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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317870/structural-and-functional-studies-of-a-noncanonical-dicer-from-entamoeba-histolytica
#1
Xiang Yu, Xuhang Li, Lina Zheng, Jinbiao Ma, Jianhua Gan
RNaseIII proteins are dsRNA-specific endonucleases involved in many important biological processes, such as small RNA processing and maturation in eukaryotes. Various small RNAs have been identified in a protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. EhRNaseIII is the only RNaseIII endonuclease domain (RIIID)-containing protein in E. histolytica. Here, we present three crystal structures that reveal several unique structural features of EhRNaseIII, especially the interactions between the two helixes (α1 and α7) flanking the RIIID core domain...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300613/identification-and-characterization-of-a-masculinizer-masc-gene-involved-in-sex-differentiation-in-artemia
#2
Dong-Rui Li, Hui-Li Ye, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, Mo-Ran Wang, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
The sex of relatively primitive animals such as invertebrates is mostly determined by environmental factors and chromosome ploidy. Heteromorphic chromosomes may also play an important role, as in the ZW system in lepidopterans. However, the mechanisms of these various sex determination systems are still largely undefined. In the present study, a Masculinizer gene (Ar-Masc) was identified in the crustacean Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1140-bp full-length open reading frame of Ar-Masc encodes a 380-aa protein containing two CCCH-type zinc finger domains having a high degree of shared identities with the MASC protein characterized in the silkworm Bombyx mori, which has been determined to participate in the production of male-specific splice variants...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300136/spalt-is-functionally-conserved-in-locusta-and-drosophila-to-promote-wing-growth
#3
Dan Wang, Juanjuan Li, Suning Liu, Hang Zhou, Long Zhang, Wangpeng Shi, Jie Shen
Locusta has strong fly wings to ensure its long distance migration, but the molecular mechanism that regulates the Locusta wing development is poorly understood. To address the developmental mechanism of the Locusta flying wing, we cloned the Dpp target gene spalt (sal) and analyzed its function in wing growth in the Locusta. The Locusta wing size is apparently reduced with vein defects when sal is interfered by injection of dsRNA, indicating that sal is required for locust wing growth and vein formation. This function is conserved during the Drosophila wing development...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299481/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-double-stranded-rna-mycovirus-from-fusarium-graminearum-strain-hn1
#4
Luan Wang, Shuangchao Wang, Xiufen Yang, Hongmei Zeng, Dewen Qiu, Lihua Guo
The complete nucleotide sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum dsRNA virus 5 (FgV5), was identified and characterized. The FgV5 genome comprises two dsRNA genome segments of 2030 bp and 1740 bp. FgV5 dsRNA1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1), which is predicted to encode a protein of 613 amino acids (aa) with a molecular mass of 70.4 kDa and has a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motif. FgV5 dsRNA2 is predicted to contain two discontinuous ORFs (ORF2 and ORF3) that code for products of unknown function...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296575/live-cell-imaging-reveals-the-relocation-of-dsrna-binding-proteins-upon-viral-infection
#5
Deborah Barton, Elke Roovers, Quentin Gouil, Guilherme C da Fonseca, Rodrigo S Reis, Craig Jackson, Robyn Overall, Adriana Fusaro, Peter Waterhouse
Viral infection triggers a range of plant responses such as the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins, DRB3 and DRB4, are part of this pathway and aid in defending against DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Using live cell imaging, we show that DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 relocate from their uniform cytoplasmic distribution to concentrated accumulation in nascent viral replication complexes (VRCs) that develop following cell invasion by viral RNA. Inactivation of the DRB3 gene in Arabidopsis, by T-DNA insertion, rendered these plants less able to repress RNA viral replication...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292465/lipopolysaccharide-and-double-stranded-viral-rna-mediate-insulin-resistance-and-increase-system-a-amino-acid-transport-in-human-trophoblast-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation and underlying low-grade maternal infection can impair insulin signalling and upregulate nutrient transport in the placenta which contribute to fetal overgrowth associated with GDM and/or obese pregnancies. There are, however, no studies on the role of infection on placental nutrient transport in pregnancies complicated by GDM and/or obesity. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the effect of the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) on the insulin signalling pathway and amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287099/double-stranded-rna-virus-outer-shell-assembly-by-bona-fide-domain-swapping
#7
Zhaoyang Sun, Kamel El Omari, Xiaoyu Sun, Serban L Ilca, Abhay Kotecha, David I Stuart, Minna M Poranen, Juha T Huiskonen
