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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723978/instruments-for-the-assessment-of-suicide-risk-a-systematic-review-evaluating-the-certainty-of-the-evidence
#1
Bo Runeson, Jenny Odeberg, Agneta Pettersson, Tobias Edbom, Ingalill Jildevik Adamsson, Margda Waern
BACKGROUND: Instruments have been developed to facilitate suicide risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate the evidence for these instruments including assessment of risk of bias and diagnostic accuracy for suicide and suicide attempt. METHODS: PubMed (NLM), PsycInfo, Embase, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library databases were searched until December 2014. We assessed risk of bias with QUADAS-2. The average sensitivity and specificity of each instrument was estimated and the certainty of the evidence was assessed with GRADE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723959/a-novel-surveillance-approach-for-disaster-mental-health
#2
Oliver Gruebner, Sarah R Lowe, Martin Sykora, Ketan Shankardass, S V Subramanian, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1) identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2) detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions. METHODS: We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan) and a geographic information system (QGIS) to detect and map excess risk of these emotions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723596/effectiveness-of-group-training-of-assertiveness-on-social-anxiety-among-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-adolescents
#3
Hamed Ahmadi, Parviz Sharifi Daramadi, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hamed Givtaj, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian Sani
The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721740/clinical-features-and-subjective-physiological-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-the-presence-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Candan Taskiran, Serkan Karaismailoglu, Halime Tuna Cak Esen, Zeynep Tuzun, Aysen Erdem, Zeynep Dicle Balkanci, Anil Barak Dolgun, Sadriye Ebru Cengel Kultur
INTRODUCTION: Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720071/developmental-expression-and-dysregulation-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-down-s-syndrome-and-mouse-models-of-down-s-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
A Arena, A M Iyer, I Milenkovic, G G Kovács, I Ferrer, M Perluigi, E Aronica
miR-146a and miR-155 are key regulators of the innate immune response. We hypothesized that an inflammation-mediated dysregulation of these miRNAs may occur in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The miRNA expression patterns were investigated by in situ hybridization in developing hippocampus from controls, patients with DS and in adults with AD pathology (DS and sporadic AD; sAD). quantitative real-time PCR was employed to evaluate the miRNA levels in the hippocampus of sAD and in mouse models of DS and AD...
July 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718967/seeing-the-big-picture-broadening-attention-relieves-sadness-and-depressed-mood
#6
Li Gu, Xueling Yang, Liman Man Wai Li, Xinyue Zhou, Ding-Guo Gao
We examined whether the broadened attentional scope would affect people's sad or depressed mood with two experiments, enlightened by the meaning of "seeing the big picture" and the broaden-and-build model. Experiment 1 (n = 164) is a laboratory-based experiment, in which we manipulated the attentional scope by showing participants zoomed-out or zoomed-in scenes. In Experiment 2 (n = 44), we studied how depressed mood and positive and negative emotions were affected when participants watched distant versus proximal scenes for eight weeks in real life...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717902/fusion-of-heart-rate-variability-and-pulse-rate-variability-for-emotion-recognition-using-lagged-poincare-plots
#7
Atefeh Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
Designing an efficient automatic emotion recognition system based on physiological signals has attracted great interests within the research of human-machine interactions. This study was aimed to classify emotional responses by means of a simple dynamic signal processing technique and fusion frameworks. The electrocardiogram and finger pulse activity of 35 participants were recorded during rest condition and when subjects were listening to music intended to stimulate certain emotions. Four emotion categories, including happiness, sadness, peacefulness, and fear were chosen...
July 17, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717512/trauma-related-emotions-and-radical-acceptance-in-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#8
Nora Görg, Kathlen Priebe, Jan R Böhnke, Regina Steil, Anne S Dyer, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often associated with a wide range of trauma-related aversive emotions such as fear, disgust, sadness, shame, guilt, and anger. Intense experience of aversive emotions in particular has been linked to higher psychopathology in trauma survivors. Most established psychosocial treatments aim to reduce avoidance of trauma-related memories and associated emotions. Interventions based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) also foster radical acceptance of the traumatic event...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716528/treatment-with-trek1-and-trpc3-6-ion-channel-inhibitors-upregulates-microrna-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-mild-stress
#9
İlay Buran, Ebru Önalan Etem, Ahmet Tektemur, Halit Elyas
Depression is a common mental disorder characterized by the mood of deep sadness. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs and ion channels have significant roles in the etiopathogenesis of depression. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the TREK1 ion channel inhibitor anandamide and the TRPC3/6 inhibitor norgestimate on microRNA expression and antidepressant effect in the mouse chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Male BALB/c mice were divided into groups as control, CMS, CMS+sertraline, CMS+anandamide, CMS+sertraline+anandamide, CMS+norgestimate and CMS+sertraline+norgestimate...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714700/children-s-prototypic-facial-expressions-during-emotion-eliciting-conversations-with-their-mothers
#10
Vanessa L Castro, Linda A Camras, Amy G Halberstadt, Michael Shuster
Despite theoretical claims that emotions are primarily communicated through prototypic facial expressions, empirical evidence is surprisingly scarce. This study aimed to (a) test whether children produced more components of a prototypic emotional facial expression during situations judged or self-reported to involve the corresponding emotion than situations involving other emotions (termed "intersituational specificity"), (b) test whether children produced more components of the prototypic expression corresponding to a situation's judged or self-reported emotion than components of other emotional expressions (termed "intrasituational specificity"), and (c) examine coherence between children's self-reported emotional experience and observers' judgments of children's emotions...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714699/putting-context-in-context-the-effects-of-body-posture-and-emotion-scene-on-adult-categorizations-of-disgust-facial-expressions
#11
Peter J Reschke, Jennifer M Knothe, Lukas D Lopez, Eric A Walle
