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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647840/interaction-of-ferulic-acid-with-glutathione-s-transferase-and-carboxylesterase-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#1
Jun Yang, Xiao-Qin Sun, Shu-Ying Yan, Wen-Jun Pan, Mao-Xin Zhang, Qing-Nian Cai
Plant phenolics are crucial defense phytochemicals against herbivores and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in herbivorous insects are well-known detoxification enzymes for such xenobiotics. To understand relationship between a plant phenolic and herbivore GST or CarE genes, we evaluated the relationship between a rice phenolic ferulic acid and resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), and investigated the interaction of ferulic acid with GST or CarE genes in BPH. The results indicate that ferulic acid content in tested rice varieties was highly associated with resistance to BPH...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642479/a-genetically-enhanced-sterile-insect-technique-against-the-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-by-feeding-adult-double-stranded-rnas
#2
Muhammad Waqar Ali, Wenping Zheng, Summar Sohail, Qingmei Li, Weiwei Zheng, Hongyu Zhang
RNAi based sterile insect technique (SIT) is an authentic insect management approach but requires proper target genes. During this study, spermless males were developed by interfering with germ cell differentiation and azoospermia related genes. Data demonstrates significant reductions in the target genes expressions (boul, zpg, dsx (M) , fzo and gas8) after oral dsRNAs administration. Knock down of target genes significantly affected the reproductive ability of males and reduced egg-hatching as compared to the control group...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642363/nuclear-phosphorylated-dicer-processes-double-stranded-rna-in-response-to-dna-damage
#3
Kaspar Burger, Margarita Schlackow, Martin Potts, Svenja Hester, Shabaz Mohammed, Monika Gullerova
The endoribonuclease Dicer is a key component of the human RNA interference pathway and is known for its role in cytoplasmic microRNA production. Recent findings suggest that noncanonical Dicer generates small noncoding RNA to mediate the DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that human Dicer is phosphorylated in the platform-Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille-connector helix cassette (S1016) upon induction of DNA damage. Phosphorylated Dicer (p-Dicer) accumulates in the nucleus and is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641400/cytosolic-delivery-of-sirna-by-ultra-high-affinity-dsrna-binding-proteins
#4
Nicole J Yang, Monique J Kauke, Fangdi Sun, Lucy F Yang, Katie F Maass, Michael W Traxlmayr, Yao Yu, Yingda Xu, Robert S Langer, Daniel G Anderson, K Dane Wittrup
Protein-based methods of siRNA delivery are capable of uniquely specific targeting, but are limited by technical challenges such as low potency or poor biophysical properties. Here, we engineered a series of ultra-high affinity siRNA binders based on the viral protein p19 and developed them into siRNA carriers targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Combined in trans with a previously described endosome-disrupting agent composed of the pore-forming protein Perfringolysin O (PFO), potent silencing was achieved in vitro with no detectable cytotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636969/human-virus-derived-small-rnas-can-confer-antiviral-immunity-in-mammals
#5
Yang Qiu, Yanpeng Xu, Yao Zhang, Hui Zhou, Yong-Qiang Deng, Xiao-Feng Li, Meng Miao, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zhong, Yuanyang Hu, Fu-Chun Zhang, Ligang Wu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Xi Zhou
RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral immunity in plants and invertebrates; however, whether RNAi plays antiviral roles in mammals remains unclear. Here, using human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) as a model, we showed HEV71 3A protein as an authentic viral suppressor of RNAi during viral infection. When the 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was impaired, the mutant HEV71 readily triggered the production of abundant HEV71-derived small RNAs with canonical siRNA properties in cells and mice. These virus-derived siRNAs were produced from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates in a Dicer-dependent manner and loaded into AGO, and they were fully active in degrading cognate viral RNAs...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635590/imbalance-between-innate-antiviral-and-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-may-contribute-to-different-outcomes-involving-low-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n3-infections-in-chickens
#6
John Pasick, Sandra Diederich, Yohannes Berhane, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Wanhong Xu
In order to gain further insight into the early virus-host interactions associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections in chickens, genome-wide expression profiling of chicken lung and brain was carried out at 24 and 72 h post-inoculation (h p.i.). For this purpose two recombinant H5N3 viruses were utilized, each possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site but differing in pathogenicity. The original rH5N3 P0 virus, which has a low-pathogenic phenotype, was passaged six times through chickens to give rise to the derivative rH5N3 P6 virus, which is highly pathogenic (Diederich S, Berhane Y, Embury-Hyatt C, Hisanaga T, Handel K et al...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634300/understanding-the-mechanical-response-of-double-stranded-dna-and-rna-under-constant-stretching-forces-using-all-atom-molecular-dynamics
#7
Alberto Marin-Gonzalez, J G Vilhena, Ruben Perez, Fernando Moreno-Herrero
Multiple biological processes involve the stretching of nucleic acids (NAs). Stretching forces induce local changes in the molecule structure, inhibiting or promoting the binding of proteins, which ultimately affects their functionality. Understanding how a force induces changes in the structure of NAs at the atomic level is a challenge. Here, we use all-atom, microsecond-long molecular dynamics to simulate the structure of dsDNA and dsRNA subjected to stretching forces up to 20 pN. We determine all of the elastic constants of dsDNA and dsRNA and provide an explanation for three striking differences in the mechanical response of these two molecules: the threefold softer stretching constant obtained for dsRNA, the opposite twist-stretch coupling, and its nontrivial force dependence...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634115/delineating-the-roles-of-cellular-and-innate-antiviral-immune-parameters-mediating-ranavirus-susceptibility-using-rainbow-trout-cell-lines
#8
Graeme J Lisser, Nguyen T K Vo, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Frog virus 3 is the type species of the Ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. A critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. Presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit FV3 at the cellular level. To this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, RTG-2 and RTgutGC, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to FV3 infection, to elucidate susceptibility factors to FV3...
