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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#1
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544871/signs-of-social-class-the-experience-of-economic-inequality-in-everyday-life
#2
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park, Jacinth J X Tan
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544467/a-survey-on-the-beliefs-and-knowledge-of-gout-management-in-new-medical-graduates-new-south-wales-australia
#3
Matthew Terrill, John Riordan
AIM: To assess the beliefs and knowledge of gout management in new medical graduates. METHOD: A survey on gout management was sent to new medical graduates during their orientation week, New South Wales, Australia. RESULTS: Of 15 hospital networks, 11 agreed to participate. From these, 168 graduates responded (23.7% response rate). Most (81.1%) felt that gout was a serious disease, 51.2% answered that they had been taught adequately to manage acute gout, only 37...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543884/psychological-factors-related-to-donation-behaviour-among-chinese-adults-results-from-a-longitudinal-investigation
#4
H Hu, T Wang, Q Fu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the psychological factors currently influencing blood donation in China. This study investigated the structure of psychological factors and their correlation with donation behaviour of adults in a transforming city in China over a 6-month period. METHODS: Participants were recruited in Nanjing from May 2013 to April 2014. Preliminary focus group interviews with 102 participants were conducted to generate new items for a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) questionnaire...
May 22, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543645/reflections-on-the-national-bioethics-advisory-commission-and-models-of-public-bioethics
#5
James F Childress
The National Bioethics Advisory Commission, of which I was a member, was established by a 1995 executive order that identified its "first priority" as "the protection of the rights and welfare of human research subjects." Not surprisingly, then, most of NBAC's work focused on research involving human subjects or participants. A second priority concerned "issues in the management and use of genetics information, including but not limited to, human gene patenting." NBAC's charter (in contrast to the executive order) listed this charge as "part B" of the "first priority...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#6
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543095/psychological-mechanisms-and-the-ups-and-downs-of-personal-recovery-in-bipolar-disorder
#7
Alyson L Dodd, Barbara Mezes, Fiona Lobban, Steven H Jones
BACKGROUND: Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543089/treatments-for-people-living-with-schizophrenia-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-realist-review
#8
REVIEW
S Chidarikire, M Cross, I Skinner, M Cleary
AIM: To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. BACKGROUND: Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Adapted realist literature review...
May 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542549/a-new-weighting-factor-in-combining-belief-function
#10
Deyun Zhou, Qian Pan, Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Xiaoyang Li, Kun Zhang, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory has been widely used in various applications. However, to solve the problem of counter-intuitive outcomes by using classical Dempster-Shafer combination rule is still an open issue while fusing the conflicting evidences. Many approaches based on discounted evidence and weighted average evidence have been investigated and have made significant improvements. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have inherent flaws. In this paper, a new weighting factor is proposed to address this problem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542389/cognitive-distortions-among-older-adult-gamblers-in-an-asian-context
#11
Mythily Subramaniam, Siow Ann Chong, Colette Browning, Shane Thomas
AIMS: The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above) in Singapore. METHODS: Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents) aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542227/health-beliefs-of-school-age-rural-children-in-podoconiosis-affected-families-a-qualitative-study-in-southern-ethiopia
#12
Abebayehu Tora, Getnet Tadele, Abraham Aseffa, Colleen M McBride, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542176/measuring-personal-beliefs-and-perceived-norms-about-intimate-partner-violence-population-based-survey-experiment-in-rural-uganda
#13
Alexander C Tsai, Bernard Kakuhikire, Jessica M Perkins, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q McDonough, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Jordan M Downey, David R Bangsberg
BACKGROUND: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542063/drivers-motivating-community-health-improvement-plan-completion-by-local-public-health-agencies-and-community-partners-in-the-rocky-mountain-region-and-western-plains
#14
Anne Hill, Holly J Wolf, Elaine Scallan, Jenny Case, Yvonne Kellar-Guenther
CONTEXT: There are numerous drivers that motivate completion of community health improvement plans (CHIPs). Some are more obvious and include voluntary public health accreditation, state requirements, federal and state funding, and nonprofit hospital requirements through IRS regulations. Less is known about other drivers, including involvement of diverse partners and belief in best practices, that may motivate CHIP completion. OBJECTIVE: This research investigated the drivers that motivated CHIP completion based on experiences of 51 local public health agencies (LPHAs)...
July 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541817/gendered-cultural-identities-the-influences-of-family-and-privacy-boundaries-subjective-norms-and-stigma-beliefs-on-family-health-history-communication
#15
Soo Jung Hong
This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication...
May 25, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541449/barriers-to-alcohol-screening-among-hypertensive-patients-and-the-role-of-stigma-lessons-for-the-implementation-of-screening-and-brief-interventions-in-european-primary-care-settings
#16
Franz Hanschmidt, Jakob Manthey, Ludwig Kraus, Emanuele Scafato, Antoni Gual, Carsten Grimm, Jürgen Rehm
Aims: 1. To quantify barriers to alcohol screening among hypertensive patients reported by primary healthcare professionals. 2. To examine whether education and screening frequency measures are associated with stigma-related barriers. Methods: A web survey was conducted among 3081 primary healthcare professionals from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Participants were asked about perceived barriers to alcohol screening as free-text response. The replies were independently categorized by two raters...
May 25, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541238/attitudes-of-psychology-students-to-depression-and-its-treatment-implications-for-clinical-practice
#17
M Economou, L E Peppou, K Geroulanou, K Kontoangelos, A Prokopi, A Pantazi, A Zervakaki, C N Stefanis
Stigma and mental health literacy affect access to and quality of treatment of major depression. Though mental health professionals seem better able to recognize major depression than the general public, they often hold similarly stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from the disorder. These attitudes are shaped jointly by the public stigma attached to mental illnesses as well as by the content and delivery of mental health professionals' undergraduate training. In line with this, the present study aimed to explore psychology students' ability to recognize major depression, their attitudes towards the disorder, and their views surrounding helpfulness of various interventions...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541069/reading-between-the-menu-lines-are-restaurants-descriptions-of-healthy-foods-unappealing
#18
Bradley P Turnwald, Dan Jurafsky, Alana Conner, Alia J Crum
OBJECTIVE: As obesity rates continue to climb in America, much of the blame has fallen on the high-calorie meals at popular chain restaurants. Many restaurants have responded by offering "healthy" menu options. Yet menus' descriptions of healthy options may be less attractive than their descriptions of less healthy, standard options. This study examined the hypothesis that the words describing items in healthy menu sections are less appealing than the words describing items in standard menu sections...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540645/the-effect-of-access-to-information-on-beliefs-surrounding-breast-cancer-in-south-africa
#19
Sarah Rayne, Kathryn Schnippel, Carol Benn, Deirdre Kruger, Kathryne Wright, Cynthia Firnhaber
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in South Africa. There is little knowledge of beliefs to help identify key areas to improve support and education in this demographically and culturally diverse population. Women with a variety of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics accessing care for breast cancer were asked their agreement to statements of knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer. Of the 259 participants, positive statements of medical cure (87.9%) and family support (90.5%) were most commonly believed...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540106/association-of-physical-performance-and-fear-avoidance-beliefs-in-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#20
V P Panhale, R S Gurav, S K Nahar
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a commonest musculoskeletal disorder affecting majority of people. Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities resulting from person's functioning and disability. According to the fear-avoidance model of low back pain, individuals who perceive pain as a sign of potential damage are more likely to avoid behaviors that increase their anxiety and show sub-maximal performance during physical activity. AIM: Purpose of this study was to find the association between activity limitation and fear avoidance belief in patients with chronic low back pain...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
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