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Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218768/relationships-between-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-concentration-and-parameters-for-health-scores-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#1
Mitsugu Hachisu, Masahiro Hashizume, Hisashi Kawai, Hirohiko Hirano, Motonaga Kojima, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Shuichi Obuchi, Kazushige Ihara
AIM: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the progression of neuronal survival, phenotyping differentiation and maintenance of various neurons, as well as neurogenesis. We studied how BDNF affects health parameters of older adults by carrying out a health examination of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We measured the serum BDNF concentration of 898 older adults aged 65-84 years who participated in regional health examinations in the Tokyo area and also measured various parameters, such as the thickness of the quadriceps femoris, percentage of body fat, body mass index, grip strength, frequency of walking, and use of sleeping drugs and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
December 8, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218419/an-unexpected-improvement-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-ability-in-alpha-synuclein-a53t-transgenic-mice
#2
Qi Liu, YuYu Xu, WenPing Wan, ZeGang Ma
Growing evidence suggests, as Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses, that its non-motor symptoms appear prior to or in parallel with its motor deficits. Alpha-synuclein A53T transgenic mouse (A53T) is an essential tool to investigate the onsets and the extents of PD non-motor symptoms. Our aim is to investigate spatial learning and memory ability in A53T mice. In our rotarod tests, no motor coordination impairments were detected in mice of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old. We then investigated their spatial learning and memory ability through Morris water maze in 3- and 9-month-old mice...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217751/cellular-basis-of-brain-maturation-and-acquisition-of-complex-behaviors-in-salamanders
#3
Alberto Joven, Heng Wang, Tiago Pinheiro, L Shahul Hameed, Laure Belnoue, András Simon
The overall bauplan of the tetrapod brain is highly conserved, yet significant variations exist among species in terms of brain size, structural composition and cellular diversity. Understanding processes underlying neural and behavioral development in a wide range of species is important both from an evolutionary developmental perspective as well as for the identification of cell sources with post-developmental neurogenic potential. Here we characterize germinal processes in the brain of Notophthalmus viridescens and Pleurodeles waltl during both development and adulthood...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217681/the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp2-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-early-myelination-and-contributes-to-timely-remyelination
#4
Jared T Ahrendsen, Danielle E Harlow, Lisbet T Finseth, Jennifer N Bourne, Sean P Hickey, Elizabeth A Gould, Cecilia M Culp, Wendy B Macklin
Shp2 is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been shown to influence neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, and oligodendrocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Shp2 is a known regulator of the Akt/mTOR and ERK signaling pathways in multiple cellular contexts, including oligodendrocytes. Its role during later postnatal CNS development or in response to demyelination injury has not been examined. Based on the current studies, we hypothesize that Shp2 is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. Using transgenic mouse technology, we show that Shp2 is involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and early myelination, but is not necessary for myelin maintenance...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217680/non-newly-generated-immature-neurons-in-the-sheep-brain-are-not-restricted-to-cerebral-cortex
#5
Matteo Piumatti, Ottavia Palazzo, Chiara La Rosa, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Federico Luzzati, Frederic Lévy, Luca Bonfanti
A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally, then remaining in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals are found also in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes, to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217587/different-mutational-rates-and-mechanisms-in-human-cells-at-pregastrulation-and-neurogenesis
#6
Taejeong Bae, Livia Tomasini, Jessica Mariani, Bo Zhou, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Daniel Franjic, Mihovil Pletikos, Reenal Pattni, Bo-Juen Chen, Elisa Venturini, Bridget Riley-Gillis, Nenad Sestan, Alexander E Urban, Alexej Abyzov, Flora M Vaccarino
Somatic mosaicism in the human brain may alter function of individual neurons. We analyzed genomes of single cells from the forebrains of three human fetuses (15 to 21 weeks post-conception) using clonal cell populations. We detected 200-400 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) per cell. SNV patterns resembled those found in cancer cell genomes, indicating a role of background mutagenesis in cancer. SNVs with a frequency of >2% in brain were shared with the spleen, revealing a pregastrulation origin. We reconstructed cell lineages for the first five post-zygotic cleavages and calculated a mutation rate of ~1...
December 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217575/spatiotemporal-gene-expression-trajectories-reveal-developmental-hierarchies-of-the-human-cortex
#7
Tomasz J Nowakowski, Aparna Bhaduri, Alex A Pollen, Beatriz Alvarado, Mohammed A Mostajo-Radji, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Maximilian Haeussler, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Siyuan John Liu, Dmitry Velmeshev, Johain Ryad Ounadjela, Joe Shuga, Xiaohui Wang, Daniel A Lim, Jay A West, Anne A Leyrat, W James Kent, Arnold R Kriegstein
Systematic analyses of spatiotemporal gene expression trajectories during organogenesis have been challenging because diverse cell types at different stages of maturation and differentiation coexist in the emerging tissues. We identified discrete cell types as well as temporally and spatially restricted trajectories of radial glia maturation and neurogenesis in developing human telencephalon. These lineage-specific trajectories reveal the expression of neurogenic transcription factors in early radial glia and enriched activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in outer radial glia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217155/pleiotropic-neuropathological-and-biochemical-alterations-associated-with-myo5a-mutation-in-a-rat-model
#8
Kerstin K Landrock, Patti Sullivan, Heidi Martini-Stoica, David S Goldstein, Brett H Graham, Shinya Yamamoto, Hugo J Bellen, Richard A Gibbs, Rui Chen, Marcello D'Amelio, George Stoica
In this study, we analyze the neuropathological and biochemical alterations involved in the pathogenesis of a neurodegenerative/movement disorder during different developmental stages in juvenile rats with a mutant Myosin5a (Myo5a). In mutant rats, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation characterized by the absence of Myo5a protein expression in the brain is associated with a syndrome of locomotor dysfunction, altered coat color, and neuroendocrine abnormalities. Myo5a encodes a myosin motor protein required for transport and proper distribution of subcellular organelles in somatodendritic processes in neurons...
