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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909411/rnai-efficiency-systemic-properties-and-novel-delivery-methods-for-pest-insect-control-what-we-know-so-far
#1
REVIEW
Mallikarjuna R Joga, Moises J Zotti, Guy Smagghe, Olivier Christiaens
In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907832/modeling-of-the-catalytic-core-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-dicer-like-4-protein-and-its-complex-with-double-stranded-rna
#2
Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Joanna Sarzyńska, Maciej Miłostan, Anna Kurzyńska-Kokorniak, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Piotr Łukasiak, Tadeusz Kuliński, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Błażewicz
Plant Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) belong to the Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzyme family. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression and antiviral defense through RNA interference pathways. A model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana encodes four DCL proteins (AtDCL1-4) that produce different classes of small regulatory RNAs. Our studies focus on AtDCL4 that processes double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) into 21 nucleotide trans-acting small interfering RNAs. So far, little is known about the structures of plant DCLs and the complexes they form with dsRNA...
November 17, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901078/asian-citrus-psyllid-rnai-pathway-rnai-evidence
#3
Clauvis N T Taning, Eduardo C Andrade, Wayne B Hunter, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe
Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897343/optimization-of-the-alkyl-linker-of-to-base-surrogate-in-triplex-forming-pna-for-enhanced-binding-to-double-stranded-rna
#4
Takaya Sato, Yusuke Sato, Seiichi Nishizawa
A series of triplex-forming PNA probes carrying a thiazole orange (TO) base surrogate through an alkyl linker was synthesized, and the interactions between these so-called tFIT probes and purine-rich sequences within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were examined. We found the TO base surrogate linker significantly affected both the binding affinity and the fluorescence response upon triplex formation with the target dsRNA. Among the probes examined, the TO base surrogate connected through the propyl linker in the tFIT probes increased the binding affinity by a factor of ten while maintaining its function as the fluorescent universal base...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892529/a-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-acts-in-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-immunity-and-involves-in-begomovirus-acquisition
#5
Zhi-Zhi Wang, Min Shi, Yi-Cun Huang, Xiao-Wei Wang, David Stanley, Xue-Xin Chen
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are multifunctional pattern recognition proteins. Here, we report that a PGRP gene, BtPGRP, encodes a PGRP from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) that binds and kills bacteria in vitro. We analyzed BtPGRP transcriptional profiling, and the distribution of the cognate protein within the midgut. Fungal infection and wasp parasitization induced expression of BtPGRP. Silencing BtPGRP with artificial media amended with dsRNA led to reduced expression of a gene encoding an antimicrobial peptide, B...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891121/hypovirulence-of-sclerotium-rolfsii-caused-by-associated-rna-mycovirus
#6
Jie Zhong, Dan Chen, Hong J Zhu, Bi D Gao, Qian Zhou
Mycoviruses associated with hypovirulence are potential biological control agents and could be useful to study the pathogenesis of fungal host pathogens. Sclerotium rolfsii, a pathogenic fungus, causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops. In this study, we isolated a series of dsRNAs from a debilitated S. rolfsii strain, BLH-1, which had pronounced phenotypic aberrations including reduced pathogenicity, mycelial growth and deficient sclerotia production. Virus-curing and horizontal transmission experiments that eliminated or transmitted, respectively, all dsRNA elements showed that the dsRNAs were involved in the hypovirulent traits of BLH-1...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888605/natural-antisense-transcripts-are-linked-to-the-modulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-teliospore-dormancy-in-ustilago-maydis
#7
Lauren A Ostrowski, Barry J Saville
The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago maydis causes common smut of corn. This disease is spread through the production of teliospores, which are thick-walled dormant structures characterized by low rates of respiration and metabolism. Teliospores are formed when the fungus grows within the plant, and the morphological steps involved in their formation have been described, but the molecular events leading to dormancy are not known. In U. maydis, natural antisense transcripts (NATs) can function to alter gene expression and many NATs have increased levels in the teliospore...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885784/microrna-and-dsrna-targeting-chitin-synthase-a-reveal-a-great-potential-for-pest-management-of-a-hemipteran-insect-nilaparvata-lugens
#8
Tengchao Li, Jie Chen, Xiaobin Fan, Weiwen Chen, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Two RNA silencing pathways in insects are known to exist that are mediated by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been hypothesized to be promising methods for insect pest control. However, a comparison between miRNA and siRNA in pest control is still unavailable, particularly in targeting chitin synthase gene A (CHSA). RESULTS: The dsRNA for Nilaparvata lugens CHSA (dsNlCHSA) and microR-2703 (miR-2703) mimic targeting NlCHSA delivered via feeding affected the development of nymphs, reduced their chitin content and led to lethal phenotypes...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885504/plant-dicer-like-proteins-double-stranded-rna-cleaving-enzymes-for-small-rna-biogenesis
#9
Akihito Fukudome, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
Dicer, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific endoribonuclease, plays an essential role in triggering both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes by cleaving dsRNAs or single-stranded RNAs bearing stem-loop structures such as microRNA precursor transcripts into 21- to 24-nt small RNAs. Unlike animals, plants have evolved to utilize at least four Dicer-like (DCL) proteins. Extensive genetic studies have revealed that each DCL protein participates in a specific gene silencing pathway, with some redundancy...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883266/silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-insect-intestinal-mucin-and-sericotropin-genes-by-bacterially-produced-double-stranded-rna-affects-larval-growth-and-development-in-plutella-xylostella-and-helicoverpa-armigera
#10
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881660/the-norovirus-ns3-protein-is-a-dynamic-lipid-and-microtubule-associated-protein-involved-in-viral-rna-replication
#11
