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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778809/effects-of-propofol-on-ipscs-in-ca1-and-dentate-gyrus-cells-of-rat-hippocampus-propofol-effects-on-hippocampal-cells-ipscs
#1
Masanori Ishiguro, Suguru Kobayashi, Kiyoji Matsuyama, Takashi Nagamine
Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is one of the most popular intravenous anesthetic agents. In this study, we compared the effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by single and paired electrical stimulations in CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1-PCs) and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG-GCs) in rat hippocampal slices using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. In the absence of propofol, the amplitude of evoked IPSC by single stimulation and decay time constants were stable in both CA1-PCs and DG-GCs for 30 min...
May 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778627/impaired-spatial-processing-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Mohamed Ghilan, Luis Bettio, Athena Noonan, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1-/y mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. In agreement with previous findings of long-term potentiation deficits in the DG of this transgenic model of FXS, the results reported here demonstrate that Fmr1-/y mice perform poorly in the DG-dependent metric change spatial processing task...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772199/it-s-about-time-temporal-dynamics-of-dentate-gyrus-pattern-separation
#3
Xiaojing Chen, James J Knierim
The dentate gyrus (DG) is hypothesized to be a pattern separator crucial for distinguishing similar memories. In this issue of Neuron, a new study by van Dijk and Fenton (2018) revealed that transient changes of firing patterns of DG ensembles, but not the remapping of session-averaged place fields, contributed to a place discrimination task.
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764313/2-5-hexanedione-increases-the-percentage-of-proliferative-sox2-cells-in-rat-hippocampus
#4
Longjuan Wang, Shuang Liu, Dan Su, Feng Chen, Tengteng Lei, Haibo Chen, Wei Dong, Yue Jiang, Xiance Sun, Wenchang Sun
n-Hexane is an organic solvent widely used in industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the major neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, decreases the levels of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of two major brain areas showing neurogenesis in adulthood. In the current study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or 2,5-HD five times per week for five continuous weeks. 2,5-HD was administered to the low-dose and high-dose groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761014/strain-specific-differential-expression-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#5
Jong Whi Kim, Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
Introduction: Genetic background influences neurotransmitter expression and function of the hippocampus. Genetic background influences the phenotype of the hippocampus, but expression of neuroglia in hippocampus has not been well established dependent on various mouse strains. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic background on cell population of astrocytes and microglia in eight widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, FVB, 129/SvJ, DBA/1, and DBA/2) and one outbred strain (ICR)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753415/early-effects-of-16-o-radiation-on-neuronal-morphology-and-cognition-in-a-murine-model
#6
Hannah Carr, Tyler C Alexander, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Elvin Price, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753414/late-effects-of-1-h-irradiation-on-hippocampal-physiology
#7
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#8
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752843/propofol-anesthesia-exposure-and-nonaversive-memory-retrieval-and-the-expression-of-molecules-involved-in-memory-process-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-peripubertal-rats
#9
Željko Pavković, Desanka Milanović, Sabera Ruždijić, Selma Kanazir, Vesna Pešić
BACKGROUND: The effects of anesthetic drugs on postoperative cognitive function in children are not well defined and have not been experimentally addressed. AIMS: The present study aimed to examine the influence of propofol anesthesia exposure on nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning and biochemical changes involved in memory process in the dorsal hippocampus, in peripubertal rats as the rodent model of periadolescence. METHODS: The intersession spatial habituation and the novel object recognition tasks were used to assess spatial and nonspatial, nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning...
May 12, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752492/novel-antidepressant-effects-of-paeonol-alleviate-neuronal-injury-with-concomitant-alterations-in-bdnf-rac1-and-rhoa-levels-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-rats
#10
Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jing-Jing Chen, Fei Han, Chuan Pan, Ting-Ting Zhuang, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu
RATIONALE: Increasing evidence has suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, dendrites atrophy, and loss of dendritic spines, especially in emotion-associated brain regions including the hippocampus. Paeonol is a kind of polyphenols natural product with a variety of therapeutic effects. Recent studies have reported its antidepressant effects. However, it is unclear what signaling pathways contribute to improve MDD...
