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Mobolaji O Ajao, Jon I Einarsson
Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility and disabling pelvic pain in reproductive age women. The most widely accepted theory of its pathogenesis is the retrograde flow of menstrual products, although extra-abdominal and extrapelvic diagnoses have been made. After the pelvic peritoneum and gynecologic structures, the most commonly affected sites are the lower gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. When the urinary tract is involved, the bladder is the predominant site, followed by the ureters. The focus of this seminar will thus be these two anatomic sites...
December 7, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Michael B Liu, Christopher Y Ko, Zhen Song, Alan Garfinkel, James N Weiss, Zhilin Qu
Ventricular myocytes are excitable cells whose voltage threshold for action potential (AP) excitation is ∼-60 mV at which INa is activated to give rise to a fast upstroke. Therefore, for a short stimulus pulse to elicit an AP, a stronger stimulus is needed if the resting potential lies further away from the INa threshold, such as in hypokalemia. However, for an AP elicited by a long duration stimulus or a diastolic spontaneous calcium release, we observed that the stimulus needed was lower in hypokalemia than in normokalemia in both computer simulations and experiments of rabbit ventricular myocytes...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Emily C Evans, Linda F C Bullock
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize nursing care provided by the research nurses from the Baby Behavioral Educational Enhancement of Pregnancy (Baby BEEP) study as they delivered a telephone social support intervention to low-income, pregnant women in the Midwestern United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a descriptive qualitative study that used Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to frame and interpret the analysis. RESULTS: Research nurses from the Baby BEEP study found a novel way to reach a vulnerable population through weekly telephone interactions...
January 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
T Strombach, S Strang, S Q Park, P Kenning
Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
S Strang, S Q Park, T Strombach, P Kenning
According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
B Studer, S Knecht
How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
A Umemoto, C B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
N B Kroemer, C Burrasch, L Hellrung
By definition, instrumental actions are performed in order to obtain certain goals. Nevertheless, the attainment of goals typically implies obstacles, and response vigor is known to reflect an integration of subjective benefit and cost. Whereas several brain regions have been associated with cost/benefit ratio decision-making, trial-by-trial fluctuations in motivation are not well understood. We review recent evidence supporting the motivational implications of signal fluctuations in the mesocorticolimbic system...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Izaak Neri, Fernando Lucas Metz
Spectra of sparse non-Hermitian random matrices determine the dynamics of complex processes on graphs. Eigenvalue outliers in the spectrum are of particular interest, since they determine the stationary state and the stability of dynamical processes. We present a general and exact theory for the eigenvalue outliers of random matrices with a local tree structure. For adjacency and Laplacian matrices of oriented random graphs, we derive analytical expressions for the eigenvalue outliers, the first moments of the distribution of eigenvector elements associated with an outlier, the support of the spectral density, and the spectral gap...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jie Luo, Yuting Yang, Zhongqi Yao, Weixin Lu, Bo Hou, Zhi Hong Hang, C T Chan, Yun Lai
By using pure dielectric photonic crystals, we demonstrate the realization of ultratransparent media, which allow near 100% transmission of light for all incident angles and create aberration-free virtual images. The ultratransparency effect is well explained by spatially dispersive effective medium theory for photonic crystals, and verified by both simulations and proof-of-principle microwave experiments. Designed with shifted elliptical equal frequency contours, such ultratransparent media not only provide a low-loss and feasible platform for transformation optics devices at optical frequencies, but also enable new freedom for phase manipulation beyond the local medium framework...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lorenzo Zino, Alessandro Rizzo, Maurizio Porfiri
Activity-driven networks are a powerful paradigm to study epidemic spreading over time-varying networks. Despite significant advances, most of the current understanding relies on discrete-time computer simulations, in which each node is assigned an activity potential from a continuous distribution. Here, we establish a continuous-time discrete-distribution framework toward an analytical treatment of the epidemic spreading, from its onset to the endemic equilibrium. In the thermodynamic limit, we derive a nonlinear dynamical system to accurately model the epidemic spreading and leverage techniques from the fields of differential inclusions and adaptive estimation to inform short- and long-term predictions...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Wenliang Zhang, J T Park, Xingye Lu, Yuan Wei, Xiaoyan Ma, Lijie Hao, Pengcheng Dai, Zi Yang Meng, Yi-Feng Yang, Huiqian Luo, Shiliang Li
