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Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mani
Organ transplantation has improved the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients all the world. The total organ donation shortage of the country can be met with if even 5 to 10% of the victims involved in fatal accidents serve as organ donors. The challenges include an interplay of sociocultural factors, beliefs and superstitions, lack of communication and organizational support, and negative views by the media. Several initiatives to encourage deceased organ donation include the Indian Network for Organ Sharing, a subdivision of the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THOA), as well as the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Rules...
March 2018: Neurology India
Manuela Gander, Diana Diamond, Anna Buchheim, Kathrin Sevecke
Forced displacements and their psychosocial consequences in adolescent refugees and their families have received increasing attention in recent years. Although supportive family relations play a key role in buffering the impact of traumatization in adolescents, parental ability to provide such is often subject to extreme pressure. Under conditions of forced dislocation and fear, maladaptive interpersonal strategies in the parent-child relationships may develop, contributing to the onset of psychopathology. We explore new aspects of attachment-related issues for the understanding and treatment of adolescent refugees who have experienced multiple traumas in their childhood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Holly Lear, Winifred Eboh, Lesley Diack
BACKGROUND: In a wider doctoral study related to unfavourable experiences of nursing students studying abroad, the researcher undertook a reflexive interview to reduce the potential for bias. AIM: To discuss a method for conducting reflexive interviews and recommend their use to nurse researchers. DISCUSSION: A reflexive interview was undertaken to reduce bias and pilot an original interview instrument. A senior researcher interviewed the researcher using original questions that would be used to interview participants in the wider doctoral study...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Julia Twichell, Richard Pollnac, Patrick Christie
International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Management
Geert Meyfroidt, David Menon, Alexis F Turgeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Celia B Fisher, Adam L Fried, Kathryn Macapagal, Brian Mustanski
Adolescent males who have sex with males (AMSM) are at increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Healthcare providers are a critical source of HIV/STI prevention, yet little is known about AMSM patient-provider sexual health communications and services. To explore this issue, we surveyed a national sample of 198 AMSM 14-17 years. Four online psychometrically validated scales indicated over half the youth avoided communicating their sexual orientation and sexual health concerns to providers due to fear of heterosexist bias, concern their sexual health information would be disclosed to parents, and a general belief that sexual minority youth do not receive equitable treatment in health care settings...
March 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Florian Ferreri, Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Laurent Karila
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mansour Abdullah Alshehri, Hammad Alhasan, Mohamed Alayat, Moayad Al-Subahi, Khalid Yaseen, Ayah Ismail, Abdullah Tobaigy, Obaid Almalki, Abdulfattah Alqahtani, Basmah Fallata
[Purpose] To investigate physicians' attitudes, opinions and experiences towards physiotherapy services as well as to identify the potential factors that may affect the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services (based on physicians' beliefs) in Saudi Arabia (SA). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted. [Results] A total of 108 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The respondents' attitude towards physiotherapy was slightly low (53.5%), while their opinions and experiences of physiotherapy indicated some important issues...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Salvador Vargas-Salfate, Dario Paez, James H Liu, Felicia Pratto, Homero Gil de Zúñiga
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lee-Fay Low, Margaret McGrath, Kate Swaffer, Henry Brodaty
The aim of this study is to systematically review practitioners' practices and attitudes in regards to communicating a diagnosis of dementia. A systematic search was conducted of Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed for English language original empirical papers. A sequential explanatory mixed studies analysis approach was used. Twenty-five quantitative descriptive, two intervention, six mixed methods descriptive and 21 qualitative studies were included. Pooled analysis showed that 34% of GPs and 48% of specialists usually/routinely tell the person with dementia their diagnosis, and 89% of GPs and 97% specialists usually/routinely tell the family the diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
E M Murtagh, A T Barnes, J McMullen, P J Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development...
March 12, 2018: Public Health
Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Daniel L Riddle, Mark P Jensen, Dennis Ang, James Slover, Robert Perera, Levent Dumenci
BACKGROUND: Pain-coping strategies and appraisals are responses to the pain experience. They can influence patient-reported and physical performance outcome measures in a variety of disorders, but the associations between a comprehensive profile of pain-coping responses and preoperative pain/function and physical performance measures in patients scheduled for knee arthroplasty have not been examined. Patients with moderate to high pain catastrophizing (a pain appraisal approach associated with an exaggerated focus on the threat value of pain) may represent an excellent study population in which to address this knowledge gap...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Shane Sharp
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God...
March 15, 2018: Death Studies
Joanna M Drinane, Jesse Owen, Karen W Tao
Therapy is predicated on the need for clients to share intimate details about their lives, including their cultural values, attitudes, and beliefs. Previous studies have found that clients conceal certain aspects of their lives including, but not limited to their symptoms and their feelings about the therapy process. To date, there has not been an investigation focused on whether clients conceal aspects of their cultural identities, whether some therapists are more likely to have clients conceal aspects of their cultural identities, and if cultural concealment is associated with therapy outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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