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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806639/a-developmental-etiological-model-for-drug-abuse-in-men
#1
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Alexis C Edwards, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: We attempt to develop a relatively comprehensive structural model of risk factors for drug abuse (DA) in Swedish men that illustrates developmental and mediational processes. METHODS: We examined 20 risk factors for DA in 48,369 men undergoing conscription examinations in 1969-70 followed until 2011 when 2.34% (n=1134) of them had DA ascertained in medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Risk factors were organized into four developmental tiers reflecting i) birth, ii) childhood/early adolescence, iii) late adolescence, and iv) young adulthood...
July 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805813/analysis-of-genome-wide-association-data-highlights-candidates-for-drug-repositioning-in-psychiatry
#2
Hon-Cheong So, Carlos Kwan-Long Chau, Wan-To Chiu, Kin-Sang Ho, Cho-Pong Lo, Stephanie Ho-Yue Yim, Pak-Chung Sham
Knowledge of psychiatric disease genetics has advanced rapidly during the past decade with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, less progress has been made in harnessing these data to reveal new therapies. Here we propose a framework for drug repositioning by comparing transcriptomes imputed from GWAS data with drug-induced gene expression profiles from the Connectivity Map database and apply this approach to seven psychiatric disorders. We found a number of repositioning candidates, many supported by preclinical or clinical evidence...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805769/-psychiatry-of-the-future-an-overview-of-foreign-scientists-opinions-of-the-position-of-psychiatry-in-the-modern-world
#3
E D Belousova, N N Zavadenko, A A Kholin, A A Sharkov
This review presents the recently published revised classifications of epilepsies and seizure types developed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The Classification of Epilepsies includes several diagnostic levels (steps): 1) from seizure type to epilepsy type (generalized/focal/combined generalized and focal/unknown), 2) diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome 3) etiology (genetic/ structural/ infectious/ metabolic/ immune/unknown). A clinician can use any level of the classification. Operational classification of seizure types is replaced by the previous classification that was grounded on the anatomical basis...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#5
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805197/family-of-a-person-suffering-from-schizophrenia-in-the-context-of-a-qualitative-approach-to-understanding-the-family-as-a-system
#6
Andrzej Witusik
Qualitative analysis of the family system including a person suffering from schizophrenia is an underestimated research paradigm in modern psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychotherapy. This method is important both from the cognitive point of view and for evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy. AIM: The aim of the study was a qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process in a family whose member is suffering from schizophrenic psychosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study of the process using qualitative research methodology in the paradigm of systemic thinking pointing to the mutual interactions in the family system inducing relapses in the identified patient, with identification of triangulation processes, transgenerational myths inheritance and coalitions formed by the family members...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804760/autopsy-case-of-the-c12orf65-mutation-in-a-patient-with-signs-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#7
Hideaki Nishihara, Masatoshi Omoto, Masaki Takao, Yujiro Higuchi, Michiaki Koga, Motoharu Kawai, Hiroo Kawano, Eiji Ikeda, Hiroshi Takashima, Takashi Kanda
OBJECTIVE: To describe the autopsy case of a patient with a homozygous 2-base deletion, c171_172delGA (p.N58fs), in the C12orf65 gene. METHODS: We described the clinical history, neuroimaging data, neuropathology, and genetic analysis of the patients with C12orf65 mutations. RESULTS: The patient was a Japanese woman with a history of delayed psychomotor development, primary amenorrhea, and gait disturbance in her 20s. She was hospitalized because of respiratory failure at the age of 60...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804452/supervised-and-unsupervised-learning-technology-in-the-study-of-rodent-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Katsiaryna V Gris, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Denis Gris
Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802919/nonmotor-signs-in-genetic-forms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Meike Kasten, Connie Marras, Christine Klein
Although only a minority (i.e., ~5%) of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases is due to well-defined genetic causes, important clues about the common, "idiopathic" PD (iPD) can be garnered from monogenic model diseases. Nonmotor signs (NMS) are also present in monogenic PD and reviewed in this chapter for the confirmed PD genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and the risk factor gene GBA. Within the context of the MDSGene database (www.mdsgene.org), we performed a systematic literature search and extracted information on cognitive decline, depression, psychotic signs and symptoms, autonomic signs and symptoms, anxiety, sleep disorder, and olfactory impairment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802918/genes-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Ee-Wei Lim, Eng-King Tan
Published data on genetic risk factors of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are relatively lacking since the first mutation responsible for Parkinson's disease (PD) being reported in 1996. This chapter provides a concise summary of genetic links to common individual NMS such as cognitive impairment, depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction, pain, and sleep disorders. Although some genetic variants such as apolipoprotein E and glucocerebrosidase demonstrate consistent links with certain NMS, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802645/p2x7-purinergic-receptors-participate-in-the-expression-and-extinction-processes-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-in-mice
#12
L B Domingos, S C Hott, A L B Terzian, L B M Resstel
The purinergic system consists of two large receptor families - P2X and P2Y. Both are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although presenting different functions. These receptors are present in several brain regions, including those involved in emotion and stress-related behaviors. Hence, they seem to participate in fear- and anxiety-related responses. However, few studies have investigated the purinergic system in threatening situations, as observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Therefore, this study investigated the involvement of purinergic receptors in the expression and extinction of aversive memories...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802584/molecular-characterization-of-the-pa3j1-plasmid-from-the-psychrotolerant-antarctic-bacterium-pseudomonas-sp-ant_j3
#13
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Tomasz Krucon, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Adrian Gorecki, Lukasz Dziewit
The knowledge on plasmids of cold-active bacteria is highly limited. In this study, the molecular characterization of the pA3J1 plasmid of Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_J3 was performed. Within this plasmid, thirteen putative open reading frames were identified. Nine of them encoded proteins involved in replication, partitioning, postsegregational elimination of plasmid-less cells (via a toxin-antitoxin system activity), multimer resolution and mobilization by conjugal transfer. These genes constitute the plasmid backbone...
