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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339691/z-guggulsterone-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-in-mice-through-activation-of-the-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#1
Chao Huang, Wen-Feng Hu, Ji-Li Wang, Peng Wang, Yu Gong, Li-Juan Tong, Bo Jiang, Wei Zhang, Yi-Bin Qin, Zhuo Chen, Rong-Rong Yang
Background: Z-guggulsterone, an active compound extracted from the gum resin of the tree commiphora mukul, has been shown to improve animal memory deficits via activating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the antidepressant-like effect of Z-guggulsterone in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) mouse model of depression. Methods: The effects of Z-guggulsterone were assessed in mice tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST)...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334793/compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-the-gene-pigp-are-associated-with-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy
#2
Devon L Johnstone, Thi Tuyet-Mai Nguyen, Yoshiko Murakami, Kristin D Kernohan, Martine Tétreault, Claire Goldsmith, Asif Doja, Justin D Wagner, Lijia Huang, Taila Hartley, Anik St-Denis, Françoise le Deist, Jacek Majewski, Dennis E Bulman, Taroh Kinoshita, David A Dyment, Kym M Boycott, Philippe M Campeau
There are over 150 known human proteins which are tethered to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. These proteins play a variety of important roles in development, and particularly in neurogenesis. Not surprisingly, mutations in the GPI anchor biosynthesis and remodeling pathway cause a number of developmental disorders. This group of conditions has been termed inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs), a subgroup of congenital disorders of glycosylation; they present with variable phenotypes, often including seizures, hypotonia and intellectual disability...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334613/role-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-the-control-of-early-lineage-progression-and-aging-phenotypes-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#3
Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Birgit Ebert, Iris Schäffner, Jonathan Moss, Christian Fiebig, Jaehoon Shin, Darcie L Moore, Laboni Ghosh, Mariela F Trinchero, Carola Stockburger, Kristina Friedland, Kathrin Steib, Julia von Wittgenstein, Silke Keiner, Christoph Redecker, Sabine M Hölter, Wei Xiang, Wolfgang Wurst, Ravi Jagasia, Alejandro F Schinder, Guo-Li Ming, Nicolas Toni, Sebastian Jessberger, Hongjun Song, D Chichung Lie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333692/application-of-olfactory-tissue-and-its-neural-progenitors-to-schizophrenia-and-psychiatric-research
#4
Joëlle Lavoie, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331471/manipulating-micrornas-in-murine-models-targeting-the-multi-targeting-in-epilepsy
#5
David C Henshall
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that work posttranscriptionally to negatively regulate protein levels. They influence neuronal and glial structure and function, neuroinflammatory signaling, cell death, neurogenesis, and other processes relevant to epileptogenesis. Functional studies using oligonucleotide inhibitors (antagomirs) and mimics (agomirs) to modulate microRNAs in rat and mouse models of epilepsy show effects on evoked and spontaneous seizures and attendant neuropathology. The present review summarizes recent findings and points to gaps in our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and directions for the future...
January 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#6
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330621/synergic-functions-of-mirnas-determine-neuronal-fate-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#7
Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Emanuela de Luca, Matteo Jacopo Marzi, Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Andrea Armirotti, Francesco Nicassio, Klaus Fabel, Gerd Kempermann, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs) has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330458/the-effects-of-an-extensive-exercise-programme-on-the-progression-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Kate E Devenney, Brian Lawlor, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Stefan Schneider
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions to prevent dementia and delay cognitive decline have gained considerable attention in recent years. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity targets brain function by increasing cognitive reserve. There is also evidence of structural changes caused by exercise in preventing or delaying the genesis of neurodegeneration. Although initial studies indicate enhanced cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following an exercise intervention, little is known about the effect of an extensive, controlled and regular exercise regimen on the neuropathology of patients with MCI...
March 22, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#9
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326018/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-neural-stem-cells-induces-neuronal-fate-commitment-via-the-inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-2
#10
Xing Jin, Zhang-Feng Yu, Fang Chen, Guang-Xian Lu, Xin-Yuan Ding, Lin-Jun Xie, Jian-Tong Sun
Active adult neurogenesis produces new functional neurons, which replace the lost ones and contribute to brain repair. Promoting neurogenesis may offer a therapeutic strategy for human diseases associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we report that endogenous neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) for neural stem cells (NSCs) or progenitors positively regulates neurogenesis. nNOS repression exhibits significantly decreased neuronal differentiation and nNOS upregulation promotes neurons production from NSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325900/pegylated-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-affords-protection-and-facilitates-recovery-of-lost-functions-post-focal-ischemia
#11
Kim Parker, Antonio Berretta, Stefanie Saenger, Manaswini Sivaramakrishnan, Simon A Shirley, Friedrich Metzger, Andrew N Clarkson
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is involved in the maturation and maintenance of neurons, and impaired IGF-I signaling has been shown to play a role in various neurological diseases including stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an optimized IGF-I variant by adding a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to IGF-I to form PEG-IGF-I. We show that PEG-IGF-I has a slower clearance which allows for twice-weekly dosing to maintain steady-state serum levels in mice. Using a photothrombotic model of focal stroke, dosing from 3 hrs post-stroke dose-dependently (0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325755/loss-of-pink1-leads-to-metabolic-deficits-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-impedes-differentiation-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#12
Sandeep Kumar Agnihotri, Ruifang Shen, Jihong Li, Xu Gao, Hansruedi Büeler
Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Although abnormal AHN has been linked to depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction, which are features of neurodegenerative conditions, including Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of mitochondrial deficits on AHN have not been explored previously in a model of neurodegeneration. Here, we used PTEN-induced kinase 1-deficient (PINK1(-/-) ) mice that lacked a mitochondrial kinase mutated in recessive familial PD...