June 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631573/effects-of-mir-1236-3p-and-mir-370-5p-on-activation-of-p21-in-various-tumors-and-its-inhibition-on-the-growth-of-lung-cancer-cells
#9
Chuanchang Li, Qiangqiang Ge, Jiaxuan Liu, Qingsong Zhang, Chenghe Wang, Kai Cui, Zhong Chen
The mechanism of dsRNA-induced gene activation (RNAa) is being gradually unveiled. The plentiful evidence that it existed in mammalian species other than human demonstrated that dsRNA-mediated RNAa is a conservative phenomenon. Simultaneously, accumulating evidence suggested that microRNAs could activate gene expression by targeting promoter. Nevertheless, it is ambiguous whether microRNA-induced gene activation in different human cells is a common phenomenon. The study we performed verified that miR-1236-3p (miR-1236) and miR-370-5p can activate p21 expression in bladder cancer (BCa) T24, EJ cells, and non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, while in hepatocellular HepG2 cells both microRNAs cannot effectively induce the expression of P21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21)...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628829/ectromelia-virus-accumulates-less-double-stranded-rna-compared-to-vaccinia-virus-in-bs-c-1-cells
#10
Tiffany R Frey, Michael H Lehmann, Colton M Ryan, Marie C Pizzorno, Gerd Sutter, Adam R Hersperger
Most orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV), contain genes in the E3L and K3L families. The protein products of these genes have been shown to combat PKR, a host defense pathway. Interestingly, ectromelia virus (ECTV) contains an E3L ortholog but does not possess an intact K3L gene. Here, we gained insight into how ECTV can still efficiently evade PKR despite lacking K3L. Relative to VACV, we found that ECTV-infected BS-C-1 cells accumulated considerably less double-stranded (ds) RNA, which was due to lower mRNA levels and less transcriptional read-through of some genes by ECTV...
June 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625874/negative-regulation-of-the-rlh-signaling-by-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf114
#11
Boren Lin, Qi Ke, Haiying Li, Nichole S Pheifer, David C Velliquette, Douglas W Leaman
The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like helicases (RLH)s are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors expressed in both immune and non-immune cells that are essential for detection of intracellular RNA products, primarily of viral origin. Upon binding to viral RNA, RLHs interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) to activate interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses. The RLH/MAVS signaling pathway is regulated by ubiquitination/deubiquitination, in which several ubiquitin-editing proteins play critical roles...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621835/exogenously-applied-dsrna-molecules-deriving-from-zucchini-yellow-mosaic-virus-genome-move-systemically-and-protect-cucurbits-against-zymv
#12
Athanasios Kaldis, Margarita Berbati, Ourania Melita, Chrysavgi Reppa, Maria Holeva, Patricia Otten, Andreas Voloudakis
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes serious damage in a great number of cucurbits and control measures are necessary. Transgenic cucurbits expressing parts of ZYMV genome were shown to be resistant against the cognate virus. A non-transgenic approach involving exogenous application of dsRNA has also been shown to induce resistance in tobacco against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In the present study, dsRNA molecules derived from the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and coat protein (CP) genes of the ZYMV_DE_2014 isolate were produced in vitro...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609677/bluetongue-virus-structure-and-assembly
#13
REVIEW
Polly Roy
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of wild ruminants and livestock in many parts of the world. The virion particle is a complex structure of consecutive layers of protein surrounding a genome of ten double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. BTV has been studied as a model system for large, non-enveloped dsRNA viruses. Several new techniques have been applied to define the virus-encoded enzymes required for RNA replication to provide an order for the assembly of the capsid shell and the protein sequestration required for it...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608990/a-transgenic-strategy-for-controlling-plant-bugs-adelphocoris-suturalis-through-expression-of-double-stranded-rna-homologous-to-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-reductase-in-cotton
#14
Jing Luo, Sijia Liang, Jianying Li, Zhongping Xu, Lun Li, Bangqin Zhu, Zhe Li, Chaoliang Lei, Keith Lindsey, Lizhen Chen, Shuangxia Jin, Xianlong Zhang
Plant bugs (Miridae species), which are sap-sucking insects, have emerged as major pests of cotton in China. Most Miridae species are not sensitive to commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, resulting in significant economic losses and an increased application of insecticide, which eventually may compromise the future of Bt cotton. We demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-COA REDUCTASE (AsFAR) plays an essential role in the reproduction of the bug Adelphocoris suturalis. Down-regulation of AsFAR expression by injection of double-stranded RNA suppresses ovarian development and female fertility, resulting in females producing few viable offspring...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608057/cuticle-genes-cpcpr63-and-cpcpr47-may-confer-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#15
Xueli Sun, Juxin Guo, Wenyun Ye, Qin Guo, Yun Huang, Lei Ma, Dan Zhou, Bo Shen, Yan Sun, Changliang Zhu
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are implicated in insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Here, we investigated the role of cuticular genes in regulation of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. We identified two CpCPRs (CpCPR63 and CpCPR47) that exhibited higher transcript levels in pyrethroid-resistant strains than in susceptible strains. Mosquito mortality was increased after knockdown of CpCPR genes by dsRNA injection. The RNA interference experiment suggested an interaction between CpCPR63 and CpCPR47, as silencing of one gene resulted in decreased expression of the other...