Affective face perception is influenced by nonfacial contextual elements. However, investigations often conflate body posture and emotion scene, making it unclear whether posture or the combination of posture and scene produces perception-altering effects. This study examined adults' categorizations of disgust facial expressions superimposed onto isolated emotion postures or postures embedded in emotion scenes. Results indicated that emotional postures exerted a significant contextual effect on adults' emotion categorizations of disgust faces...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713312/neural-temporal-dynamics-of-facial-emotion-processing-age-effects-and-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#12
Xiaoyan Liao, Kui Wang, Kai Lin, Raymond C K Chan, Xiaoyuan Zhang
This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of age on neural temporal dynamics of processing task-relevant facial expressions and their relationship to cognitive functions. Negative (sad, afraid, angry, and disgusted), positive (happy), and neutral faces were presented to 30 older and 31 young participants who performed a facial emotion categorization task. Behavioral and ERP indices of facial emotion processing were analyzed. An enhanced N170 for negative faces, in addition to intact right-hemispheric N170 for positive faces, was observed in older adults relative to their younger counterparts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711797/symptom-severity-and-disability-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-u-s-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-survey
#13
R García-Velázquez, M Jokela, T H Rosenström
BACKGROUND: While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711397/birth-stories-from-south-africa-voices-unheard
#14
Marie Hastings-Tolsma, Anna G W Nolte, Annie Temane
BACKGROUND: The manner that birth events unfold can have a lasting impact on women. Giving voice to women's experiences is key in the creation of care that embodies humanistic, family-centred service. AIM: The aim of this research was to describe the experiences of women receiving care during childbirth. METHODS: The design was qualitative and descriptive using thematic analysis to analyse women's birth stories. A purposive sample of women (N=12) who had recently given birth in South Africa was selected...
July 12, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711115/anticipatory-processing-maladaptive-attentional-focus-and-postevent-processing-for-interactional-and-performance-situations-treatment-response-and-relationships-with-symptom-change-for-individuals-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Quincy J J Wong, Bree Gregory, Lauren F McLellan, Maria Kangas, Maree J Abbott, Leigh Carpenter, Peter M McEvoy, Lorna Peters, Ronald M Rapee
Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709821/the-mandarin-version-of-the-kiddie-schedule-for-affective-disorders-and-schizophrenia-epidemiological-version-for-dsm-5-a-psychometric-study
#16
Yi-Lung Chen, Lih-Jong Shen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Changes of diagnostic coverage and criteria for psychiatric disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published in 2013 cause a need for updating the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological version (K-SADS-E). This study examined the preliminary psychometric properties, including inter-rater reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the modified K-SADS-E for DSM-5...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706608/the-effects-of-melilotus-officinalis-extract-on-expression-of-daxx-nfkb-and-vegf-genes-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Niloofar Bazazzadegan, Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Kioomars Saliminejad, Koorosh Kamali, Mehdi Banan, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid
BACKGROUND: Possible mechanisms of Alzheimer Disease (AD) such as inflammation and oxidative stresses in the brain led us to investigate potential AD therapeutics of Melilotus officinalis, an herbal extract, with possible role as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. Among different genes which had important role in Sporadic AD (SAD), three genes including DAXX, NFkB and VEGF have shown significant statistical diversity in the brains of Alzheimer patients. METHODS: These genes were chosen to be investigated for neuroprotective effects of the extract by comparing the expression level in the hippocampus of Sporadic AD (SAD) rat model using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the treated and untreated groups...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705181/the-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-symptom-burden-among-hiv-outpatients-with-low-cd4-count-in-rural-uganda-nested-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
Katie Wakeham, Richard Harding, Jonathan Levin, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Anatoli Kamali, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden for the year after ART initiation in individuals with a CD4 count <200 cells/uL in Uganda. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naıve adults referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for enrollment into a randomized controlled trial to test fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease were invited to complete the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) prior to commencing ART and at two subsequent follow up visits...
July 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701109/emotion-processing-in-persons-who-respond-vicariously-towards-others-in-pain-disinhibited-left-lateralized-neural-activity-for-threatening-expressions
#19
Melita J Giummarra, Govinda Poudel, P Amanda Niu, Michael E R Nicholls, Joanne Fielding, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Izelle Labuschagne
We investigated emotional processing in vicarious pain (VP) responders. VP responders report an explicit sensory and emotional feeling of pain when they witness another in pain, which is greater in magnitude than the empathic processing of pain in the general population. In Study 1, 31 participants completed a chimeric faces task, judging whether emotional chimera in the left, or right, visual field was more intense. VP responders took longer to judge emotionality than non-responders, and fixated more on the angry hemiface in the right visual field, whereas non-responder controls had no lateralized fixation bias...
July 12, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700143/consequences-of-brain-tumour-resection-on-emotion-recognition
#20
Giulia Mattavelli, Alberto Pisoni, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Giada Sera, Marco Riva, Alberto Bizzi, Marco Rossi, Lorenzo Bello, Costanza Papagno
Emotion processing impairments are common in patients undergoing brain surgery for fronto-temporal tumour resection, with potential consequences on social interactions. However, evidence is controversial concerning side and site of lesions causing such deficits. This study investigates visual and auditory emotion recognition in brain tumour patients with the aim of clarifying which lesion sites are related to impairments in emotion processing from different modalities. Thirty-four patients were evaluated, before and after surgery, on facial expression and emotional prosody recognition; voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses were performed on patients' post-surgery MRI images...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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