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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036854/functional-repertoire-of-interleukin-6-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#1
Klaus Heese
In an aging society with dementia imposing an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions, understanding the molecular and cellular events of adult neurogenesis is imperative. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R (the combined proteins are also known as Hyper-IL-6), is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration when neuron replacement is needed. In contrast to the previously reported gliogenic effects of activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis, this review summarizes recent studies showing that IL-6 activation can be neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035423/dementia-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-relevance-of-sleep-related-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-amyloid-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Brian S Mohlenhoff, Aoife O'Donovan, Michael W Weiner, Thomas C Neylan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for dementia, yet mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature suggests several potential mechanisms by which sleep impairments might contribute to the increased risk of dementia observed in PTSD. First, molecular, animal, and imaging studies indicate that sleep problems lead to cellular damage in brain structures crucial to learning and memory. Second, recent studies have shown that lack of sleep might precipitate the accumulation of harmful amyloid proteins...
October 16, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034461/the-migraine-attack-as-a-homeostatic-neuroprotective-response-to-brain-oxidative-stress-preliminary-evidence-for-a-theory
#3
Jonathan M Borkum
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that migraineurs show higher levels of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides) between migraine attacks and that migraine triggers may further increase brain oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is transduced into a neural signal by the TRPA1 ion channel on meningeal pain receptors, eliciting neurogenic inflammation, a key event in migraine. Thus, migraines may be a response to brain oxidative stress. RESULTS: In this article, a number of migraine components are considered: cortical spreading depression, platelet activation, plasma protein extravasation, endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, and the release of serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
October 16, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034144/exercise-treatments-for-psychosis-a-review
#4
Vijay A Mittal, Teresa Vargas, K Juston Osborne, Derek Dean, Tina Gupta, Ivanka Ristanovic, Christine I Hooker, Stewart A Shankman
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that has profound effects on a person's health and quality of life. Exercise represents a promising new treatment option that may supplement current psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis. A large body of work suggests that exercise can improve cardio-metabolic and health behavior and facilitate neurogenesis in areas of the brain that are notably impacted by psychosis. Recent efforts to incorporate exercise as either stand-alone or adjunctive treatment for individuals with schizophrenia range from yoga and light stretching to moderately intense walking, bike riding, or team sports...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033604/chronic-pain-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-translational-implications-from-preclinical-studies
#5
Mariagrazia Grilli
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG) occurs in the human brain. Adult generated neurons have been proposed to functionally contribute to relevant hippocampal functions such as learning and memory, mood regulation, and stress response. Learning, environmental enrichment, and physical exercise exert positive effects on ahNG. In parallel, these proneurogenic stimuli have been shown to ameliorate cognitive performance and/or depressive-like behavior in animal models. Conversely, aging, social isolation, and chronic stress exert negative effects on ahNG...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032331/unraveling-the-mechanistic-effects-of-electric-field-stimulation-towards-directing-stem-cell-fate-and-function-a-tissue-engineering-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Greeshma Thrivikraman, Sunil Kumar Boda, Bikramjit Basu
Electric field (EF) stimulation can play a vital role in eliciting appropriate stem cell response. Such an approach is recently being established to guide stem cell differentiation through osteogenesis/neurogenesis/cardiomyogenesis. Despite significant recent efforts, the biophysical mechanisms by which stem cells sense, interpret and transform electrical cues into biochemical and biological signals still remain unclear. The present review critically analyses the variety of EF stimulation approaches that can be employed to evoke appropriate stem cell response and also makes an attempt to summarize the underlying concepts of this notion, placing special emphasis on stem cell based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
October 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031903/agmatine-inhibits-chronic-morphine-exposure-induced-impairment-of-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-adult-rats
#7
Ying Liu, Guan-Yi Lu, Wen-Qiang Chen, Yun-Feng Li, Ning Wu, Jin Li
Our previous studies have shown that agmatine inhibited opioid dependence, yet the neural mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence showed that opioids decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone by inhibiting neural progenitor proliferation. However, whether agmatine affects chronic opioid exposure-induced impairment to hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of agmatine in hippocampal neural progenitors in morphine dependence rats...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031735/the-temporal-expression-profile-of-a-nos3-related-natural-antisense-rna-in-the-brain-suggests-a-possible-role-in-neurogenesis
#8
Gabriela G Chavez, Gabriella Taylor, Jekaterina Garaliene, Guy P Richardson, Sergei A Korneev
Experimental work over the past several years has revealed an unexpected abundance of long natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in eukaryotic species. In light of the proposed role of such RNA molecules in the regulation of gene expression in the brain, attention is now focused on specific examples of neuronal NATs. Of particular interest are NATs that are complementary to mRNAs encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for production of the important gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)...
