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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107734/patient-and-medical-barriers-preclude-uptake-of-tamoxifen-preventative-therapy-in-women-with-a-strong-family-history
#1
Anita R Skandarajah, Susan Thomas, Kylie Shackleton, Laura Chin-Lenn, Geoffrey J Lindeman, G Bruce Mann
AIMS: To assess the eligibility, uptake and impediments to tamoxifen use in high-risk women attending a risk management clinic due to family history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with a germline mutation in a cancer predisposing gene or at high genetic risk (based on family history) attending a Breast and Ovarian cancer risk management clinic from February 2014 to May 2015 received both verbal and written evidence-based information on preventive therapy and were recommended to consider endocrine prevention if not contraindicated...
January 17, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107533/improvement-of-therapeutic-efficacy-of-oral-immunotherapy-in-combination-with-regulatory-t-cell-inducer-kakkonto-in-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#2
Yuka Nagata, Takeshi Yamamoto, Michie Hayashi, Shusaku Hayashi, Makoto Kadowaki
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been considered a promising approach for food allergies (FAs). However, the current OIT strategy is limited in terms of the long-term efficacy and safety. We have previously demonstrated that kakkonto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, suppresses the occurrence of allergic symptoms in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA, which is attributed to the induction of the Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we established an OIT model using the FA mice with already established allergic symptoms and determined whether kakkonto could improve the efficacy of OIT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107502/rnai-based-functional-genomics-identifies-new-virulence-determinants-in-mucormycosis
#3
Trung Anh Trieu, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Patricia Navarro-Rodriguez, Loida Lopez-Fernandez, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Victoriano Garre, Rosa María Ruiz-Vázquez, Francisco E Nicolás
Mucorales are an emerging group of human pathogens that are responsible for the lethal disease mucormycosis. Unfortunately, functional studies on the genetic factors behind the virulence of these organisms are hampered by their limited genetic tractability, since they are reluctant to classical genetic tools like transposable elements or gene mapping. Here, we describe an RNAi-based functional genomic platform that allows the identification of new virulence factors through a forward genetic approach firstly described in Mucorales...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107479/apoptosis-induction-and-gene-expression-profile-alterations-of-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-cells-following-their-exposure-to-bortezomib-and-methotrexate
#4
Vassiliki Mpakou, Evangelia Papadavid, Frieda Kontsioti, Eugene Konsta, Miriam Vikentiou, Aris Spathis, Sotiris Papageorgiou, Diamantina Vasilatou, Konstantinos Gkontopoulos, Efthimia Mpazani, Petros Karakitsos, Dimitrios Rigopoulos, George Dimitriadis, Vasiliki Pappa
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant Sézary syndrome (SS) comprise the majority of CTCL, a heterogenous group of non-Hodgkins lymphomas involving the skin. The CTCL's resistance to chemotherapy and the lack of full understanding of their pathogenesis request further investigation. With the view of a more targeted therapy, we evaluated in vitro the effectiveness of bortezomib and methotrexate, as well as their combination in CTCL cell lines, regarding apoptosis induction. Our data are of clinical value and indicate that the bortezomib/methotrexate combinational therapy has an inferior impact on the apoptosis of CTCL compared to monotherapy, with bortezomib presenting as the most efficient treatment option for SS and methotrexate for MF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107439/development-of-a-dipg-orthotopic-model-in-mice-using-an-implantable-guide-screw-system
#5
Miguel Marigil, Naiara Martinez-Velez, Pablo D Domínguez, Miguel Angel Idoate, Enric Xipell, Ana Patiño-García, Marisol Gonzalez-Huarriz, Marc García-Moure, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Elías El-Habr, Ricardo Diez-Valle, Sonia Tejada-Solís, Marta M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: In this work we set to develop and to validate a new in vivo frameless orthotopic Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) model based in the implantation of a guide-screw system. METHODS: It consisted of a guide-screw also called bolt, a Hamilton syringe with a 26-gauge needle and an insulin-like 15-gauge needle. The guide screw is 2.6 mm in length and harbors a 0.5 mm central hole which accepts the needle of the Hamilton syringe avoiding a theoretical displacement during insertion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107412/nasal-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-children-in-the-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#6
Daniel Eibach, Michael Nagel, Benedikt Hogan, Clinton Azuure, Ralf Krumkamp, Denise Dekker, Mike Gajdiss, Melanie Brunke, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107378/polymorphisms-in-stat4-ptpn2-psors1c1-and-traf3ip2-genes-are-associated-with-the-response-to-tnf-inhibitors-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Paola Conigliaro, Cinzia Ciccacci, Cristina Politi, Paola Triggianese, Sara Rufini, Barbara Kroegler, Carlo Perricone, Andrea Latini, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani, Roberto Perricone
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation and structural damage. Remission or at least low disease activity (LDA) represent potentially desirable goals of RA treatment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes might be useful for prediction of response to therapy. We aimed at exploring 4 SNPs in candidate genes (STAT4, PTPN2, PSORS1C1 and TRAF3IP2) in order to investigate their potential role in the response to therapy with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-i) in RA patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107367/first-molecular-characterization-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-in-domestic-cats-from-mainland-china
#8
Jilei Zhang, Liang Wang, Jing Li, Patrick Kelly, Stuart Price, Chengming Wang
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107209/nephropathic-cystinosis-an-update
#9
Koenraad R Veys, Mohamed A Elmonem, Fanny O Arcolino, Lambertus van den Heuvel, Elena Levtchenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past few decades, cystinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder, has evolved into a treatable metabolic disease. The increasing understanding of its pathophysiology has made cystinosis a prototype disease, delivering new insights into several fundamental biochemical and cellular processes. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest advances in the pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of cystinosis...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107201/homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-hipk2-a-promising-target-for-anti-cancer-therapies
#10
Yuanyuan Feng, Lihong Zhou, Xiaoting Sun, Qi Li
The HIPK2 (serine/threonine homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2) is a "caretaker" gene, its inactivation increases tumorigenicity while its activation inhibits tumor growth. This report reviews the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of HIPK2, which include promotion of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis in hypoxia, prevention of tumor invasion/metastasis and attenuation of multidrug resistance in cancer. Additionally, we summarize conditions or factors that may increase HIPK2 activity.
