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Shun-Fan Wu, Bin Zeng, Chen Zheng, Xi-Chao Mu, Yong Zhang, Jun Hu, Shuai Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Jin-Liang Shen
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is an economically important pest on rice in Asia. Chemical control is still the most efficient primary way for rice planthopper control. However, due to the intensive use of insecticides to control this pest over many years, resistance to most of the classes of chemical insecticides has been reported. In this article, we report on the status of eight insecticides resistance in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) collected from China over the period 2012-2016. All of the field populations collected in 2016 had developed extremely high resistance to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and buprofezin...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
María Cecilia Gimenez, Flavia Adriana Zanetti, Mauricio R Terebiznik, María Isabel Colombo, Laura Ruth Delgui
Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Christina Pfaff, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Maria Flores-Tornero, Brian B Soerensen, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Stefanie Sprunck, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
The regulated transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to the cytosol is a critical step linking transcript synthesis and processing with translation. However, in plants, only few of the factors that act in the mRNA export pathway have been functionally characterised. Flowering plant genomes encode several members of the ALY protein family, which function as mRNA export factors in other organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana ALY1-4 are commonly detected in root and leaf cells, but are differentially expressed in reproductive tissue...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Oliver Grünvogel, Ombretta Colasanti, Ji-Young Lee, Volker Klöss, Sandrine Belouzard, Anna Reustle, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Jasper Hesebeck-Brinckmann, Pascal Mutz, Katrin Hoffmann, Arianeb Mehrabi, Ronald Koschny, Florian W R Vondran, Daniel Gotthardt, Paul Schnitzler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Marco Binder, Ralf Bartenschlager, Jean Dubuisson, Alexander H Dalpke, Volker Lohmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections most often result in chronic outcomes, although the virus constantly produces replication intermediates, in particular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), representing potent inducers of innate immunity. We aimed to characterize the fate of HCV dsRNA in hepatocyte cultures to identify mechanisms contributing to viral persistence in presence of an active innate immune response. METHODS: We analyzed hepatocyte-based culture models for HCV for induction of innate immunity, secretion of virus positive- or negative-strand RNA, and viral replication using different quantification methods and microscopy techniques...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Xin Mu, Emily Greenwald, Sadeem Ahmad, Sun Hur
The emergence of RNA-based therapeutics demands robust and economical methods to produce RNA with few byproducts from aberrant activity. While in vitro transcription using the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase is one such popular method, its transcripts are known to display an immune-stimulatory activity that is often undesirable and uncontrollable. We here showed that the immune-stimulatory activity of T7 transcript is contributed by its aberrant activity to initiate transcription from a promoter-less DNA end...
March 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptor (TLR) 3 is a critically important innate pattern recognizing receptor that senses many viral infections. Although, it has been shown that double stranded (ds) RNA can be used for the stimulation of TLR3 signaling pathway in a number of host-viral infection models, it's effectiveness as an antiviral agent against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) needs further investigation. METHODS: In this study, first, we delivered TLR3 ligand, dsRNA, in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 since in ovo route is routinely used for vaccination against poultry viral and parasitic infections and infected with H4N6 LPAIV 24-h post-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Alvaro Orell, Vanessa Tripp, Victor Aliaga-Tobar, Sonja-Verena Albers, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Lennart Randau
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are involved in essential biological processes in all three domains of life. The regulatory potential of ncRNAs in Archaea is, however, not fully explored. In this study, RNA-seq analyses identified a set of 29 ncRNA transcripts in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that were differentially expressed in response to biofilm formation. The most abundant ncRNA of this set was found to be resistant to RNase R treatment (RNase R resistant RNA, RrrR(+)) due to duplex formation with a reverse complementary RNA (RrrR(-))...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Seung Ho Chung, Xiangfeng Jing, Yuan Luo, Angela E Douglas
The growth and reproduction of phloem sap-feeding insects requires the sustained function of intracellular bacteria localized in specialized cells known as bacteriocytes, giving the potential to target the bacterial symbiosis as a novel strategy for controlling sap-feeding insect pests. We focused on two genes in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, amiD and ldcA1, which were acquired horizontally from bacteria and have the annotated function to degrade immunogenic bacterial peptidoglycan. We hypothesized that AmiD and LdcA1 function to eliminate peptidoglycan fragments released by the bacterial symbiont Buchnera inhabiting the bacteriocytes, thereby protecting the Buchnera from host attack...
March 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Samuel C Cerps, Mandy Menzel, Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Leif Bjermer, Hamid Akbarshahi, Lena Uller
Defective production of antiviral interferon (IFN)-β is thought to contribute to rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. These exacerbations are associated with elevated lung levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating occurrence of cell necrosis. We thus hypothesized that reduced lung IFN-β could contribute to necrotic cell death in a model of asthma exacerbations. Wild-type and IFN-β-/- mice were given saline or house dust mite (HDM) intranasally for 3 weeks to induce inflammation. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was then given for additional 3 days to induce exacerbation...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tanwee Das De, Punita Sharma, Tina Thomas, Deepak Singla, Sanjay Tevatiya, Seena Kumari, Charu Chauhan, Jyoti Rani, Vartika Srivastava, Ramandeep Kaur, Kailash C Pandey, Rajnikant Dixit
Mosquitoes that transmit many deadly infectious diseases also need to keep fighting against many microbial infections. Constitutive expression of multiple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in almost all body tissues is believed to facilitate the effective management of these local infections. When any infection breaches the local barrier, AMPs are induced rapidly in non-target tissues such as hemocytes (HCs) and establish their co-ordination with systemic immune effectors to clear off the body infection. But how interorgan immune communication is managed during local and systemic infections remain largely unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John I Robinson, Stephen M Beverley
Leishmania is a widespread trypanosomatid protozoan parasite causing significant morbidity and mortality in humans. The endobiont dsRNA virus Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) chronically infects some strains, where it increases parasite numbers and virulence in murine leishmaniasis models, and correlates with increased treatment failure in human disease. Previously, we reported that 2'-C-methyladenosine (2CMA) potently inhibited LRV1 in Leishmania guyanensis ( Lgy ) and L. braziliensis , leading to viral eradication at concentrations above 10 µM...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pooja Tajpara, Christopher Schuster, Elisabeth Schön, Philip Kienzl, Martin Vierhapper, Michael Mildner, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger
Together with keratinocytes (KCs) and the dense network of Langerhans cells (LCs), the epidermis is an ideal portal for vaccine delivery. Pattern recognition receptor agonists, in particular polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [p(I:C)], are promising adjuvant candidates for therapeutic vaccination to generate protective T-cell immunity. Here we established an ex vivo skin explant model to study the expression and activation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-sensing pattern recognition receptors in LCs and KCs in human skin...