October 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031555/beneficial-effects-of-dietary-restriction-in-aging-brain
#9
REVIEW
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh Sharma
Aging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the structure, metabolism and physiology of the brain leading to impaired cognitive and motor-neural functions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031551/neuroinflammation-and-neurosteroidogenesis-reciprocal-modulation-during-injury-to-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#10
Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Estrogens like estradiol (E2) via its receptors are pluripotent steroid hormones that exert a profound influence on the developing and adult brain in many vertebrates. In songbirds and mammals, acute brain injury resulting from mechanical damage, anoxia and ischemia rapidly upregulates aromatase and E2 synthesis. Interestingly, this E2 provision occurs due to the induction of aromatase expression in reactive astrocytes in areas surrounding brain injury. The resultant increase in E2 is neuroprotective with established influences on apoptosis, gliosis, cytogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030850/functional-analysis-of-micrornas-in-neurogenesis-during-mouse-cortical-development
#11
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxia Zeng, Li Zeng
The advantage of using in utero electroporation is that it can study the gene function during neurodevelopment in vivo. Using functional analysis of a microRNA (miRNA) gene as an example, this protocol describes a set of techniques that are crucial for the success of neurogenesis studies, including mice time mating, plasmid preparation, utero electroporation following miRNA injection into mice embryonic brain ventricle, labeling of proliferating cells with EDU (ethynyldeoxyuridine), cryosectioning, immunofluorescence staining, and confocal microscopic analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030053/function-and-dysfunction-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-regeneration-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lei Peng, Michael A Bonaguidi
The hippocampus is the only known brain region where physiological neurogenesis continues into adulthood across mammalian species and in humans. However, disease and injury can change the level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which plays an important role in regulating cognitive and emotional abilities. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis can mediate treatment of mental illness or affect the brain's capacity for repair and regeneration. In the present review, we evaluate how adult neurogenesis contributes to the repair and regeneration of hippocampal circuitry in the face of diseases and injuries...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030052/primary-cilia-in-brain-development-and-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Yong Ha Youn, Young-Goo Han
The primary cilium, a sensory appendage that is present in most mammalian cells, plays critical roles in signaling pathways and cell cycle progression. Mutations that affect the structure or function of primary cilia result in ciliopathies, a group of developmental and degenerative diseases that affect almost all organs and tissues. Our understanding of the constituents, development, and function of primary cilia has advanced considerably in recent years, revealing pathogenic mechanisms that potentially underlie ciliopathies...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029200/lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-stimulation-has-selective-effects-on-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-perilesional-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-in-the-rodent-model
#14
Hugh H Chan, Jessica Cooperrider, Zhihong Chen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Connor A Wathen, Claire R Modic, Hyun-Joo Park, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation of the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) has been demonstrated to enhance motor recovery following cortical ischemia. This effect is concurrent with synaptogenesis and expression of long-term potentiation markers in the perilesional cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the cellular changes associated with chronic LCN stimulation in the ischemic rodent by examining neurogenesis along the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027613/both-decreased-akt-expression-and-mtor-phosphorylation-are-related-to-decreased-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-hippocampal-alveus-of-aged-mice
#15
Bing Chun Yan, Dan Jiang, Jie Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Pei Xu, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Aging is an inevitable process which results in many changes. These changes are closely related to the hippocampus which is in charge of long-term learning and episodic memory. AIM: This study was to investigate age-related changes of the cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and Akt/mTOR signaling in the hippocampal alveus of aged mice. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the differences of neurogenesis in the hippocampal alveus between adult (postnatal month 6) and aged (postnatal month 24) mice using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
October 13, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025924/dmrt5-a-novel-neurogenic-factor-reciprocally-regulates-lhx2-to-control-the-neuron-glia-cell-fate-switch-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#16
Bhavana Muralidharan, Marc Keruzore, Saurabh J Pradhan, Basabdatta Roy, Ashwin S Shetty, Veena Kinare, Leora D'Souza, Upasana Maheshwari, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Agasthya Suresh, Sanjeev Galande, Eric J Bellefroid, Shubha Tole
Regulation of the neuron-glia cell fate switch is a critical step in the development of the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024726/the-antiepileptic-drug-levetiracetam-promotes-neuroblast-differentiation-and-expression-of-superoxide-dismutase-in-the-mouse-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-via-pi3k-akt-signalling
#17
Bing Chun Yan, Hui Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Jie Wang, Pei Xu, Dan Jiang, Xing Yu
Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed to treat certain types of seizures. Few studies have investigated the effects of LEV on hippocampal neurogenesis and its related mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LEV on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We here demonstrate a dose-dependent increase in Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the DG in LEV-treated mice, and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were also significantly increased in the hippocampal DG of mice treated with LEV...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023414/3-5-6-7-8-3-4-heptamethoxyflavone-ameliorates-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-neurochemical-changes-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stressed-mice-by-regulating-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-requirement-for-erk-activation
#18
Atsushi Sawamoto, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Takashi Yamada, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
We previously reported that the subcutaneous administration of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxyflavone, attenuated depressive-like behavior and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a corticosterone-induced depression-like mouse model. We herein demonstrated that (1) HMF was detectable in the brain 10 and 30 min after its oral administration, (2) orally administered HMF improved chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced pathological conditions, including body weight loss and depressive-like behavior, and CUMS-induced neurochemical changes, such as reduction in BDNF expression, decrease in neurogenesis, and decreased level of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus, and (3) these effects of HMF were inhibited by the pre-administration of U0126, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021361/running-changes-the-brain-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#19
REVIEW
Carmen Vivar, Henriette van Praag
Exercise is a simple intervention that profoundly benefits cognition. In rodents, running increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for memory. We describe the dynamic changes in new neuron number and afferent connections throughout their maturation. We highlight the effects of exercise on the neurotransmitter systems involved, with a focus on the role of glutamate and acetylcholine in the initial development of new neurons in the adult brain.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021239/an-rna-binding-protein-qki5-regulates-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-through-pre-mrna-processing-in-cell-adhesion-signaling
#20
Yoshika Hayakawa-Yano, Satoshi Suyama, Masahiro Nogami, Masato Yugami, Ikuko Koya, Takako Furukawa, Li Zhou, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Hirohide Takebayashi, Atsushi Nakanishi, Hideyuki Okano, Masato Yano
Cell type-specific transcriptomes are enabled by the action of multiple regulators, which are frequently expressed within restricted tissue regions. In the present study, we identify one such regulator, Quaking 5 (Qki5), as an RNA-binding protein (RNABP) that is expressed in early embryonic neural stem cells and subsequently down-regulated during neurogenesis. mRNA sequencing analysis in neural stem cell culture indicates that Qki proteins play supporting roles in the neural stem cell transcriptome and various forms of mRNA processing that may result from regionally restricted expression and subcellular localization...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
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