The origin of nematic order remains one of the major debates in iron-based superconductors. In theories based on spin nematicity, one major prediction is that the spin-spin correlation length at (0,π) should decrease with decreasing temperature below the structural transition temperature T_{s}. Here, we report inelastic neutron scattering studies on the low-energy spin fluctuations in BaFe_{1.935}Ni_{0.065}As_{2} under uniaxial pressure. Both intensity and spin-spin correlation start to show anisotropic behavior at high temperature, while the reduction of the spin-spin correlation length at (0,π) happens just below T_{s}, suggesting the strong effect of nematic order on low-energy spin fluctuations...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Zhaoju Yang, Baile Zhang
Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl fermions, which were missed in Weyl's prediction of nowadays classified type-I Weyl fermions in quantum field theory, have recently been proposed in condensed matter systems. The semimetals hosting type-II Weyl fermions offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena that are different from type-I Weyl systems. Here we construct the acoustic version of a type-II Weyl Hamiltonian by stacking one-dimensional dimerized chains of acoustic resonators. This acoustic type-II Weyl system exhibits distinct features in a finite density of states and unique transport properties of Fermi-arc-like surface states...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jun-Ichi Okamoto, Andrea Cavalleri, Ludwig Mathey
Motivated by recent pump-probe experiments indicating enhanced coherent c-axis transport in underdoped YBCO, we study Josephson junctions periodically driven by optical pulses. We propose a mechanism for this observation by demonstrating that a parametrically driven Josephson junction shows an enhanced imaginary part of the low-frequency conductivity when the driving frequency is above the plasma frequency, implying an effectively enhanced Josephson coupling. We generalize this analysis to a bilayer system of Josephson junctions modeling YBCO...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Gabriel Kocher, Nana Ofori-Opoku, Nikolas Provatas
A tacit assumption underlying most phase field models of nonequilibrium phase transformations is that of scale separation. Stochastic order parameter field theories utilize noise to separate atomic-scale fluctuations from the slowly varying fields that describe microstructure patterns. The mesoscale distribution of such stochastic variables is generally assumed to follow Gaussian statistics, with their magnitude following fluctuation-dissipation relations. However, there is still much debate about how atomic-scale fluctuations map onto the mesoscale upon coarse graining of microscopic theories...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Carolina Romero-Redondo, Sofia Quaglioni, Petr Navrátil, Guillaume Hupin
The Borromean ^{6}He nucleus is an exotic system characterized by two halo neutrons orbiting around a compact ^{4}He (or α) core, in which the binary subsystems are unbound. The simultaneous reproduction of its small binding energy and extended matter and point-proton radii has been a challenge for ab initio theoretical calculations based on traditional bound-state methods. Using soft nucleon-nucleon interactions based on chiral effective field theory potentials, we show that supplementing the model space with ^{4}He+n+n cluster degrees of freedom largely solves this issue...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lesley Baillie
Health policy and healthcare professional guidelines promote patient and carer involvement, which includes working in partnership with service users in all aspects of healthcare provision, research and education. This article explores the expectations for nurses to work in partnership with patients and carers, examines the definitions and theories of working in partnership and related concepts, as well as considering examples of partnership working in nursing practice.
December 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
Enoch Teye-Kwadjo, Ashraf Kagee, Hermann Swart
BACKGROUND: Growing cross-sectional research shows that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is robust in predicting intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour. Yet, little is known about the TPB's utility in explaining intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour over time. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal design and latent variable structural equation modelling to test the longitudinal relationships postulated by the TPB. School-going youths in Ghana provided data on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions, and behaviour regarding condom use at three time points, spaced approximately three months apart...
December 7, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
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