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Extracorporeal co2 removal

Rahul S Nanchal, Jonathon D Truwit
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disorder associated with many disease processes that injure the lung, culminating in increased non-hydrostatic extravascular lung water, reduced compliance, and severe hypoxemia. Despite enhanced understanding of molecular mechanisms, advances in ventilatory strategies, and general care of the critically ill patient, mortality remains unacceptably high. The Berlin definition of ARDS has now replaced the American-European Consensus Conference definition...
2018: F1000Research
Gang-Feng Yan, Guo-Ping Lu, Zhu-Jin Lu, Wei-Ming Chen
The children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually require ventilatory support treatment. At present, lung protective ventilation strategy is recommended for the treatment of ARDS. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide by extracorporeal circuit, and can partially or completely take over cardiopulmonary function. ECMO support showed many advantages in treating severe ARDS, such as reducing ventilator-induced lung injury and correcting hypoxemia...
September 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Lara Pisani, Massimiliano Polastri, Angela Maria Grazia Pacilli, Stefano Nava
Extracorporeal lung support can be achieved using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal CO2 removal. The ECMO systems allow a total lung support, providing both blood oxygenation and CO2 removal. Unlike ECMO, extracorporeal CO2 removal refers to an extracorporeal circuit that provides a partial lung support and selectively extracts CO2 from blood. The concept of partial extracorporeal lung support by removing only CO2 without effect on oxygenation was first proposed in 1977 by Kolobow and Gattinoni, with the aim to reduce breathing frequency, ventilator tidal volumes, and inspiratory pressures, facilitating lung-protective ventilation...
September 2018: Respiratory Care
Peter Betit
Although the fundamentals of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have not changed in 3 decades, the technical elements continue to improve and have evolved from an assemblage of individual components to more integrated systems with added features, enhanced safety, and improved maneuverability. The introduction of polymethylpentene (PMP) fiber technology has expanded the development of artificial membranes that have low resistance, are more biocompatible, and can be used for extended durations. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal techniques continue to be enhanced as stand alone technology and modified renal dialysis systems are introduced...
September 2018: Respiratory Care
E Novosel, K Borchers, P J Kluger, A Mantalaris, G Matheis, M Pistolesi, J Schneider, A Wenz, P I Lelkes
Although state-of-the-art treatments of respiratory failure clearly have made some progress in terms of survival in patients suffering from severe respiratory system disorders, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), they failed to significantly improve the quality of life in patients with acute or chronic lung failure, including severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or ARDS as well. Limitations of standard treatment modalities, which largely rely on conventional mechanical ventilation, emphasize the urgent, unmet clinical need for developing novel (bio)artificial respiratory assist devices that provide extracorporeal gas exchange with a focus on direct extracorporeal CO2 removal from the blood...
June 7, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Faeq Husain-Syed, Zaccaria Ricci, Daniel Brodie, Jean-Louis Vincent, V Marco Ranieri, Arthur S Slutsky, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Luciano Gattinoni, Claudio Ronco
The complex nature of single organ failure potentially leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in critically ill patients necessitates integrated supportive therapy. Rather than a primary disease, acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered a window to a potentially serious underlying systemic disease, which may partially explain the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with the condition. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been routinely used for more than a decade in various intensive care settings and there has also been an increase in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal...
September 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Hadrien Winiszewski, François Aptel, François Belon, Nicolas Belin, Claire Chaignat, Cyrille Patry, Cecilia Clermont, Elise David, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Guylaine Labro, Gaël Piton, Gilles Capellier
Background: While outcome improvement with extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2 R) is not demonstrated, a strong pathophysiological rational supports its use in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COPD exacerbation. We aimed to describe our single-center experience of ECCO2 R indications and outcome. Methods: Patients treated with ECCO2 R in our medial ICU, from March 2014 to November 2017, were retrospectively enrolled. Primary end point was evolution of ventilator settings during the two first days following ECCO2 R start...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Nozomi Takahashi, Taka-Aki Nakada, Shigeto Oda
We developed a novel system comprising acid infusion, membrane lung, and a continuous renal replacement therapy console for efficient CO2 removal at a low blood flow. To evaluate the new system, we used an ex vivo experimental model using swine blood. A liter of aliquoted blood adjusted to pH 7.25 and pCO2 65 mm Hg was mixed with acid (0, 10, or 20 mL of lactic or hydrochloric acid [1 mol/L]) and was immediately delivered to the system in a single pass. We collected blood samples at each point of the circuit and calculated the amount of CO2 eliminated by the membrane lung...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Yoshiko Kida, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Michihito Kyo, Yuko Tanabe, Kei Suzuki, Koji Hosokawa, Nobuaki Shime
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an emerging tool for supporting cardiopulmonary function in patients with cardiorespiratory failure or arrest. The oxygenator of the ECMO circuit requires effective oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood. Major problems that can occur with the oxygenator include plasma leakage, one of the late-onset serious complications necessitating device replacement. However, the rapid onset of plasma leakage is rare. We present a 1-year-old boy with acute respiratory failure due to Pneumocystis and Aspergillus pneumonia...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Carole Cummins, Andrew Bentley, Daniel F McAuley, James J McNamee, Hannah Patrick, Nicholas A Barrett
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane carbon dioxide removal may have a role in treatment of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and refractory hypoxaemia and/or hypercapnia. Methods: We report on the use, outcomes and complications in United Kingdom intensive care units reporting patients on the Extracorporal Life Support Organisation register. Results: Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) had primarily hypoxic respiratory failure and 18 (30%) primarily hypercapnic respiratory failure...