March 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Moein Farshchian, Maryam M Matin, Olivier Armant, Dirk Geerts, Mahtab Dastpak, Saeideh Nakhaei-Rad, Massoumeh Tajeran, Amir Jebelli, Mina Shahriyari, Monireh Bahrami, Ali Fallah, Vesal Yaghoobi, Mahdi Mirahmadi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Ahmad Reza Bahrami
The self-renewal capacity of germline derived stem cells (GSCs) makes them an ideal source for research and use in clinics. Despite the presence of active gene network similarities between embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and GSCs, there are unanswered questions regarding the roles of evolutionary conserved genes in GSCs. To determine the reprogramming potential of germ cell- specific genes, we designed a polycistronic gene cassette expressing Stella, Oct4 and Nanos2 in a lentiviral-based vector. Deep transcriptome analysis showed the activation of a set of pluripotency and germ-cell-specific markers and the downregulation of innate immune system...
March 1, 2018: Cytokine
Débora Torrealba, Joan Carles Balasch, Manuel Criado, Lluís Tort, Simon Mackenzie, Nerea Roher
The inflammatory reflex modulates the innate immune system, keeping in check the detrimental consequences of overstimulation. A key player controlling the inflammatory reflex is the alpha 7 acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). This receptor is one of the signalling molecules regulating cytokine expression in macrophages. In this study, we characterize a novel teleost α7nAChR. Protein sequence analysis shows a high degree of conservation with mammalian orthologs and trout α7nAChR has all the features and essential amino acids to form a fully functional receptor...
March 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ruo-Bing Guan, Hai-Chao Li, Yu-Jie Fan, Shao-Ru Hu, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe, Xue-Xia Miao
More than 70% of all agricultural pests are insects in the order Lepidoptera, which, unlike other related insect orders, are not very sensitive to RNAi, limiting genetic studies of this insect group. However, the reason for this distinct lepidopteran characteristic is unknown. Previously, using transcriptome analysis of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis , we identified a gene, termed up56 , that is up-regulated in response to dsRNA. Here, we report that this Lepidoptera-specific gene encodes a nuclease that contributes to the RNAi insensitivity in this insect order...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Varnika Bhatia, Ramcharan Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), is a devastating sap-sucking insect-pest that damages many host-plants worldwide and causes billions of dollars of crop losses. Inducing RNA interference through oral feeding of siRNA, has been demonstrated in aphids. Therefore, host-mediated delivery of dsRNA specific to vital structural gene of aphids has been envisaged for developing resistance against this aphid species. RESULTS: Cuticular protein senses seasonal photoperiodism and drive a shift from clonal to sexual generation in aphids...
March 1, 2018: Pest Management Science
Amy E Pasquinelli
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosines (A) to inosines (I) in stretches of dsRNA. The biological purpose of these editing events for the vast majority of ADAR substrates is largely unknown. In this issue of Genes & Development, Reich and colleagues (pp. 271-282) demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans , A-to-I editing in double-stranded regions of protein-coding transcripts protects these RNAs from targeting by the RNAi pathway. Disruption of this safeguard through loss of ADAR activity coupled with enhanced RNAi results in developmental abnormalities and profound changes in gene expression that suggest aberrant induction of an antiviral response...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Xuegui Wang, Yiqu Chen, Changwei Gong, Xinge Yao, Chunxian Jiang, Qunfang Yang
BACKGOUND: The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is an omnivorous insect that damages a variety of crops worldwide. Chlorantraniliprole is a new diamide insecticide that acts on the ryanodine receptors in insects. The aim of this study was to explore the key genes that related to the development of resistant of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were compared between beet armyworms from a susceptible laboratory strain (Sus-Lab) and Sus-Lab screened with LC25 sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole for six generations (SE-Sel)...
February 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
Mary-Anne Hartley, Remzi O Eren, Matteo Rossi, Florence Prevel, Patrik Castiglioni, Nathalie Isorce, Chantal Desponds, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Stefan K Drexler, Nicolas Fasel
The various symptomatic outcomes of cutaneous leishmaniasis relates to the type and potency of its underlying inflammatory responses. Presence of the cytoplasmic Leishmania RNA virus-1 (LRV1) within Leishmania guyanensis , worsens lesional inflammation and parasite burden, as the viral dsRNA genome acts as a potent innate immunogen stimulating Toll-Like-Receptor-3 (TLR3). Here we investigated other innate pattern recognition receptors capable of reacting to dsRNA and potentially contributing to LRV1-mediated inflammatory pathology...
January 14, 2018: Microbial Cell
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