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Dentate gyrus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331060/regional-hippocampal-vulnerability-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-dynamic-pathological-spreading-from-dentate-gyrus-to-ca1
#1
Vincent Planche, Ismail Koubiyr, José E Romero, José V Manjon, Pierrick Coupé, Mathilde Deloire, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet, Aurélie Ruet, Thomas Tourdias
BACKGROUND: Whether hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) and how this impacts memory performance is a current topic of debate. METHOD: We prospectively included 56 persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS in a 1-year longitudinal study, together with 55 matched healthy controls at baseline. Participants were tested for memory performance and scanned with 3 T MRI to assess the volume of 5 distinct hippocampal subfields using automatic segmentation techniques...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#2
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326893/treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-social-isolation-induced-depression-through-neuronal-generation-in-rat-pups
#3
Jung-Wan Cho, Sun-Young Jung, Sang-Won Lee, Sam-Jun Lee, Tae-Beom Seo, Young-Pyo Kim, Dae-Young Kim
Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326489/ondansetron-ameliorates-depression-associated-with-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-experimental-mice-an-investigation-based-on-the-behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-approach
#4
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an important risk factor for depression as more than half of the obese population is susceptible for depression at double rate. Our earlier studies reported the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND) in depression associated obesity using behavioral tasks. The present research work is aimed to evaluate the effect of OND on depression associated with obesity with special emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms such as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), hippocampal histological examination and immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326433/reduced-density-of-disc1-expressing-astrocytes-in-the-dentate-gyrus-but-not-in-the-subventricular-zone-in-schizophrenia
#5
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Gerburg Keilhoff, Bernhard Bogerts, Johann Steiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325538/influence-of-isoflurane-exposure-in-pregnant-rats-on-the-learning-and-memory-of-offsprings
#6
Wei Huang, Yunxia Dong, Guangyi Zhao, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Ping Zhao
BACKGROUND: About 2% of pregnant women receive non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia each year. During pregnancy, general anesthetics may affect brain development of the fetus. This study aimed to investigate safe dosage range of isoflurane. METHODS: Forty-eight SpragueDawley (SD) pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups and inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (the Iso1 group), 2.0% isoflurane (the Iso2 group) and 50% O2 alone (the control group) for 3 h, respectively...
January 11, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323042/mitochondrial-protective-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-rhodiola-crenulata-extract-on-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jun-Mei Wang, Ze-Qiang Qu, Jin-Lang Wu, Peter Chung, Yuan-Shan Zeng
In our previous study, we found that the edible alcohol extract of the root of the medicinal plant Rhodiola crenulata (RCE) improved spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study from our laboratory showed that RCE enhanced neural cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prevented damage to hippocampal neurons in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of RCE are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of RCE and its neuroprotective mechanism of action in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320740/plexina2-forward-signaling-through-rap1-gtpases-regulates-dentate-gyrus-development-and-schizophrenia-like-behaviors
#8
Xiao-Feng Zhao, Rafi Kohen, Rachel Parent, Yuntao Duan, Grace L Fisher, Matthew J Korn, Lingchao Ji, Guoqiang Wan, Jing Jin, Andreas W Püschel, David F Dolan, Jack M Parent, Gabriel Corfas, Geoffrey G Murphy, Roman J Giger
Dentate gyrus (DG) development requires specification of granule cell (GC) progenitors in the hippocampal neuroepithelium, as well as their proliferation and migration into the primordial DG. We identify the Plexin family members Plxna2 and Plxna4 as important regulators of DG development. Distribution of immature GCs is regulated by Sema5A signaling through PlxnA2 and requires a functional PlxnA2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Rap1 small GTPases. In adult Plxna2-/- but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient mice, the dentate GC layer is severely malformed, neurogenesis is compromised, and mossy fibers form aberrant synaptic boutons within CA3...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317290/running-exercise-protects-against-myelin-breakdown-in-the-absence-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-ad-mice
#9
Feng-Lei Chao, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Lin Jiang, Qian Xiao, Yan-Min Luo, Fu-Lin Lv, Qi He, Yong Tang
Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316846/acute-stress-evokes-sexually-dimorphic-stressor-specific-patterns-of-neural-activation-across-multiple-limbic-brain-regions-in-adult-rats
#10
Ankit Sood, Karina Chaudhari, Vidita A Vaidya
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker...
January 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315804/white-matter-tauopathy-transient-functional-loss-and-novel-myelin-remodeling
#11
Joshua Jackson, Gabby Bianco, Angelo O Rosa, Katrina Cowan, Peter Bond, Oleg Anichtchik, Robert Fern
Early white matter (WM) changes are common in dementia and may contribute to functional decline. We here examine this phenomenon in an induced dementia model for the first time. We report a novel and selective form of myelin injury as the first manifestation of tauopathy in the adult central nervous system. Myelin pathology rapidly followed the induction of a P301 tau mutation associated with fronto-temporal dementia in humans (rTG4510 line). Damage involved focal disruption of the ad-axonal myelin lamella and internal oligodendrocyte tongue process, followed by myelin remodeling with features of re-myelination that included myelin thinning and internodal shortening...