Correct outer protein shell assembly is a prerequisite for virion infectivity in many multi-shelled dsRNA viruses. In the prototypic dsRNA bacteriophage φ6, the assembly reaction is promoted by calcium ions but its biomechanics remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the near-atomic resolution structure of the φ6 double-shelled particle. The outer T=13 shell protein P8 consists of two alpha-helical domains joined by a linker, which allows the trimer to adopt either a closed or an open conformation. The trimers in an open conformation swap domains with each other...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282380/oral-delivery-of-double-stranded-rnas-induces-mortality-in-nymphs-and-adults-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#8
Diogo Manzano Galdeano, Michèle Claire Breton, João Roberto Spotti Lopes, Bryce W Falk, Marcos Antonio Machado
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278187/resveratrol-ameliorates-the-chemical-and-microbial-induction-of-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-human-placenta-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#9
Ha T Tran, Stella Liong, Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which complicates up to 20% of all pregnancies, is associated with low-grade maternal inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of this inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Resveratrol, a stilbene-type phytophenol, has been implicated to exert beneficial properties including potent anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects in non-pregnant humans and experimental animal models of GDM. However, studies showing the effects of resveratrol on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM in human tissues have been limited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277606/a-novel-spore-wall-protein-from-antonospora-locustae-microsporidia-nosematidae-contributes-to-sporulation
#10
Longxin Chen, Runting Li, Yinwei You, Kun Zhang, Long Zhang
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites, existing in a wide variety of animal hosts. Here, we reported AlocSWP2, a novel protein identified from the spore wall of Antonospora locustae (formerly, Nosema locustae, and synonym, Paranosema locustae), containing four cysteines that are conserved among the homologues of several Microspodian pathogens in insects and mammals. AlocSWP2 was detected in the wall of mature spores via indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, immunocytochemistry localization experiments showed that the protein was observed in the wall of sporoblasts, sporonts, and meronts during sporulation within the host body, also in the wall of mature spores...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275381/dietary-risk-assessment-of-v-atpase-a-dsrnas-on-monarch-butterfly-larvae
#11
Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L Hellmich, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273895/the-dynamic-interacting-landscape-of-mapl-reveals-essential-functions-for-sumoylation-in-innate-immunity
#12
Karine Doiron, Vanessa Goyon, Etienne Coyaud, Sanjeeva Rajapakse, Brian Raught, Heidi M McBride
Activation of the innate immune response triggered by dsRNA viruses occurs through the assembly of the Mitochondrial Anti-Viral Signaling (MAVS) complex. Upon recognition of viral dsRNA, the cytosolic receptor RIG-I is activated and recruited to MAVS to activate the immune signaling response. We here demonstrate a strict requirement for a mitochondrial anchored protein ligase, MAPL (also called MUL1) in the signaling events that drive the transcriptional activation of antiviral genes downstream of Sendai virus infection, both in vivo and in vitro...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273136/dux4-induced-dsrna-and-myc-mrna-stabilization-activate-apoptotic-pathways-in-human-cell-models-of-facioscapulohumeral-dystrophy
#13
Sean C Shadle, Jun Wen Zhong, Amy E Campbell, Melissa L Conerly, Sujatha Jagannathan, Chao-Jen Wong, Timothy D Morello, Silvère M van der Maarel, Stephen J Tapscott
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by the mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle cells. DUX4 is a transcription factor that activates genes normally associated with stem cell biology and its mis-expression in FSHD cells results in apoptosis. To identify genes and pathways necessary for DUX4-mediated apoptosis, we performed an siRNA screen in an RD rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with an inducible DUX4 transgene. Our screen identified components of the MYC-mediated apoptotic pathway and the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) innate immune response pathway as mediators of DUX4-induced apoptosis...
March 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268052/synthesis-of-native-like-crosslinked-duplex-rna-and-study-of-its-properties
#14
Kazumitsu Onizuka, Madoka E Hazemi, Justin M Thomas, Leanna R Monteleone, Ken Yamada, Shuhei Imoto, Peter A Beal, Fumi Nagatsugi
A variety of enzymes have been found to interact with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in order to carry out its functions. We have endeavored to prepare the covalently crosslinked native-like duplex RNA, which could be useful for biochemical studies and RNA nanotechnology. In this study, the interstrand covalently linked duplex RNA was formed by a crosslinking reaction between vinylpurine (VP) and the target cytosine or uracil in RNA. We measured melting temperatures and CD spectra to identify the properties of the VP crosslinked duplex RNA...