Ben Cotton, Jennifer L Hyde, Soroush T Sarvestani, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev, Kim Y Green, Peter A White, Jason M Mackenzie
: Norovirus (NoV) infections are a significant health burden to society yet the lack of reliable tissue culture systems has hampered the development of appropriate antiviral therapies. Here we show that the NoV NS3 protein, derived from murine NoV (MNV), is intimately associated with the MNV replication complex and the viral replication intermediate dsRNA. We have observed that when expressed individually MNV NS3 and NS3 encoded by human Norwalk virus (NV) induced the formation of distinct vesicle-like structures that did not co-localise with any particular protein markers to cellular organelles, but localised to cellular membranes, in particular those high in cholesterol content...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877084/rna-interference-of-chitin-synthase-genes-inhibits-chitin-biosynthesis-and-affects-larval-performance-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#12
Ji-Feng Shi, Li-Li Mu, Xu Chen, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872309/phosphate-binding-pocket-in-dicer-2-paz-domain-for-high-fidelity-sirna-production
#13
Suresh K Kandasamy, Ryuya Fukunaga
The enzyme Dicer produces small silencing RNAs such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In Drosophila, Dicer-1 produces ∼22-24-nt miRNAs from pre-miRNAs, whereas Dicer-2 makes 21-nt siRNAs from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). How Dicer-2 precisely makes 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity is unknown. Here we report that recognition of the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate by a phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ (Piwi, Argonaute, and Zwille/Pinhead) domain is crucial for the length fidelity, but not the efficiency, in 21-nt siRNA production...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871341/functional-analysis-of-a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-in-the-immune-defense-of-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#14
Z Shi, H Liang, Y Hou
Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869783/comparative-analysis-of-rnai-based-methods-to-down-regulate-expression-of-two-genes-expressed-at-different-levels-in-myzus-persicae
#15
Michaël Mulot, Sylvaine Boissinot, Baptiste Monsion, Maryam Rastegar, Gabriel Clavijo, David Halter, Nicole Bochet, Monique Erdinger, Véronique Brault
With the increasing availability of aphid genomic data, it is necessary to develop robust functional validation methods to evaluate the role of specific aphid genes. This work represents the first study in which five different techniques, all based on RNA interference and on oral acquisition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), were developed to silence two genes, ALY and Eph, potentially involved in polerovirus transmission by aphids. Efficient silencing of only Eph transcripts, which are less abundant than those of ALY, could be achieved by feeding aphids on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing an RNA hairpin targeting Eph, on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-Eph recombinant virus, or on in vitro-synthesized Eph-targeting dsRNA...
November 19, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868074/cd63-promotes-hemocyte-mediated-phagocytosis-in-the-clam-paphia-undulata
#16
Mingjia Yu, Shanjun Yang, Hongxia Sun, Qiang Xia
As one of the surface membrane proteins of tetraspanin family, CD63 plays a crucial role in cellular trafficking and endocytosis, which also is associated with activation of a wide variety of immune cells. Here, the homolog of CD63 was characterized from one marine mollusk, Paphia undulata, which is designated as Pu-CD63. The complete cDNA of Pu-CD63 is 1,738 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp, encoding a 282 amino acid protein with four putative hydrophobic transmembrane helixes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Pu-CD63 contains one putative YXXØ consensus motif of "110-YVII-113" and one N-glycosylation site "155-NGT-157" within the large extracellular loop (LEL) region, supporting its conserved function in plasma membrane and endosomal/lysosomal trafficking...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867019/potential-of-rnai-applications-to-control-viral-diseases-of-farmed-shrimp
#17
Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Siripong Thitamadee, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
Viral pathogens pose a primary threat to global shrimp aquaculture. Despite the urgent industry need for them, practical anti-viral control methods are unavailable due, in part, to lack of an adaptive immune response in crustaceans that renders conventional vaccination methods ineffective. One currently studied method of high interest for protecting shrimp against viral infection relies on the post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi) that is induced by gene-specific constructs of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867018/chitin-synthase-1-gene-is-crucial-to-antifungal-host-defense-of-the-model-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#18
Yuuki Hayakawa, Daiki Kato, Katsumi Kamiya, Chieka Minakuchi, Ken Miura
The importance of the insect cuticle as a primary protective barrier against entomopathogens has long been noted. In the present study, we addressed this issue by utilizing an experimental infection system composed of the model beetle T. castaneum and two entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The pupae were relatively susceptible to these fungi by the natural route of infection, with some refractoriness developed with age, while the adults exhibited much higher refractoriness...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866900/a-viral-deamidase-targets-the-helicase-domain-of-rig-i-to-block-rna-induced-activation
#19
Jun Zhao, Yi Zeng, Simin Xu, Jie Chen, Guobo Shen, Caiqun Yu, David Knipe, Weiming Yuan, Jian Peng, Wenqing Xu, Chao Zhang, Zanxian Xia, Pinghui Feng
RIG-I detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to trigger antiviral cytokine production. Protein deamidation is emerging as a post-translational modification that chiefly regulates protein function. We report here that UL37 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a protein deamidase that targets RIG-I to block RNA-induced activation. Mass spectrometry analysis identified two asparagine residues in the helicase 2i domain of RIG-I that were deamidated upon UL37 expression or HSV-1 infection. Deamidation rendered RIG-I unable to sense viral dsRNA, thus blocking its ability to trigger antiviral immune responses and restrict viral replication...
November 16, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862861/the-overexpression-of-insect-endogenous-small-rnas-in-transgenic-rice-inhibits-growth-and-delays-pupation-of-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis
#20
Shan Jiang, Hao Wu, Haoju Liu, Jie Zheng, Yongjun Lin, Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker, SSB) is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. RESULTS: Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
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