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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329327/selection-of-housekeeping-genes-and-demonstration-of-rnai-in-cotton-leafhopper-amrasca-biguttula-biguttula-ishida
#2
Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli
Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) commonly known as cotton leafhopper is a severe pest of cotton and okra. Not much is known on this insect at molecular level due to lack of genomic and transcriptomic data. To prepare for functional genomic studies in this insect, we evaluated 15 common housekeeping genes (Tub, B-Tub, EF alpha, GADPH, UbiCF, RP13, Ubiq, G3PD, VATPase, Actin, 18s, 28s, TATA, ETF, SOD and Cytolytic actin) during different developmental stages and under starvation stress. We selected early (1st and 2nd), late (3rd and 4th) stage nymphs and adults for identification of stable housekeeping genes using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder software...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327238/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-hetpv20-an1-an-alphapartitivirus-infecting-the-conifer-pathogenic-fungus-heterobasidion-annosum
#3
Eeva J Vainio
Root rot fungi of the genus Heterobasidion are highly destructive conifer pathogens in the northern Boreal forest region. This report describes the complete genome sequence of Heterobasidion partitivirus 20 infecting a Finnish strain of Heterobasidion annosum. The bisegmented dsRNA genome of HetPV20-an1 encodes a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 605 amino acids (aa) and a capsid protein of 536 aa. Based on sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, this virus is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325071/viral-suppressors-of-rnai-employ-a-rapid-screening-mode-to-discriminate-viral-rna-from-cellular-small-rna
#4
Mohamed Fareh, Jasper van Lopik, Iason Katechis, Alfred W Bronkhorst, Anna C Haagsma, Ronald P van Rij, Chirlmin Joo
RNA interference (RNAi) is an indispensable mechanism for antiviral defense in insects, including mosquitoes that transmit human diseases. To escape this antiviral defense system, viruses encode suppressors of RNAi that prevent elimination of viral RNAs, and thus ensure efficient virus accumulation. Although the first animal Viral Suppressor of RNAi (VSR) was identified more than a decade ago, the molecular basis of RNAi suppression by these viral proteins remains unclear. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay to investigate how VSRs inhibit the recognition of viral RNAs by Dcr-2, a key endoribonuclease enzyme in the RNAi pathway...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324236/irf1-up-regulates-isg15-gene-expression-in-dsrna-stimulation-or-csfv-infection-by-targeting-nucleotides-487-to-325-in-the-5-flanking-region
#5
Xiao-Quan Li, Xiao Ning Li, Jing-Jing Liang, Xin-Bin Cai, Qian Tao, Yu-Xiao Li, Qing Qin, Su-Ping Xu, Ting Rong Luo
Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a ubiquitin-like protein that is heavily involved in immune response elicitation. As an important member of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, IRF1 can activate the expression of multiple genes, including the human optineurin gene (Sudhakar et al., 2013). In this study, a sequence in the promoter region of the optineurin gene was compared to the 5' flanking region of the porcine isg15 gene. Porcine IRF1 also possesses antiviral activity against several swine viruses (Li et al...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323387/synergistic-effects-of-stellated-fibrous-mesoporous-silica-and-synthetic-dsrna-analogues-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Xiupeng Wang, Xia Li, Atsuo Ito, Yu Sogo, Yohei Watanabe, Kaoru Hashimoto, Atsushi Yamazaki, Tadao Ohno, Noriko M Tsuji
Stellated fibrous mesoporous silica nanospheres significantly improve the cellular uptake of cancer antigen and the maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells in vitro. Moreover, the combination of poly(I:C) with stellated fibrous MS nanospheres markedly decreases the necessary dose of poly(I:C) for anti-tumor immunity, and thus opens new opportunities for the future clinical application of poly(I:C) in cancer immunotherapy.