February 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267607/amalga-like-virus-infecting-antonospora-locustae-a-microsporidian-pathogen-of-grasshoppers-plus-related-viruses-associated-with-other-arthropods
#15
Jesse D Pyle, Patrick J Keeling, Max L Nibert
A previously reported Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library from spores of microsporidian Antonospora locustae includes a number of clones with sequence similarities to plant amalgaviruses. Reexamining the sequence accessions from that library, we found additional such clones, contributing to a 3247-nt contig that approximates the length of an amalga-like virus genome. Using A. locustae spores stored from that previous study, and new ones obtained from the same source, we newly visualized the putative dsRNA genome of this virus and obtained amplicons yielding a 3387-nt complete genome sequence...
March 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266737/epidermal-keratinocytes-sense-dsrna-via-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediating-interleukin-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-18-release
#16
Xiuju Dai, Mikiko Tohyama, Masamoto Murakami, Koji Sayama
Skin epidermis, in addition to its barrier function, is able to actively sense harmful pathogens using pattern recognition receptors. In immune cells, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome can mediate innate immunity against viral infection via a mechanism involving viral dsRNA recognition. Epidermal keratinocytes express NLRP3 inflammasome, which can sense contact sensitizers and mite allergens, leading to pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and pro-IL-18 cleavage into their active forms...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266599/double-stranded-rna-induces-inflammation-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-inflammasome-activation-in-the-outer-root-sheath-cells-of-hair-follicles
#17
Jung-Min Shin, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Soo-Yeon Kim, Jeong Min Ha, Young Ho Lee, Myung Im, Young-Joon Seo, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Lee
Alopecia areata (AA), a chronic, relapsing, hair-loss disorder, is considered to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. It affects approximately 1.7% of the population, but its precise pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Despite the recent attention focused on the roles of inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases, little is known about inflammasome activation in AA. Thus, in this study, we investigated the pattern of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells of hair follicles...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263879/ctenopharyngodon-idella-irf2-and-atf4-down-regulate-the-transcriptional-level-of-prkra
#18
Keyi Huang, Guoqin Qi, Zhicheng Sun, Xiancheng Liu, Xiaowen Xu, Haizhou Wang, Zhen Wu, Yiqi Wan, Chengyu Hu
PRKRA (interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activator A) is a protective protein which regulates the adaptation of cells to ER stress and virus-stimulated signaling pathways by activating PKR. In the present study, a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) PRKRA full-length cDNA (named CiPRKRA, KT891991) was cloned and identified. The full-length cDNA is comprised of a 5' UTR (36 bp), a 3' UTR (350 bp) and the longest ORF (882 bp) encoding a polypeptide of 293 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of CiPRKRA contains three typical dsRNA binding motifs (dsRBM)...
March 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261255/non-host-plant-resistance-against-phytophthora-capsici-is-mediated-in-part-by-members-of-the-i2-r-gene-family-in-nicotiana-spp
#19
Julio C Vega-Arreguín, Harumi Shimada-Beltrán, Jacobo Sevillano-Serrano, Peter Moffett
The identification of host genes associated with resistance to Phytophthora capsici is crucial to developing strategies of control against this oomycete pathogen. Since there are few sources of resistance to P. capsici in crop plants, non-host plants represent a promising source of resistance genes as well as excellent models to study P. capsici - plant interactions. We have previously shown that non-host resistance to P. capsici in Nicotiana spp. is mediated by the recognition of a specific P. capsici effector protein, PcAvr3a1 in a manner that suggests the involvement of a cognate disease resistance (R) genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261106/a-role-of-corazonin-receptor-in-larval-pupal-transition-and-pupariation-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#20
Qiu-Li Hou, Hong-Bo Jiang, Shun-Hua Gui, Er-Hu Chen, Dan-Dan Wei, Hui-Min Li, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Corazonin (Crz) is a neuropeptide hormone, but also a neuropeptide modulator that is internally released within the CNS, and it has a widespread distribution in insects with diverse physiological functions. Here, we identified and cloned the cDNAs of Bactrocera dorsalis that encode Crz and its receptor CrzR. Mature BdCrz has 11 residues with a unique Ser(11) substitution (instead of the typical Asn) and a His in the evolutionary variable position 7. The BdCrzR cDNA encodes a putative protein of 608 amino acids with 7 putative transmembrane domains, typical for the structure of G-protein-coupled receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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