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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102582/beliefs-about-the-causes-of-depression-and-recovery-and-their-impact-on-adherence-dosage-and-successful-tapering-of-antidepressants
#1
Nicola S Klein, Gerard D van Rijsbergen, Mascha C Ten Doesschate, Steven D Hollon, Huibert Burger, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: Continuation of antidepressant medication (ADM) after remission is widely used to prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. Little is known about predictors of ADM use in terms of adherence, dosage, and successful tapering. The current study aimed to explore beliefs about the causes of depression and recovery (i.e., causal beliefs) and to examine whether they predict ADM use. METHODS: The data were drawn from a controlled trial and an extension of this trial with additional experience sampling...
January 19, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101789/prevalence-and-predictors-of-uncircumcised-kenyan-men-s-desire-for-circumcision-for-their-infant-sons
#2
F Parker Hudson, William C Miller, Samwel Rao, Kawango Agot, Harsha Thirumurthy
Men are key decision makers for their son's circumcision, so understanding their beliefs is important for the uptake of early infant male circumcision in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have high HIV prevalence. We analyzed men's preferences for circumcising their sons using data from a population-representative survey of 1501 uncircumcised men aged 25-49 years in western Kenya. Most men (59%) reported they would "definitely" want their son circumcised if a son was born to them within the next year. However, only 25% intended to become circumcised themselves...
January 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101587/factors-limiting-formation-of-community-forestry-enterprises-in-the-southern-mixteca-region-of-oaxaca-mexico
#3
José Antonio Hernández-Aguilar, Héctor Sergio Cortina-Villar, Luis Enrique García-Barrios, Miguel Ángel Castillo-Santiago
Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101025/giant-basal-cell-carcinomas-arising-on-the-bilateral-forearms-of-a-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-nonsurgical-treatment-options
#4
Sarah Shangraw, Rivka C Stone, Jeong Hee Cho-Vega, Robert S Kirsner
Giant basal cell carcinomas (GBCCs) are large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs; <5 cm) with a greater propensity to invade and metastasize than standard BCCs. The presence of 2 GBCCs in a single individual is rare. We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian male with bilateral GBCCs on the dorsal forearms, measuring 130 cm(2) and 24 cm(2), respectively, that developed over a 21-year period. Over this period, the patient treated the tumors with herbal remedies. Histologic evaluation showed a conventional nodular BCC for both tumors...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#5
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100123/relay-exchanges-in-elite-short-track-speed-skating
#6
Andrew Hext, Ben Heller, John Kelley, Simon Goodwill
In short track speed skating, the relay exchange provides an additional strategic component to races by allowing a team to change the skater involved in the pack race. Typically executed every 1½ laps, it is the belief of skaters and coaches that during this period of the race, time can be gained or lost due to the execution of the relay exchange. As such, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of the relay exchange on a team's progression through a 5000 m relay race. Using data collected from three World Cup relay events during the 2012-2013 season, the time taken to complete the straight for the scenarios with and without the relay exchange were compared at different skating speeds for the corner exit prior to the straight...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#7
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100044/conceptions-of-teaching-an-illustrated-review
#8
REVIEW
Michael Ross
BACKGROUND: Asking teachers what the term 'teaching' means to them can be a useful first activity in a faculty development session, as it typically leads to an engaging and enlightening discussion for participants and facilitators. Mapping their responses to 'conceptions of teaching' (sets of assumptions, knowledge and beliefs about teaching) in the literature seems particularly helpful in illuminating the inconsistencies, gaps and additional ways of thinking about teaching that participants may wish to consider...
February 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099787/cultural-sensitivity-among-clinical-nurses-a-descriptive-study
#9
Medine Yilmaz, Serap Toksoy, Zübeyde Denizci Direk, Selma Bezirgan, Münevver Boylu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cultural sensitivity of nurses working in rural and urban hospitals in Turkey. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sampling of this descriptive and correlational study was composed of only 516 clinical nurses working in inpatient clinics. The data collection tools were the Socio-Demographic Questionnaire and the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. FINDINGS: A majority of the participating nurses experienced culture-related problems...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099764/the-posttraumatic-growth-inventory-a-revision-integrating-existential-and-spiritual-change
#10
Richard G Tedeschi, Arnie Cann, Kanako Taku, Emre Senol-Durak, Lawrence G Calhoun
Spiritual Change (SC) is one of 5 domains of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) assesses this area of growth with only 2 items, one focusing on religiosity and the other focusing on spiritual understanding. The addition of 4 newly developed spiritual-existential change (SEC) items, creating an expanded PTGI (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-X), reflects a diversity of perspectives on spiritual-existential experiences that are represented in different cultures. Samples were obtained from 3 countries: the United States (n = 250), Turkey (n = 502), and Japan (n = 314)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099678/using-the-teach-back-method-in-patient-education-to-improve-patient-satisfaction
#11
Andrea M Centrella-Nigro, Catherine Alexander
BACKGROUND: This quasi-experimental research study used two similar nursing units to test the effects of teach back on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores. METHOD: A pretest-posttest design tested 24 nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about teach back. Education specialists provided a 1-hour teaching session on teach back to all nurses in the intervention unit. RESULTS: A significant improvement in knowledge scores in the pretest-posttest was found using paired t tests (p = ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099599/knowledge-beliefs-and-perceptions-of-turkish-vitiligo-patients-regarding-their-condition
#12
Ilteris Oguz Topal, Hatice Duman, Ozgur Emek Kocaturk Goncu, Mustafa Durmuscan, Sule Gungor, Pelin Kuteyla Ulkumen
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder that affects 0.5% to 2.0% of the population. OBJECTIVE: Patients' knowledge, opinions, and attitudes about vitiligo were evaluated. METHODS: The team conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective study between June 2014 and May 2015. The study included 100 patients aged over 12 years who were diagnosed with vitiligo. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions, and beliefs about vitiligo and the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) were filled out by the patients, and the results were analyzed...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099589/which-coronary-lesions-are-more-prone-to-cause-acute-myocardial-infarction
#13
Taner Sen, Mehmet Ali Astarcioglu, Osman Beton, Lale Dinc Asarcikli, Celal Kilit
Background: According to common belief, most myocardial infarctions (MIs) are due to the rupture of nonsevere, vulnerable plaques with < 70% obstruction. Data from recent trials challenge this belief, suggesting that the risk of coronary occlusion is, in fact, much higher after severe stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acute ST-elevation MIs result from high-grade stenoses by evaluating the presence of coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Methods: We retrospectively included 207 consecutive patients who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation MI...