January 11, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321612/blimp-1-prdm1-is-a-critical-regulator-of-type-iii-interferon-responses-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#7
Salah Elias, Elizabeth J Robertson, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Arne W Mould
The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 originally cloned as a silencer of type I interferon (IFN)-β gene expression controls cell fate decisions in multiple tissue contexts. Conditional inactivation in the mammary gland was recently shown to disrupt epithelial cell architecture. Here we report that Blimp-1 regulates expression of viral defense, IFN signaling and MHC class I pathways, and directly targets the transcriptional activator Stat1. Blimp-1 functional loss in 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) results in accumulation of dsRNA and expression of type III IFN-λ...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317231/the-ancient-role-for-gata2-3-transcription-factor-homolog-in-the-hemocyte-production-of-oyster
#8
Xiaorui Song, Xiaoyu Xin, Miren Dong, Weilin Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Hemocytes, the cellular component of invertebrate hemolymph, are essential for invertebrate immunity, but the hematopoiesis and regulation mechanism are still largely unknown. In the present study, a conserved hematopoietic transcription factor Cg-GATA2/3 was identified in Pacific oyster Crassotrea gigas, which was evolutionarily close to the vertebrate GATA1/2/3. Cg-GATA2/3 was mainly distributed in the immune organs, such as gill, hemocytes, and mantle. After Cg-GATA2/3 was interferenced by dsRNA, the mRNA expressions of hemocytes specific gene (EcSOD) and hematopoietic transcription factor (C-Myb) were all significant down-regulated, and the hemocyte renewal rates also decreased both in hemolymph and gill...
January 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302791/molecular-characterization-of-a-putative-gammapartitivirus-in-the-phytopathogenic-fungus-nigrospora-oryzae
#9
Jin Xiu Yu, Jun Zi Zhu, Ying Wang, Chao Jun Zhang, Jie Zhong, Hong Jian Zhu, Bi Da Gao, Qian Zhou
We report the molecular attributes of a novel bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, designated "Nigrospora oryzae partitivirus 1" (NoPV1), from a phytopathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae. The genome of NoPV1 contains two dsRNA segments (dsRNA1 and 2), 1875 bp and 1601 bp in length, respectively. dsRNA1 and -2 both have a single open reading frame encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein, respectively. NoPV1 has a high degree of sequence identity to members of genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae...
January 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289654/an-alternative-function-of-c-type-lectin-comprising-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-domain-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-to-act-as-a-binding-receptor-for-viral-protein-and-vitellogenin
#10
Pattamaporn Kwankaew, Rachanida Praparatana, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Prapaporn Utarabhand
A diversity of C-type lectins (CTLs) was coming reported and they are known to participate in invertebrate innate immunity by act as pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the present study, a unique CTL containing low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) domain from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (designated as FmLdlr) was cloned. Its sequence contained a single LDLR domain and one carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with a QAP motif putative for galactose-specific binding. The expression of FmLdlr was detected only in hemocytes of healthy shrimp...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284404/multiple-functions-of-creb-binding-protein-during-postembryonic-development-identification-of-target-genes
#11
Amit Roy, Smitha George, Subba Reddy Palli
BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277012/photoelectrochemical-biosensor-for-hen1-rna-methyltransferase-detection-using-peroxidase-mimics-ptcu-nfs-and-poly-u-polymerase-mediated-rna-extension
#12
Haiyan Wang, Libang Zhu, Junling Duan, Minghui Wang, Huanshun Yin, Po Wang, Shiyun Ai
2'-O-methyl group on the 3' terminal nucleotide in plant microRNAs, as one kind of RNA methylations, is caused by HEN1 RNA methyltransferase (HENMT1), which is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Herein, a simple and label-free PEC biosensing method was proposed for assay of HENMT1 activity and inhibitor screening based on peroxidase mimic PtCu nanoframes (PtCu NFs) catalytic signal amplification. In this work, MoS2@Graphene quantum dots/Phosphorus-doped rodlike carbon nitride (MoS2@GQDs/P-RCN) heterojunction was used as photoactive materials...
December 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275209/barley-adh-1-modulates-susceptibility-to-bgh-and-is-involved-in-chitin-induced-systemic-resistance
#13
Christoph L Käsbauer, Indira Priyadarshini Pathuri, Götz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Ralph Hückelhoven, Reinhard K Proels
The plant primary energy metabolism is profoundly reorganized under biotic stress conditions and there is increasing evidence for a role of the fermentative pathway in biotic interactions. Previously we showed via transient gene silencing or overexpression a function of barley alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (HvADH-1) in the interaction of barley with the parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). Here we extend our studies on stable transgenic barley events over- or under-expressing HvADH-1 to analyse ADH-1 functions at the level of whole plants...
