the-secretome-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-brain-structure-and-animal-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188834/amelioration-of-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-rats-following-postnatal-ethanol-exposure-using-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#20
Hiva Mohammadi Bolbanabad, Enayat Anvari, Mohammad Jafar Rezai, Ardashir Moayeri, Mohammad Reza Kaffashian
BACKGROUND: The neonatal development stage of the cerebellum in rats is equivalent to a human foetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this stage, cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis occur. Clinical and experimental findings have shown that ethanol exposure during brain development causes a variety of disruptions to the brain, including neurogenesis depression, delayed neuronal migration, changes in neurotransmitter synthesis, and neuronal depletion...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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