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Sophie Crux, Jochen Herms, Mario M Dorostkar
Tcf4 is a transcription factor which regulates neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the brain. In humans, loss of function of Tcf4 leads to the rare neurodevelopmental disorder Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, which is characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay and autistic behavior. We analyzed the consequences of functional loss of Tcf4 on dendritic spines in mature principal neurons. To this end, we crossed mice in which the DNA-binding domain of the Tcf4 gene is flanked by LoxP sites to mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible cre recombinase in a sparse subset of fluorescently labelled neurons (SlickV line)...
2018: PloS One
Xiaotian Zhao, Yun Qian, Yuan Cheng, Xiaoshuang Guo, Wei-En Yuan
Non-viral vector gene delivery is generally limited by its potential toxicity problems, poor transfection abilities, serum stability, or relatively complex construction processes of modified polyplexes. Thus, we develop an efficient and stable polyplex system through convenient construction methods. Here, polyethyleneimine (PEI) 1.8 kDa and glutaraldehyde (GA) are used to construct a novel twice-condensed pDNA polyplex system using a one-pot construction method, including pH-responsive C[double bond, length as m-dash]N linkages by which different PEI molecules on one single polyplex can link with each other...
June 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Marie-Pierre Lambert, Sophie Terrone, Guillaume Giraud, Clara Benoit-Pilven, David Cluet, Valérie Combaret, Franck Mortreux, Didier Auboeuf, Cyril F Bourgeois
The Repressor Element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) represses a number of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells or in undifferentiated neural progenitors. Here, we report that the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX17 controls important REST-related processes that are critical during the early phases of neuronal differentiation. First, DDX17 associates with REST, promotes its binding to the promoter of a subset of REST-targeted genes and co-regulates REST transcriptional repression activity. During neuronal differentiation, we observed a downregulation of DDX17 along with that of the REST complex that contributes to the activation of neuronal genes...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jiangman Song, Lu Yang, Di Nan, Qihua He, You Wan, Huailian Guo
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is one of the fundamental pathological causes of brain disease such as vascular dementia. Exploration of effective treatments for this is of great interest. Histidine has been reported to be effective in anti-apoptosis, antioxidant, and against excitotoxicity. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether histidine could have a therapeutic effect on the impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion model was established through bilateral common carotid arteries stenosis (BCAS) operation in Tie2-GFP mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pan Lu, Shan Lei, Weisong Li, Yang Lu, Juan Zheng, Ning Wang, Yongjun Xia, Haixia Lu, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu, Peng-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ketamine inhibits the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and disturbs normal neurogenesis. Dexmedetomidine provides neuroprotection against volatile anesthetic-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment in the developing brain. Whether it may protect NSCs from ketamine-induced injury remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of dexmedetomidine on ketamine-exposed NSCs and explored the mechanisms potentially involved. METHODS: Primary NSC cultures were characterized using immunofluorescence...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Josh Allen, Raquel Romay-Tallon, Kyle J Brymer, Hector J Caruncho, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Human and animal studies suggest an intriguing link between mitochondrial diseases and depression. Although depression has historically been linked to alterations in monoaminergic pharmacology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new data increasingly implicate broader forms of dampened plasticity, including plasticity within the cell. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we make the case that mitochondrial dysfunction could play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wei-Cherng Hsu, Chun-Hsien Yu, Woon-Man Kung, Kuo-Feng Huang
Surgical brain injury may result in irreversible neurological deficits. Our previous report showed that partial regeneration of a traumatic brain lesion is achieved by implantation of collagen glycosaminoglycan (CGM). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play an important role in neurogenesis but there is currently a lack of studies displaying the relationship between the stimulation of MMPs and neurogenesis after collagen glycosaminoglycan implantation following surgical brain trauma. The present study was carried out to further examine the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 after implantation of collagen glycosaminoglycan (CGM) following surgical brain trauma...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Valentina Zamboni, Rebecca Jones, Alessandro Umbach, Alessandra Ammoni, Maria Passafaro, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
Rho-class small GTPases are implicated in basic cellular processes at nearly all brain developmental steps, from neurogenesis and migration to axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. GTPases are key signal transducing enzymes that link extracellular cues to the neuronal responses required for the construction of neuronal networks, as well as for synaptic function and plasticity. Rho GTPases are highly regulated by a complex set of activating (GEFs) and inactivating (GAPs) partners, via protein:protein interactions (PPI)...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhenyu Wei, Yi Lyu, XiaoLi Yang, Xin Chen, Ping Zhong, Danhong Wu