December 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275132/molecular-cloning-of-kuruma-shrimp-marsupenaeus-japonicus-endonuclease-reverse-transcriptase-and-its-positive-role-in-white-spot-syndrome-virus-and-vibrio-alginolyticus-infection
#14
Xiongchao Ma, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
This study investigated the function of endonuclease-reverse transcriptase (mjERT) in Marsupenaeus japonicus. The 1129 bp cDNA sequence of mjERT was cloned from M. japonicus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that mjERT was highly expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus. We also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could enhance the expression of mjERT. When mjERT was inhibited, immune genes such as toll, p53, hemocyanin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly down-regulated (P < ...
December 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274789/a-cuticle-protein-from-the-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-involved-in-wssv-infection
#15
Feifei Yang, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major viral pathogen in global shrimp farming, causing huge economic damage. Through penetrating the outer surface of the target tissues, WSSV enters into the cells of the target tissue to complete the replication process in the host. In the present study, a cuticle protein gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, designated as LvAMP13.4, was identified and proved to be involved in WSSV invasion. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvAMP13.4 contained a signal peptide and a conserved chitin-binding domain type 4 (ChBD4)...
December 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274423/enzymatic-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-ecchi3c-from-ridgetail-white-prawn-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#16
Yuying Sun, Jiquan Zhang, Fengge Song, Jing Wang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Jianhai Xiang
Chitinase belongs to the glycosyl hydrolases family 18 and plays key role in the development and pathogen resistance of crustaceans. In this study, the enzymatic characterization of chitinase 3C (EcChi3C) of Exopalaemon carinicauda was analyzed. In addition, we analyzed the expression profiles of EcChi3C at different tissues and different molting stages. In the all tested tissues, it was predominantly expressed in hepatopancreas, and then stomach, but poor in other tissues. In all tested molting periods, it was mainly expressed in intermolt and molting stages, but poor in other stages...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261729/nucleases-as-a-barrier-to-gene-silencing-in-the-cotton-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis
#17
Rayssa Almeida Garcia, Leonardo Lima Pepino Macedo, Danila Cabral do Nascimento, François-Xavier Gillet, Clidia Eduarda Moreira-Pinto, Muhammad Faheem, Angelina Maria Moreschi Basso, Maria Cristina Mattar Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been applied as a biotechnological tool for controlling plant insect pests via selective gene down regulation. However, the inefficiency of RNAi mechanism in insects is associated with several barriers, including dsRNA delivery and uptake by the cell, dsRNA interaction with the cellular membrane receptor and dsRNA exposure to insect gut nucleases during feeding. The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a coleopteran in which RNAi-mediated gene silencing does not function efficiently through dsRNA feeding, and the factors involved in the mechanism remain unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260329/recognition-of-six-additional-cystoviruses-pseudomonas-virus-phi6-is-no-longer-the-sole-species-of-the-family-cystoviridae
#18
Sari Mäntynen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Minna M Poranen
Cystoviridae is a family of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) with a tri-segmented dsRNA genome. It includes a single genus Cystovirus, which has presently only one recognised virus species, Pseudomonas virus phi6. However, a large number of additional dsRNA phages have been isolated from various environmental samples, indicating that such viruses are more widespread and abundant than previously recognised. Six of the additional dsRNA phage isolates (Pseudomonas phages phi8, phi12, phi13, phi2954, phiNN and phiYY) have been fully sequenced...
December 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258831/identification-and-characterization-of-proteins-in-the-amblyomma-americanum-tick-cement-cone
#19
Taylor Hollmann, Tae Kwon Kim, Lucas Tirloni, Željko M Radulović, Antônio F M Pinto, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Albert Mulenga
The adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. Thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. We used LC-MS/MS sequencing to identify 160 Amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (GRP, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown function (11%), mucin (4%), detoxification, storage, and lipocalin at 1% each, and housekeeping proteins (50%)...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251589/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-chrysoviridae
#20
Said A Ghabrial, José R Castón, Robert H A Coutts, Bradley I Hillman, Daohong Jiang, Dae-Hyun Kim, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Ictv Report Consortium
The Chrysoviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses (40 nm in diameter) with segmented dsRNA genomes (typically four segments). The genome segments are individually encapsidated and together comprise 11.5-12.8 kbp. The single genus Chrysovirus includes nine species. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular phase to their life cycle; they are transmitted via intracellular routes within an individual during hyphal growth, in asexual or sexual spores, or between individuals via hyphal anastomosis...
December 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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