January 8, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315624/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-increases-histamine-h3-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rat-dentate-gyrus
#12
Rafael K Varaschin, Nyika A Allen, Martina J Rosenberg, C Fernando Valenzuela, Daniel D Savage
BACKGROUND: We have reported that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-induced deficits in dentate gyrus, long-term potentiation (LTP), and memory are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. Curiously, ABT-239 did not enhance LTP or memory in control offspring. Here, we initiated an investigation of how PAE alters histaminergic neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus and other brain regions employing combined radiohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in vitro to examine histamine H3 receptor number and function...
December 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315566/aerobic-exercise-promotes-hippocampal-neurogenesis-through-skeletal-myofibre-derived-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#13
I Vonderwalde, A Kovacs-Litman
The beneficial effects of exercise, including improved cognitive performance, memory, and mood, are well documented and thought to be a result of increased hippocampal neurogenesis through the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) within the dentate gyrus, although the mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312600/mild-hypothermia-modulates-the-expression-of-nestin-and-caspase-3-in-the-sub-granular-zone-and-improves-neurological-outcomes-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#14
Dan Yu, Xueying Wang, Feng Zhou, Liang Wang, Guoshuai Yang, Wei Zhong, Ying Li, Zhiping Zhou, Aiyue Wang, Yanhui Zhou
We assessed neurological outcomes, infarct volume, and the expression of nestin and caspase-3 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, with mild hypothermia (MH) treatment at the onset of ischemia in a MCAO rat model. Reperfusion began 2 hours after the MCAO model was set-up. MH treatment began at the onset of ischemia and was maintained for 4 hours. We evaluated neurological deficit score, brain infarct volumes, along with the immunohistochemical staining of nestin and caspase-3 in the sub-granular zone of the injured hemisphere on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the onset of ischemia...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311652/adult-generated-neurons-born-during-chronic-social-stress-are-uniquely-adapted-to-respond-to-subsequent-chronic-social-stress
#15
Zurine De Miguel, Ursula Haditsch, Theo D Palmer, Arantza Azpiroz, Robert M Sapolsky
Chronic stress is a recognized risk factor for psychiatric and psychological disorders and a potent modulator of adult neurogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that during stress, neurogenesis decreases; however, during the recovery from the stress, neurogenesis increases. Despite the increased number of neurons born after stress, it is unknown if the function and morphology of those neurons are altered. Here we asked whether neurons in adult mice, born during the final 5 days of chronic social stress and matured during recovery from chronic social stress, are similar to neurons born with no stress conditions from a quantitative, functional and morphological perspective, and whether those neurons are uniquely adapted to respond to a subsequent stressful challenge...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311593/neogenin-a-regulator-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-prevents-depressive-like-behavior
#16
Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Lu Zhao, Dae-Hoon Lee, Jin-Xia Hu, Fu-Lei Tang, Jin-Xiu Pan, Lin Mei, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306978/vascular-pattern-of-the-dentate-gyrus-is-regulated-by-neural-progenitors
#17
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Alicia Estirado, Salvador Martinez
Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role...
January 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306758/altered-expression-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-ptz-kindled-rats
#18
Janusz Szyndler, Piotr Maciejak, Karolina Kołosowska, Natalia Chmielewska, Anna Skórzewska, Patrycja Daszczuk, Adam Płaźnik
BACKGROUND: Changes in the expression of the GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic and tonic inhibition have been studied in a wide spectrum of animal models of epilepsy. However, there is no exhaustive data regarding the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy. METHODS: The aim of our study was to analyse the hippocampal changes in the expression of GABA-A receptor subunits involved in phasic (α1, γ2) or tonic (α4 and δ) inhibition in rats subjected to the PTZ kindling using immunohistochemistry method as well as in animals subjected to a single injection of a subconvulsive (30 mg/kg) or convulsive (55 mg/kg) dose of PTZ...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306053/cd38-is-required-for-dendritic-organisation-in-visual-cortex-and-hippocampus
#19
Thom P Nelissen, Rosemary A Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J Peter H Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301063/aberrant-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-gabaergic-interneuron-subpopulations-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-mouse-offspring-following-developmental-exposure-to-hexachlorophene
#20
Yousuke Watanabe, Hajime Abe, Kota Nakajima, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Katsuhide Igarashi, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses on PND 21. Validation analyses on methylation identified three genes, Dlx4, Dmrt1, and Plcb4, showing promoter-region hypermethylation...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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