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Koki Fujisaki, Chika Tateda, Asuka Shirakawa, Mari Iwai, Yoshiko Abe
The DECS (dsRNA isolation, exhaustive amplification, cloning and sequencing) analysis technique for viral diagnosis detected a tombusvirus in Japanese gentian not displaying severe symptoms. We tentatively named this virus "gentian virus A" (GeVA). GeVA systemically but inefficiently infected Japanese gentian without causing visible symptoms, while it led to severe symptoms in some other plants. The complete genome sequence of GeVA indicated a typical tombusvirus-like structure. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of four tombusvirus-encoded proteins did not reveal other known tombusviruses that were closely-related to GeVA, suggesting that it is a novel tombusvirus...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Virology
Bryan H Arias-Mireles, Cyrus M de Rozieres, Kevin Ly, Simpson Joseph
Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein involved in preventing host-interferon response in Influenza A Virus (IAV). Previous studies have indicated that NS1 also stimulates the translation of viral mRNA by binding to conserved sequences in the viral 5'-UTR. Additionally, NS1 binds to Poly (A) Binding Protein (PABP1) and eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4G (eIF4G). The interaction of NS1 with the viral 5'-UTR, PABP1, and eIF4G has been suggested to specifically enhance the translation of viral mRNAs...
May 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Yisha Liang, Xuezhi Cao, Qiang Ding, Yanan Zhao, Zhenliang He, Jin Zhong
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) senses dsRNA intermediates produced during RNA virus replication to activate innate immune signaling pathways through adaptor protein TRIF. Many viruses have evolved strategies to block TLR3-mediated interferon signaling via targeting TRIF. Here we studied how hepatitis C virus (HCV) antagonizes the TLR3-mediated interferon signaling. We found that HCV-encoded NS4B protein inhibited TLR3-mediated interferon signaling by down-regulating TRIF protein level. Mechanism studies indicated that the downregulation of TRIF by NS4B was dependent on caspase8...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Phloem and plant sap feeding insects invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients, in the process damaging food crops. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are hemipteran insect pests introduced in North America, where they are an invasive agricultural pest of high-value specialty, row, and staple crops and citrus fruits, as well as a nuisance pest when they aggregate indoors...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jia-Hsin Huang, Yun Liu, Yu-Hsien Lin, Xavier Belles, How-Jing Lee
RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely applied for uncovering the biological functions of numerous genes, and has been envisaged as a pest control tool operating by disruption of essential gene expression. Although different methods, such as injection, feeding, and soaking, have been reported for successful delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), the efficiency of RNAi through oral delivery of dsRNA is highly variable among different insect groups. The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is highly sensitive to the injection of dsRNA, as shown by many studies published previously...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fanli Meng, Mingyu Yang, Yang Li, Tianyu Li, Xinxin Liu, Guoyue Wang, Zhanchun Wang, Xianhao Jin, Wenbin Li
RNA interference (RNAi) is useful for controlling pests of agriculturally important crops. The soybean pod borer (SPB) is the most important soybean pest in Northeastern Asia. In an earlier study, we confirmed that the SPB could be controlled via transgenic plant-mediated RNAi. Here, the SPB transcriptome was sequenced to identify RNAi-related genes, and also to establish an RNAi-of-RNAi assay system for evaluating genes involved in the SPB systemic RNAi response. The core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake were identified based on SPB transcriptome sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Paula F Zamora, Liya Hu, Jonathan J Knowlton, Roni M Lahr, Rodolfo A Moreno, Andrea J Berman, B V Venkataram Prasad, Terence S Dermody
Viral nonstructural proteins, which are not packaged into virions, are essential for replication of most viruses. Reovirus, a nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, encodes three nonstructural proteins that are required for viral replication and dissemination in the host. Reovirus nonstructural protein σNS is a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-binding protein that must be expressed in infected cells for production of viral progeny. However, activities of σNS during individual steps of the reovirus replication cycle are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Junji Xing, Ao Zhang, Laurie J Minze, Xian Chang Li, Zhiqiang Zhang
The innate immunity is critically important in protection against virus infections, and in the case of RNA viral infections, the signaling mechanisms that initiate robust protective innate immunity without triggering autoimmune inflammation remain incompletely defined. In this study, we found the E3 ligase TRIM29 was specifically expressed in poly I:C-stimulated human myeloid dendritic cells. The induced TRIM29 played a negative role in type I IFN production in response to poly I:C or dsRNA virus reovirus infection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
David Hopkins, Tapio Envall, Noora Poikela, Olli T Pentikäinen, Maaria Kankare
Alternative splicing, in which one gene produce multiple transcripts, may influence how adaptive genes respond to specific environments. A newly produced transcriptome of Drosophila montana shows the Gs1-like (Gs1l) gene to express multiple splice variants and to be down regulated in cold acclimated flies with increased cold tolerance. Gs1l's effect on cold tolerance was further tested by injecting cold acclimated and non-acclimated flies from two distantly located northern and southern fly populations with double stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting Gs1l...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zifeng Zheng, Jieyu Yang, Xuan Jiang, Yalan Liu, Xiaowei Zhang, Mei Li, Mudan Zhang, Ming Fu, Kai Hu, Hanzhong Wang, Min-Hua Luo, Peng Gong, Qinxue Hu
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the flaviviruses that targets the CNS and causes encephalitis in humans. The mechanism of TBEV that causes CNS destruction remains unclear. It has been reported that RANTES-mediated migration of human blood monocytes and T lymphocytes is specifically induced in the brain of mice infected with TBEV, which causes ensuing neuroinflammation and may contribute to brain destruction. However, the viral components responsible for RANTES induction and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Chitvan Khajuria, Sergey Ivashuta, Elizabeth Wiggins, Lex Flagel, William Moar, Michael Pleau, Kaylee Miller, Yuanji Zhang, Parthasarathy Ramaseshadri, Changjian Jiang, Tracey Hodge, Peter Jensen, Mao Chen, Anilkumar Gowda, Brian McNulty, Cara Vazquez, Renata Bolognesi, Jeffrey Haas, Graham Head, Thomas Clark
The use of dsRNA to control insect pests via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is being explored by researchers globally. However, with every new class of insect control compounds, the evolution of insect resistance needs to be considered, and understanding resistance mechanisms is essential in designing durable technologies and effective resistance management strategies. To gain insight into insect resistance to dsRNA, a field screen with subsequent laboratory selection was used to establish a population of DvSnf7 dsRNA-resistant western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major maize insect pest...