June 12, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606817/phylogenetic-analysis-of-g1p-8-and-g12p-8-rotavirus-a-samples-obtained-in-the-pre-and-post-vaccine-periods-and-molecular-modeling-of-vp4-and-vp7-proteins
#16
Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Roosevelt Alves da Silva, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Menira Souza, Kareem Rady Badr, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso
Reduction in morbimortality rates for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by Rotavirus A (RVA) has been observed after the introduction of vaccines, however the agent continues to circulate. The present study described the genomic characterization of the 11 dsRNA segments of two RVA samples G1P[8] obtained in the pre- and post-vaccination periods and one of G12P[8] sample (post-vaccine), compared to Rotarix™ vaccine. Analysis by molecular sequencing of the samples showed that the three samples belonged to genogroup I...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605144/musculoskeletal-disease-in-mda5-related-type-i-interferonopathy-a-mendelian-mimic-of-jaccoud-s-arthropathy
#17
Luciana Martins de Carvalho, Gonza Ngoumou, Ji Woo Park, Nadja Ehmke, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Naoki Kitabayashi, Isabelle Melki, Flávio Falcäo L Souza, Andreas Tzschach, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Virgínia Ferriani, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Wilson Marques Junior, Charles M Lourenço, Prof Denise Horn, Tilmann Kallinich, Werner Stenzel, Sun Hur, Gillian I Rice, Yanick J Crow
Objectives To define the molecular basis of a multisystem phenotype with progressive musculoskeletal disease of the hands and feet including camptodactyly, subluxation and tendon rupture reminiscent of Jaccoud's arthropathy. Methods We ascertained two families segregating an autosomal dominant phenotype encompassing musculoskeletal disease and variable additional features including psoriasis, dental abnormalities, cardiac valve involvement, glaucoma and basal ganglia calcification. We measured the expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood and skin, and undertook targeted Sanger sequencing of the IFIH1 gene encoding the cytosolic double-stranded RNA sensor MDA5...
June 12, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601087/gene-silencing-by-rna-interference-in-sarcoptes-scabiei-a-molecular-tool-to-identify-novel-therapeutic-targets
#18
Deepani D Fernando, Edward J Marr, Martha Zakrzewski, Simone L Reynolds, Stewart T G Burgess, Katja Fischer
BACKGROUND: Scabies is one of the most common and widespread parasitic skin infections globally, affecting a large range of mammals including humans, yet the molecular biology of Sarcoptes scabiei is astonishingly understudied. Research has been hampered primarily due to the difficulty of sampling or culturing these obligatory parasitic mites. A further and major impediment to identify and functionally analyse potential therapeutic targets from the recently emerging molecular databases is the lack of appropriate molecular tools...
June 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600181/a-p-glycoprotein-gene-serves-as-a-component-of-the-protective-mechanisms-against-2-tridecanone-and-abamectin-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#19
Min Xiang, Lei Zhang, Yao Lu, Qiuling Tang, Pei Liang, Xueyan Shi, Dunlun Song, Xiwu Gao
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) exists in animals, fungi and bacteria and likely evolved as a defense mechanism against harmful substances. Here a cDNA (4054bp) encoding a putative P-glycoprotein gene from Helicoverpa armigera was cloned and named HaPgp1. This putative HaPgp1 sequence encoded a protein of 1253 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 137kDa. qPCR analyses demonstrated that the expression of HaPgp1 was significantly higher in 4th instar larvae when compared to other developmental stages. HaPgp1 transcripts were more abundant in the head and fat bodies than in other tissues...
June 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598538/expression-of-the-double-stranded-rna-of-the-soybean-pod-borer-leguminivora-glycinivorella-lepidoptera-tortricidae-ribosomal-protein-p0-gene-enhances-the-resistance-of-transgenic-soybean-plants
#20
Fanli Meng, Yang Li, Zhenyuan Zang, Na Li, Ranrui Xue, Yingxue Cao, Tianyu Li, Quan Zhou, Wenbin Li
BACKGROUND: The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. RESULTS: We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB...
June 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
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