March 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324844/serotonin-transporter-and-receptor-ligands-with-antidepressant-activity-as-neuroprotective-and-proapoptotic-agents
#13
REVIEW
Zdzislaw Chilmonczyk, Andrzej J Bojarski, Andrzej Pilc, Ingebrigt Sylte
Serotonin exhibits multiple non-neural functions involved in essential hypertension, early embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behaviour. The growth stimulatory effects of the neurotransmitter have been described for a variety of cell types. 5-HT was found to induce migration of the human prostate cancer cell lines - PC-3 and Du145 - and several 5-HT1A antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors were reported to inhibit the growth of different tumour cell lines in vitro. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis is involved in the action of antidepressants and an involvement of antidepressants in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been demonstrated...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323540/identification-of-multipotent-stem-cells-in-human-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#14
Kotaro Tatebayashi, Yasue Tanaka, Akiko Nakano-Doi, Rika Sakuma, Saeko Kamachi, Manabu Shirakawa, Kazutaka Uchida, Hiroto Kageyama, Toshinori Takagi, Shinichi Yoshimura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Takayuki Nakagomi
Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice, and that these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the post-stroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. Here we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the post-stroke human brain...
March 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323287/experimental-medication-treatment-approaches-for-depression
#15
REVIEW
D F Ionescu, G I Papakostas
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions. Symptoms can lead to significant disability, which result in impairments in overall quality of life. Though there are many approved antidepressant treatments for depression-including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors-about a third of patients do not respond to these medications. Therefore, it is imperative for drug discovery to continue towards the development of novel and rapidly acting compounds, especially for patients with treatment-resistant depression...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322749/cannabinoid-receptor-1-contributes-to-sprouted-innervation-in-endometrial-ectopic-growth-through-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#16
Hongxiu Han, Xizi Liang, Juan Wang, Qianqian Zhao, Mei Yang, Weifang Rong, Guohua Zhang
The endocannabinoid system regulates neurite outgrowth and neurogenesis during development of the central nervous system. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is expressed in neurons, including the somata and fibers, that innervate the endometrial ectopic cyst in rats. Here, we investigated the contribution of CB1R and its downstream signaling to the innervation of endometrial ectopic growth. We found that intrathecal injection of a CB1R agonist enhanced both the density of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-immunoreactive sprouted nerve fibers and the protein level of PGP 9...
March 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322736/sall1-and-sall4-repress-pou5f3-family-expression-to-allow-neural-patterning-differentiation-and-morphogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis
#17
Cameron R T Exner, Albert Y Kim, Sarah M Mardjuki, Richard M Harland
The embryonic precursor of the vertebrate central nervous system, the neural plate, is patterned along the anterior-posterior axis and shaped by morphogenetic movements early in development. We previously identified the genes sall1 and sall4, known regulators of pluripotency in other contexts, as transcriptional targets of developmental signaling pathways that regulate neural development. Here, we demonstrate that these two genes are required for induction of posterior neural fates, the cell shape changes that contribute to neural tube closure, and later neurogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321820/apolipoprotein-e4-suppresses-neuronal-specific-gene-expression-in-maturing-neuronal-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-hiv
#18
Rebeca Geffin, Ricardo Martinez, Alicia de Las Pozas, Biju Issac, Micheline McCarthy
The apolipoprotein ε4 gene allele and the apolipoprotein E4 protein (ApoE4) are important host susceptibility factors linked to neurocognitive disorders associated with HIV infection or Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies showed differential effects of the two most common human ApoE genotypes, APOE3/3 and APOE3/4, on gene expression by differentiating human neuroepithelial progenitor cells continuously exposed to HIV. To investigate the effects of ApoE3 versus ApoE4 isoforms specifically on maturing neurons, we adapted a human neuronal progenitor cell line, hNP1, with ApoE genotype APOE3/3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321582/exosomes-secreted-from-hek293-app-swe-ind-cells-impair-the-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity of exosomes to cultured neuroblastoma and neurons in vitro and to mature and newborn neurons in the hippocampus in vivo. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that exosomes, small membranous vesicles secreted from many cell types, contain pathogenic proteins including full-length amyloid precursor protein (flAPP) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites. However, the function of these exosomes in Alzheimer disease (AD) has not been much explored...
March 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321286/crispr-cas9-mediated-heterozygous-knockout-of-the-autism-gene-chd8-and-characterization-of-its-transcriptional-networks-in-cerebral-organoids-derived-from-ips-cells
#20
Ping Wang, Ryan Mokhtari, Erika Pedrosa, Michael Kirschenbaum, Can Bayrak, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8), which codes for a member of the CHD family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified in exome-sequencing studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene have also been found in schizophrenia (SZ) and intellectual disabilities and influence cancer cell proliferation. We previously reported an RNA-seq analysis carried out on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and monolayer neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were heterozygous for CHD8 knockout (KO) alleles generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing...
2017: Molecular Autism
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