The term "tissue kallikrein" is used to describe a group of serine proteases shared considerable sequence homology and colocalize in the same chromosomal locus 19q13. 2-q13.4. It has been widely discovered in various tissues and has been proved to be involved in kinds of pathophysiological processes, such as inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis and promoting angiogenesis, and neurogenesis. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase (HUK) extracted from human urine is a member of tissue kallikrein which could convert kininogen to kinin and hence improve the plasma kinin level...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yuko Ogawa, Masahiro Tsuji, Emi Tanaka, Mikiya Miyazato, Jun Hino
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of proteins that induce the formation of bone and the development of the nervous system. BMP-3b, also known as growth and differentiation factor 10, is a member of the BMPs that is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. BMP-3b is therefore thought to play an important role in the brain even after physiological neurogenesis has completed. BMP-3b is induced in peri-infarct neurons in aged brains and is one of the most highly upregulated genes during the initiation of axonal sprouting...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wenjuan Yang, Keyan Zhou, Yue Zhou, Yuqian An, Tingting Hu, Jing Lu, Shichao Huang, Gang Pei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation and impaired neurogenesis. Mounting evidences suggest that single-target drugs have limited effects on clinical treatment and alternative or multiple targets are required. In recent decades, natural compounds and their derivatives have gained increasing attention in AD drug discovery due to their inherently enormous chemical and structural diversity. In this study, we demonstrated that naringin dihydrochalcone (NDC), a widely used dietary sweetener with strong antioxidant activity, improved the cognitive function of transgenic AD mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Pedro Baptista, José P Andrade
The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation (HF), one of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tomás Armenteros, Zoraida Andreu, Rafael Hortigüela, D Chichung Lie, Helena Mira
Neuronal production from neural stem cells persists during adulthood in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Extracellular signals provided by the hippocampal microenvironment regulate the neuronal fate commitment of the stem cell progeny. To date, the identity of those signals and their crosstalk has been only partially resolved. Here we show that adult rat hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cells (AH-NSPCs) express receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and that the BMP/P-Smad pathway is active in AH-NSPCs undergoing differentiation towards the neuronal lineage...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Federica Laudisi, Fabio Cherubini, Giovanni Monteleone, Carmine Stolfi
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) mediate essential signaling pathways in different biological processes, including immune responses, hematopoiesis, and neurogenesis. Among the STAT members, STAT3 plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. While STAT3 activation is transient in physiological conditions, STAT3 becomes persistently activated in a high percentage of solid and hematopoietic malignancies (e.g., melanoma, multiple myeloma, breast, prostate, ovarian, and colon cancers), thus contributing to malignant transformation and progression...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhe Zhao, Haitao Wu
Electrical high-frequency stimulation (HFS), using implanted electrodes targeting various brain regions, has been proven as an effective treatment for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. HFS in the deep region of the brain, also named deep-brain stimulation (DBS), is becoming increasingly important in clinical trials. Recent progress in the field of high-frequency DBS (HF-DBS) surgery has begun to spread the possibility of utilizing this invasive technique to other situations, such as treatment for major depression disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and so on...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Deborah I Lutterschmidt, Ashley R Lucas, Ritta A Karam, Vicky T Nguyen, Meghann R Rasmussen
Seasonal rhythms in physiology and behavior are widespread across diverse taxonomic groups and may be mediated by seasonal changes in neurogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined if cell proliferation in the brain is associated with the seasonal life-history transition from spring breeding to migration and summer foraging in a free-ranging population of red-sided garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) in Manitoba, Canada. We used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly proliferated cells within the brain of adult snakes collected from the den during the mating season or from a road located along their migratory route...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Theodor Rüber, Gottfried Schlaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zeinab Namjoo, Maryam Soleimani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious and complex medical condition that can happen to anyone. At present, therapy mainly focuses on rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment, such as methylprednisolone (MP). Supra-spinal changes in certain structures, such as the cerebellum, that receive many afferents from the spinal cord might be one reason for unsuccessful therapeutic outcomes. Recently, the expression of FNDC5 was reported in cerebellar Purkinje cells as a possible neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we considered the expression of FNDC5 in Purkinje cells following SCI with and without MP administration in adult rats with SCI...
May 7, 2018: Neuropeptides
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