December 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216452/disc1-regulates-neurogenesis-via-modulating-kinetochore-attachment-of-ndel1-nde1-during-mitosis
#9
Fei Ye, Eunchai Kang, Chuan Yu, Xuyu Qian, Fadi Jacob, Cong Yu, Mao Mao, Randy Y C Poon, Jieun Kim, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, Mingjie Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#10
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#11
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211774/food-restriction-reduces-neurogenesis-in-the-avian-hippocampal-formation
#12
Barbara-Anne Robertson, Lucy Rathbone, Giselda Cirillo, Richard B D'Eath, Melissa Bateson, Timothy Boswell, Peter W Wilson, Ian C Dunn, Tom V Smulders
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209390/the-mechanism-of-anti-epileptogenesis-by-levetiracetam-treatment-is-similar-to-the-spontaneous-recovery-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-during-adolescence
#13
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tadahito Hanaoka, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Yasushi Yoshida, Takafumi Mizuno, Hirotaka Toyoda, Hiroshi Yoneda
Objective: The anti-epileptogenic drug levetiracetam has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenesis effects. Synergy between cell death and inflammation can lead to increased levels of apoptosis inhibitory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, aberrant neurogenesis and extended axon sprouting. Once hyperexcitation of the neural network occurs, spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis develops. This study investigated whether the anti-epileptogenic effect of levetiracetam is due to its alternate apoptotic activity...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209173/fundamental-elements-in-autism-from-neurogenesis-and-neurite-growth-to-synaptic-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with a high prevalence and impact on society. ASDs are characterized by deficits in both social behavior and cognitive function. There is a strong genetic basis underlying ASDs that is highly heterogeneous; however, multiple studies have highlighted the involvement of key processes, including neurogenesis, neurite growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review article, we focus on the major genes and signaling pathways implicated in ASD and discuss the cellular, molecular and functional studies that have shed light on common dysregulated pathways using in vitro, in vivo and human evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208493/almond-hazelnut-and-walnut-three-nuts-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-neuropharmacological-review-of-their-bioactive-constituents
#15
REVIEW
Narjes Gorji, Reihaneh Moeini, Zahra Memariani
An increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is an almost obvious issue in the world. Researches on natural products for finding effective drugs to prevent the disease are in progress. There is special attention to the three types of nuts including almond, hazelnut and walnut in manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine (PM) as preventive agents against brain's atrophy and memory loss. The purpose of this study is a pharmacological review of their bioactive constituents and introducing the value of these nuts as effective supplements and natural medicinal foods in AD patients...
December 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206232/behavioral-testing-of-mice-exposed-to-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields-indicates-mild-memory-impairment
#16
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Matti Viluksela, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Mikael Marttinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Jonne Naarala, Heikki Tanila, Jukka Juutilainen
Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205884/potential-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-telencephalon-and-cerebellar-cortex-of-the-nile-crocodile-revealed-with-doublecortin-immunohistochemistry
#17
Ayanda Ngwenya, Nina Patzke, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Paul R Manger
The brain of the crocodile is known to gain in mass allometrically throughout life, and the addition of neurons (as well as non-neurons) appears to play a significant role in this increasing brain mass. We used immunohistochemistry in the brains of 12 Nile crocodiles ranging between 350 g and 86 kg in body mass and 1.99 g to 7.9 g in brain mass to identify the regions of the brain in which neurons immunopositive for doublecortin, a marker for potential adult neurogenesis, are found. Similar to other reptiles, potential newly born neurons, those immunopositive for doublecortin, were found throughout the telencephalon, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and the olfactory tract, and in the cerebellar cortex; however, no doublecortin immunopositive neurons were observed in the diencephalon or brainstem...
December 2, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205371/characterization-of-the-canine-rostral-ventricular-subventricular-zone-morphological-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-neurosphere-assay-studies
#18
Francisco Fernández-Flores, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Cristina Herranz, Dolors Fondevila, Josep María Canals, Carles Arús, Martí Pumarola
The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203796/aerobic-exercise-and-a-bdnf-mimetic-therapy-rescue-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#19
Martina Parrini, Diego Ghezzi, Gabriele Deidda, Lucian Medrihan, Enrico Castroflorio, Micol Alberti, Pietro Baldelli, Laura Cancedda, Andrea Contestabile
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21 and represents the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. The trisomic Ts65Dn mouse model of DS shows synaptic deficits and reproduces the essential cognitive disabilities of the human syndrome. Aerobic exercise improved various neurophysiological dysfunctions in Ts65Dn mice, including hippocampal synaptic deficits, by promoting synaptogenesis and neurotransmission at glutamatergic terminals. Most importantly, the same intervention also prompted the recovery of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and restored cognitive performance in trisomic mice...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203333/perinatal-fluoxetine-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-reverses-the-lasting-effects-of-pre-gestational-stress-on-serum-corticosterone-but-not-on-maternal-behavior-in-the-rat-dam
#20
Mary Gemmel, Danny Harmeyer, Eszter Bögi, Marianne Fillet, Lesley A Hill, Geoffrey L Hammond, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
There is increasing evidence that mental health concerns, stress-related mental illnesses, and parental stress prior to conception have long-term effects on offspring outcomes. However, more work is needed to understand how pre-gestational stress might affect neurobehavioral outcomes in the mother. We investigated how chronic stress prior to gestation affects the maternal behavior and related physiology, and aimed to determine the role that perinatal SSRIs may have in altering these stress effects. To do this, female Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) prior to breeding and during the perinatal period they were administered fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day)...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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