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107076/characterization-of-an-avipoxvirus-from-a-bald-eagle-haliaeetus-leucocephalus-using-novel-consensus-pcr-protocols-for-the-rpo147-and-dna-dependent-dna-polymerase-genes
#11
Alexa A Stephen, Angelique M Leone, David E Toplon, Linda L Archer, James F X Wellehan
A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were done to amplify and sequence DNA polymerase and rpo147 genes. The 4b gene was also analyzed by a previously developed assay...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106826/colorectal-carcinoma-a-general-overview-and-future-perspectives-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Inés Mármol, Cristina Sánchez-de-Diego, Alberto Pradilla Dieste, Elena Cerrada, María Jesús Rodriguez Yoldi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%-5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106724/osteocalcin-mediates-biomineralization-during-osteogenic-maturation-in-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#14
Yu-Tzu Tsao, Yi-Jeng Huang, Hao-Hsiang Wu, Yu-An Liu, Yi-Shiuan Liu, Oscar K Lee
There is a growing interest in cell therapies using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for repairing bone defects. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts as well as to form calcified bone matrix. However, the molecular mechanisms governing mineralization during osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. Non-collagenous proteins in the extracellular matrix are believed to control different aspects of the mineralization. Since osteocalcin is the most abundant non-collagenous bone matrix protein, the purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of osteocalcin in mineral species production during osteogenesis of MSCs...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106296/pten-plays-dual-roles-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#15
Yongming Xi, Yan Chen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer, which occurs primarily in children and adolescents. Functional loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN has been demonstrated in bone malignancies including OS. We have recently reported that Pten expression inversely correlates with OS aggressiveness in mouse models. However, the mechanism whereby PTEN exerts its anti-tumor effect remains unknown. In this study, we first examined the expression of PTEN in human OS cell lines including U2OS, MG63 and Saos-2, and found that PTEN expression is reduced as compared to normal human osteoblasts...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106085/the-%C3%AE-globin-replicator-greatly-enhances-the-potential-of-s-mar-based-episomal-vectors-for-gene-transfer-into-human-haematopoietic-progenitor-cells
#16
Eleana F Stavrou, Vassileios M Lazaris, Aristeidis Giannakopoulos, Eirini Papapetrou, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Nikolas C Zoumbos, Antonis Gkountis, Aglaia Athanassiadou
Specific human chromosomal elements enhance the performance of episomal gene-transfer vectors. S/MAR-based episomal vector pEPI-eGFP transfects CD34(+) haematopoietic cells, but only transiently. To address this issue we reinforced (1) transgene transcription by replacing the CMV promoter driving eGFP with the EF1/HTLV or SFFV promoters to produce vectors pEPI-EF1/HTLV and pEPI-SFFV, respectively; and (2) plasmid replication by inserting the replication-Initiation Region (IR) from the β-globin locus into vector pEPI-SFFV to produce vector pEP-IR...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106046/obp-401-gfp-telomerase-dependent-adenovirus-illuminates-and-kills-high-metastatic-more-effectively-than-low-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-vitro
#17
S Yano, K Takehara, H Kishimoto, H Tazawa, Y Urata, S Kagawa, M Bouvet, T Fujiwara, R M Hoffman
We previously described the development of a highly-invasive, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant using serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer in nude mice. The isolated variant is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared with 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. OBP-401 is a telomerase-dependent cancer-specific, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing adenovirus. OBP-401 was used to infect parental MDA-MB-231P cells and high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H and MDA-MB-231HLN isolated from a lymph node metastasis and MDA-MB-231HLM isolated from a lung metastasis...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105979/human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-are-more-effective-than-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#18
Miyeoun Song, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jinhyun Bae, Youngmin Bu, Eun-Cheol Kim
We compared the therapeutic effects and mechanism of transplanted human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a stroke model of rats and an <i>in vitro</i> ischemic model. Both hDPSCs- and hMSCs- intravenously injected rats 24&#8201;h after middle cerebral artery occlusion showed improved functional recovery and reduced infarct volume versus control rats, but the hDPSCs group showed greater reduction in infarct volume than hMSCs. The positive area for the endothelial cell marker was greater in the lesion boundary areas in the hDPSCs group than with hMSCs...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105941/the-loss-of-photosynthetic-pathways-in-the-plastid-and-nuclear-genomes-of-the-non-photosynthetic-mycoheterotrophic-eudicot-monotropa-hypopitys
#19
Nikolai V Ravin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexey V Beletsky, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Mikhail A Filyushin, Elena Z Kochieva, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Andrey V Mardanov, Konstantin G Skryabin
BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105853/identification-of-potential-molecular-associations-between-chikungunya-virus-non-structural-protein-2-and-human-host-proteins
#20
J Rana, S Gulati, S Rajasekharan, A Gupta, V Chaudhary, S Gupta
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is considered to be the master regulator of viral RNA replication and host responses generated during viral infection. This protein has two main functional domains: an N-terminal domain which exhibits NTPase, RNA triphosphatase and helicase activities and a C-terminal protease domain. Understanding how CHIKV nsP2 interacts with its host proteins is essential for elucidating all the required processes for viral replication and pathogenesis along with the identification of potential targets for antiviral therapy...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
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