August 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801992/associations-between-behaviours-that-challenge-in-adults-with-intellectual-disability-parental-perceptions-and-parental-mental-health
#14
Jane Waite, John Rose, Lucy Wilde, Kate Eden, Chris Stinton, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
OBJECTIVES: This study examined parental perceptions of behaviours that challenge (CB) in their adult children with intellectual disability (ID), and explored whether perceptions mediated associations between CB and parental psychological distress. DESIGN: A within-group correlational design was employed. METHODS: Sixty-five parents reported on individuals with genetic syndromes and ID who had chronic CB. Parents completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) adapted to measure perceptions of self-injury, aggression or property destruction, alongside assessments of parental locus of control, attributions about behaviour, parental psychological distress, and CB...
August 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799509/update-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#15
Edoardo Ferlazzo, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Felix Felix Nitschke, Saija Ahonen, Sara Gasparini, Berge A Minassian
BACKGROUND: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare inherited diseases featuring a combination of myoclonus, seizures and variable degree of cognitive impairment. Despite extensive investigations, a large number of PMEs remain undiagnosed. In this review, we focus on the current pharmacological approach to PMEs. METHODS: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until February 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797308/coeliac-disease-in-infants-antibodies-to-deamidated-gliadin-peptide-come-first
#16
Michele Arigliani, Francesca Rech Morassutti, Martina Fabris, Paola Melli, Elio Tonutti, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: The onset of coeliac disease (CD) in the first year of life is uncommon and the diagnosis can be challenging due to the suboptimal sensitivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG) at this age and the many other possible causes of malabsorption in infants. Antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGPs), especially IgG, may appear earlier than IgA anti-tTG in very young children with CD. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here on an 8-month-old child who was evaluated for failure to thrive, constipation and developmental delay...
August 10, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796022/a-pilot-study-of-the-usefulness-of-a-single-olanzapine-plasma-concentration-as-an-indicator-of-early-drug-effect-in-a-small-sample-of-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#17
Arantzazu Zabala, Mariana Bustillo, Imanol Querejeta, Marta Alonso, Oiane Mentxaka, Ana González-Pinto, Amaia Ugarte, J Javier Meana, Miguel Gutiérrez, Rafael Segarra
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Studies analyzing concentration-effect relationships in second-generation antipsychotics have reported contradictory results in chronic schizophrenia. No data are available for the early stages of the disease. The present study aims to evaluate the association between a single olanzapine plasma concentration, clinical response, and severity of adverse effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP); to test the utility of various plasma breakpoints as markers of early response to treatment; and to identify variables affecting olanzapine concentrations...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795310/association-between-nos1-gene-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-in-asian-and-caucasian-populations-a-meta-analysis
#18
Shiek S S J Ahmed, R S Akram Husain, Suresh Kumar, V Ramakrishnan
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by memory impairments with delusions and hallucinations. Several investigations have focused on determining the association between NOS1 (nitric oxide synthase-1) polymorphisms and risk of schizophrenia (SZ). However, the association of rs2682826, rs3782206, rs499776, rs3782219, rs41279104, rs3782221, rs1879417, rs4767540, rs561712, and rs6490121 polymorphisms with schizophrenia remains inconclusive. We performed a systematic meta-analysis for each polymorphism to determine its association with SZ by calculating their pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals...
August 9, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795095/quantitative-exploration-of-factors-influencing-psychotic-disorder-ailments-in-nigeria
#19
Adebowale O Adejumo, Nehemiah A Ikoba, Esivue A Suleiman, Hilary I Okagbue, Pelumi E Oguntunde, Oluwole A Odetunmibi, Obalowu Job
In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation) and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status), divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic) factors that influence them...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794910/first-report-of-two-rare-entities-in-a-family-49-xxxxy-and-45-x
#20
Yavuz Şahin, Aysegül Özcan
49,XXXXY and 45,X syndromes are sex chromosome aneuploidies in which the affected individuals present with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, short or long stature, and skeletal malformations. Psychological, endocrinological, and orthopaedic disorders constitute the major problems in the clinical follow-up. We report a family with two rare entities: 49,XXXXY and 45, X. Sex chromosome abnormalities should especially be in mind in the evaluation of patients with micropenis, mental retardation, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
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