May 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Vittorio Scaravilli, Luca Di Girolamo, Eleonora Scotti, Mattia Busana, Osvaldo Biancolilli, Patrizia Leonardi, Andrea Carlin, Caterina Lonati, Mauro Panigada, Antonio Pesenti, Alberto Zanella
INTRODUCTION: Citric acid infusion in extracorporeal blood may allow concurrent regional anticoagulation and enhancement of extracorporeal CO2 removal. Effects of citric acid on human blood thromboelastography and aggregometry have never been tested before. METHODS: In this in vitro study, citric acid, sodium citrate and lactic acid were added to venous blood from seven healthy donors, obtaining concentrations of 9 mEq/L, 12 mEq/L and 15 mEq/L. We measured gas analyses, ionized calcium (iCa++ ) concentration, activated clotting time (ACT), thromboelastography and multiplate aggregometry...
October 2018: Perfusion
Jérémy Bourenne, Sami Hraiech, Romain Rambaud, Jean-Marie Forel, Nicolas Persico, Christophe Guervilly, Laurent Papazian
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) commonly affects intensive care unit patients and is associated with high mortality. In addition to etiologic treatment and protective ventilation, non-ventilatory therapies represent a significant part of ARDS care. Pharmacological treatments, extra corporeal devices and prone positioning are commonly grouped under this term. Studies have evaluated the individual effects of some of these non-ventilatory therapies in large randomized controlled trials. Recent advances concerning the beneficial use of neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning deserve attention...
September 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Karen McRae, Marc de Perrot
The role of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has expanded rapidly over the past 15 years to become an important tool in advanced general thoracic surgery practice. Intra-operative and in some cases continued post-operative ECLS is redefining the scope of complex surgical care. ECLS encompasses a spectrum of temporary mechanical support that may remove CO2 , oxygenate or provide hemodynamic support or a combination thereof. The most common modalities used in general thoracic surgery include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), interventional lung assist device (iLA® Novalung® , Heilbronn, Germany), and extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2 R)...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Matthieu Schmidt, Samir Jaber, Elie Zogheib, Thomas Godet, Gilles Capellier, Alain Combes
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal carbon-dioxide removal (ECCO2 R) might allow ultraprotective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) (< 6 ml/kg predicted body weight), plateau pressure (Pplat ) (< 30 cmH2 O), and driving pressure to limit ventilator-induced lung injury. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility and safety of ECCO2 R managed with a renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform to enable very low tidal volume ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
May 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Lars M Broman, Maximilian V Malfertheiner, Andrea Montisci, Federico Pappalardo
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is a rescue treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) failing protective mechanical ventilation. It temporarily provides proper gas exchange: hypoxia is treated by adjusting the blood flow rate and fraction in spired oxygen over the ventilator (FiO2 ) on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit while CO2 removal is regulated by the ECMO fresh gas flow. Therefore, ventilator settings can be gradually reduced allowing the lungs to rest and recover...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Elena Spinelli
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has started to be applied in awake spontaneously breathing patients as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. As the physiologic cardiorespiratory variability is increased in this condition, the dynamic interaction between patient respiratory activity and extracorporeal system function affects the clinical management. The effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal on patient respiratory drive is variable and not always predictable, with some patients responding to CO2 removal with a decrease in respiratory rate and effort and other patients demonstrating a persistently high work of breathing independent on CO2 unload...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Francesco Epis, Mirko Belliato
During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), oxygen (O2 ) transfer (V'O2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) removal (V'CO2 ) are partitioned between the native lung (NL) and the membrane lung (ML), related to the patient's metabolic-hemodynamic pattern. The ML could be assimilated to a NL both in a physiological and a pathological way. ML O2 transfer (V'O2 ML) is proportional to extracorporeal blood flow and the difference in O2 content between each ML side, while ML CO2 removal (V'CO2 ML) can be calculated from ML gas flow and CO2 concentration at sweep gas outlet...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Eddy Fan, Daniel Brodie, Arthur S Slutsky
Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure that affects approximately 200 000 patients each year in the United States, resulting in nearly 75 000 deaths annually. Globally, ARDS accounts for 10% of intensive care unit admissions, representing more than 3 million patients with ARDS annually. Objective: To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of ARDS over the last 5 years. Evidence Review: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to 2017 focusing on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Daniel Brodie
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support patients with cardiac and respiratory failure has increased substantially in the last decade. Although the evidence base for its use in adults with respiratory failure is growing, many questions remain to be answered. Ongoing research is aimed at clarifying the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well as extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, in various forms of hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure, and at defining the optimal techniques for its use...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Zhihai Ju, Jinhui Ma, Chen Wang, Jie Yu, Yeru Qiao, Feilong Hei
Pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA) has been reported to efficiently remove the systemic CO2 production and provide mild to moderate oxygenation, thereby allowing for ventilator settings and modes prioritizing oxygenation and lung protection. However, an adequate bypass flow, the capacity to provide respiratory support and the effect on the inflammatory cascade response and tissue perfusion require further study to be determined. After induction of acute lung injury (ALI) by oleic acid injection, pECLA was implemented in 12 anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs for 48 h...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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