May 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750809/histological-validation-of-calcifications-in-the-human-hippocampus-as-seen-on-computed-tomography
#11
Melissa E M Peters, Remko Kockelkoren, Esther J M de Brouwer, Huiberdina L Koek, Ronald L A W Bleys, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Pim A de Jong
BACKGROUND: Calcifications within the hippocampus were recently described for the first time on computed tomography (CT). These calcifications appeared in patients older than 50 years, the prevalence increases with age and they may be associated with cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to determine the histological basis (the presence, severity and location) of these CT-detected hippocampal calcifications of post-mortem brains. METHODS: CT scans of seven post-mortem brains were scored for the presence and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of hippocampal calcification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746611/adult-human-hippocampus-no-new-neurons-in-sight
#12
Jon I Arellano, Brian Harding, Jean-Leon Thomas
In this issue of Cerebral Cortex, Cipriani et al. are following up on the recent report of Sorrels et al. to add novel immunohistological observations indicating that, unlike rodents, adult and aging humans do not acquire new neurons in the hippocampus. The common finding emerging from these 2 different, but almost simultaneous studies is highly significant because the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was, until recently, considered as the only structure in the human brain that may continue neurogenesis throughout the full life span...
May 9, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743494/a-behavioral-task-with-more-opportunities-for-memory-acquisition-promotes-the-survival-of-new-neurons-in-the-adult-dentate-gyrus
#13
Ida E J Aasebø, Ameya Sanjay Kasture, Marzia Passeggeri, Ayumu Tashiro
It has been suggested that the dentate gyrus, particularly its new neurons generated via adult neurogenesis, is involved in memory acquisition and recall. Here, we trained rats in two types of Morris water maze tasks that are differentially associated with these two memory processes, and examined whether new neurons are differently affected by the two tasks performed during the second week of neuronal birth. Our results indicate that the task involving more opportunities to acquire new information better supports the survival of new neurons...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742815/ablation-of-proliferating-neural-stem-cells-during-early-life-is-sufficient-to-reduce-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#14
Mary Youssef, Varsha S Krish, Greer S Kirshenbaum, Piray Atsak, Tamara J Lass, Sophie R Lieberman, E David Leonardo, Alex Dranovsky
Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742427/hippocampal-network-dynamics-during-rearing-episodes
#15
Albert M Barth, Andor Domonkos, Antonio Fernandez-Ruiz, Tamas F Freund, Viktor Varga
Animals build a model of their surroundings on the basis of information gathered during exploration. Rearing on the hindlimbs changes the vantage point of the animal, increasing the sampled area of the environment. This environmental knowledge is suggested to be integrated into a cognitive map stored by the hippocampus. Previous studies have found that damage to the hippocampus impairs rearing. Here, we characterize the operational state of the hippocampus during rearing episodes. We observe an increase of theta frequency paralleled by a sink in the dentate gyrus and a prominent theta-modulated fast gamma transient in the middle molecular layer...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#16
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740309/expression-of-cyclin-d1-in-astrocytes-varies-during-aging
#17
Brigitte Ciapa, Sylvie Granon
D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740308/cyclosporin-a-mediated-activation-of-endogenous-neural-precursor-cells-promotes-cognitive-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#18
Labeeba Nusrat, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Vaakiny Raguthevan, Kelsey Adams, Ilan Vonderwalde, Dale Corbett, Cindi M Morshead
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740014/different-patterns-of-epileptiform-like-activity-are-generated-in-the-sclerotic-hippocampus-from-patients-with-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, Carla A Scorza, Noemi S Araújo, Nancy N Ortiz-Villatoro, Anaclara Prada Jardim, Ricardo Centeno, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian, Jean Faber, Esper A Cavalheiro
Human hippocampal slice preparations from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are excellent material for the characterization of epileptiform-like activity. However, it is still unknown if hippocampal regions as cornu Ammonis (CA) 1, CA3 and CA4, generate population epileptiform-like activity. Here, we investigated epileptiform activities of the subiculum, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 (induced by elevation of extracellular potassium concentration) and the dentate gyrus (induced with hilar stimulation and elevation of potassium concentration) from sclerotic hippocampi of patients with drug-resistant TLE...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732953/suppressive-effects-of-the-peel-of-citrus-kawachiensis-kawachi-bankan-on-astroglial-activation-tau-phosphorylation-and-inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-type-2-diabetic-db-db-mice
#20
Satoshi Okuyama, Wakana Shinoka, Kumi Nakamura, Maho Kotani, Atsushi Sawamoto, Kuniaki Sugawara, Masahiko Sudo, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
We previously reported that the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the brain in several animal models. Hyperglycemia induces inflammation and oxidative stress and causes massive damage in the brain; therefore, we herein examined the anti-inflammatory and other effects of the dried peel powder of C. kawachiensis in the streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia mice model and in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice model. The C. kawachiensis administration inhibited microglial activation in the hippocampus in the streptozotocin-injected mice...
May 6, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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