January 16, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099465/impact-of-a-multi-strategy-community-intervention-to-reduce-maternal-and-child-health-inequalities-in-india-a-qualitative-study-in-haryana
#14
Madhu Gupta, Hans Bosma, Federica Angeli, Manmeet Kaur, Venkatesan Chakrapani, Monica Rana, Onno C P van Schayck
A multi-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented in India from 2005 to 2012. By improving the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, the aim was to reduce maternal and child health (MCH) inequalities. This study was planned to explore the perceptions and beliefs of stakeholders about extent of implementation and effectiveness of NRHM's health sector plans in improving MCH status and reducing inequalities. A total of 33 in-depth interviews (n = 33) with program managers, community representatives, mothers and 8 focus group discussions (n = 42) with health service providers were conducted from September to December 2013, in Haryana, post NRHM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#15
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099036/another-generation-of-stigma-assessing-healthcare-student-perceptions-of-hiv-positive-patients-in-mwanza-tanzania
#16
Sahil Aggarwal, Debora H Lee, William B Minteer, Reece T H Fenning, Shella K Raja, Megan E Bernstein, Kaavya R Raman, Sean P Denny, Priya A Patel, Mark Lieber, Allison O Farfel, Catherine A Diamond
HIV-related stigma remains a persistent global health concern among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in developing nations. The literature is lacking in studies about healthcare students' perceptions of PLWA. This study is the first effort to understand stigmatizing attitudes toward HIV-positive patients by healthcare students in Mwanza, Tanzania, not just those who will be directly treating patients but also those who will be indirectly involved through nonclinical roles, such as handling patient specimens and private health information...
January 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098519/who-knows-knowledge-activation-belief-in-certainty-of-knowledge-maximization-tendencies-and-need-for-cognition-in-answerability-judgments
#17
Sandra Buratti, Carl Martin Allwood, Bodil Karlsson
In this study, investigating answerability judgments, 123 participants judged whether each of 46 general knowledge questions could currently be answered by themselves, by someone else, or by no one. There were 26 consensus questions (high expected consensus about their answerability) and 20 non-consensus questions. Before each question, half of the participants rated the extent of their knowledge related to the question. Results showed that answering consensus questions compared with non-consensus led to a lower proportion of "No one knows" answers...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098505/facilitating-and-hindering-factors-for-coping-with-the-experience-of-having-a-child-with-cancer-a-lebanese-perspective
#18
Myrna A A Doumit, May Naifeh Khoury
BACKGROUND: Families with a child with cancer face significant emotional and psychosocial stressors. The frequency of childhood cancer is increasing in Lebanon with more than 282 children diagnosed each year. This condition is reported to evoke a range of challenging emotions for parents, yet no studies have been conducted on the facilitating and hindering factors that affect Lebanese parents coping with a child with cancer. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of factors facilitating and hindering coping methods of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098051/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-cognitive-behavioural-and-emotional-processing-vulnerability-factors
#19
Samantha K Brooks, Trudie Chalder, Katharine A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggest that personality factors such as perfectionism and high moral standards may contribute to the development of CFS. AIMS: To investigate cognitive, behavioural and emotional processing risk factors for CFS. METHOD: CFS patients (n = 67) at a UK specialist clinic completed questionnaires about psychological characteristics both currently and retrospectively (6 months pre-CFS onset)...
January 18, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097902/mistreatment-of-medical-students-in-the-third-year-may-not-be-the-problem
#20
Stuart J Slavin, John T Chibnall
Mistreatment and abuse of medical students has been recognized as a significant problem in medical schools. We believe, however, that the problem of mistreatment has been viewed incorrectly. This misperception of mistreatment exists in two primary ways. First, mistreatment has tended to be viewed as a "diagnosis" of unprofessionalism of the perpetrator when it may be more appropriately viewed as a symptom with a range of possible underlying causes. The second misconception that appears to be prevalent is the belief that the link between mistreatment and student well-being, distress, and falling empathy is clear...
January 18, 2017: Medical Teacher
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