2018: PloS One
Meifeng Li, Xiaowen Xu, Zeyin Jiang, Changxin Liu, Xiao Shi, Guoqin Qi, Yinping Li, Xin Chen, Qingli Huang, Huiling Mao, Chengyu Hu
As a host limiting factor, Sterile Alpha Motif and Histidine-Aspartate Domain 1 protein (SAMHD1) is associated with IRF3-mediated antiviral and apoptotic responses in mammals. However, the antiviral mechanism of SAMHD1 remains indistinct in fish. In this study, we found the expression of Ctenopharyngodon idella SAMHD1 (MF326081) was up-regulated after transfection with poly I:C (dsRNA analog), B-DNA or Z-DNA into C. idella kidney cells (CIKs), but these expression profiles had no obvious change when the cells were incubated with these nucleic acids...
May 10, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jinzhi Niu, Guangmao Shen, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe, Lin He, Jinjun Wang
Mites comprise a group of key agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. They cause harm through feeding on the plant and transferring dangerous pathogens, and the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in mites highlights the need for novel control methods. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) shows a great potential for insect pest control. Here, we review the literature associated with RNAi in mite pests. We discuss different target genes and RNAi efficiency in various mite species, a promising Varroa control program through RNAi, the synergy of RNAi with plant defense mechanisms and microorganisms, and the current understandings of systemic movement of dsRNA...
May 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Austein G McLoughlin, Nick Wytinck, Philip L Walker, Ian J Girard, Khalid Y Rashid, Teresa de Kievit, W G Dilantha Fernando, Steve Whyard, Mark F Belmonte
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of white stem rot, is responsible for significant losses in crop yields around the globe. While our understanding of S. sclerotiorum infection is becoming clearer, genetic control of the pathogen has been elusive and effective control of pathogen colonization using traditional broad-spectrum agro-chemical protocols are less effective than desired. In the current study, we developed species-specific RNA interference-based control treatments capable of reducing fungal infection...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah J Poynter, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Viruses across genome types produce long dsRNA molecules during replication [viral (v-) dsRNA]. dsRNA is a potent signaling molecule and inducer of type I interferon (IFN), leading to the production of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), and a protective antiviral state within the cell. Research on dsRNA-induced immune responses has relied heavily on a commercially available, and biologically irrelevant dsRNA, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Alternatively, dsRNA can be produced by in vitro transcription (ivt-) dsRNA, with a defined sequence and length...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Selin Özkan-Kotiloğlu, Robert H A Coutts
Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. They are widespread in all major fungal groups including plant and animal pathogenic fungi. Several dsRNA mycoviruses have been reported in Aspergillus fumigatus . Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a version of PCR that enables amplification of different targets simultaneously. This technique has been widely used for detection and differentiation of viruses especially plant viruses such as those which infect tobacco, potato and garlic...
May 8, 2018: Viruses
Runqing Huang, Qiong Zhou, Yan Shi, Jing Zhang, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Suwattana Visetnan, Suchao Donpudsa, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit
In shrimp, the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are involved in host innate immune defense system against pathogenic microorganisms. A five-Kazal-domain SPIPm2 is the most abundant KPIs in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and up-regulated in response to yellow head virus (YHV) infection. In this study, the role of SPIPm2 in YHV infection was investigated. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes, gill and heart from 48-h YHV-infected shrimp was increased. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes was significantly increased after 12 h of infection and gradually increased higher afterwards...
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lifeng Zhai, Meixin Zhang, Ni Hong, Feng Xiao, Min Fu, Jun Xiang, Guoping Wang
A novel hepta-segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus was isolated and characterized from the strain FJ-4 of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum fructicola , and was named Colletotrichum fructicola chrysovirus 1 (CfCV1). The full-length cDNAs of dsRNA1-7 were 3620, 2801, 2687, 2437, 1750, 1536, and 1211 bp, respectively. The 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of the seven dsRNAs share highly similar internal sequence and contain conserved sequence stretches, indicating that they have a common virus origin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mingxiao Ning, Meijun Yuan, Min Liu, Qi Gao, Panpan Wei, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Cathepsin D (catD) belongs to a lysosomal aspartic protease superfamily. The full-length catD cDNA from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (EscatD) was 2748 bp and contained a 1158-bp ORF encoding a protein of 385 amino acids, including a signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EscatD was clustered into a single group, together with other catD for crustaceans. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that EscatD was expressed mainly in the eyes, hemocytes, intestine and nerve and was expressed weakly in heart, muscle and gills...
April 23, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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