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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144073/evaluation-of-certain-food-additives
#1
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This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives)...
2017: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#2
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134589/encapsulation-of-listeria-phage-a511-by-alginate-to-improve-its-thermal-stability
#3
Hanie Ahmadi, Qi Wang, Loong-Tak Lim, S Balamurugan
Microencapsulation is a versatile method for enhancing the stability of bacteriophages under harsh conditions, such as those which occur during thermal processing. For food applications, encapsulation in food-grade polymer matrices is desirable owing to their nontoxicity and low cost. Here, we describe the encapsulation of Listeria phage A511 using sodium alginate, gum arabic, and gelatin to maximize its viability during thermal processing.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133097/biological-and-textural-properties-of-underutilized-exudate-gums-of-jammu-and-kashmir-india
#4
Mudasir Bashir, Tuba Usmani, Sundaramoorthy Haripriya, Tanveer Ahmed
Three different exudate gums were studied for their in-vitro antioxidant activity, functional and textural properties. In-vitro antioxidant activity of the gum exudates was evaluated in terms of DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and phenolic content assays. Among the gum exudates, almond gum exhibited maximum DPPḢ inhibition of 35.52±1.125% followed by apricot gum and gum arabic at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Gum arabic had significantly higher reducing power than the other exudate gums...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125078/-from-war-to-priority-battle-blood-transfusion-as-a-medical-innovation-during-world-war-i
#5
T van Helvoort
The logistics system for blood transfusion was first developed on the Western Front during World War I. This article focuses on the people who played a major role in this development. It discusses the people who came up with the idea of preventing coagulation through addition of citrate and who discovered the stabilisation of blood by adding glucose. The inclusion of citrate can be regarded as having been simultaneously developed in several countries, while the stabilisation of erythrocytes was discovered by American researchers...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122352/microbial-community-response-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-ag-in-nitrifying-activated-sludge-revealed-by-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#6
Carley A Gwin, Emilie Lefevre, Christina L Alito, Claudia K Gunsch
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are known to act as biocides, are incorporated into medical and consumer products including athletic clothing, stuffed animals, liquid dietary supplements, and more. The increasing use of AgNPs in these products is likely to lead to their entry into both natural and engineered systems, which has the potential to disrupt bacterial processes including those involved in nutrient cycling in wastewater treatment. In the present study, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) mimicking secondary wastewater treatment were operated to determine the effects of AgNPs on the microbial communities contained within activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP)...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111067/gums-induced-microstructure-stability-in-ca-ii-alginate-beads-containing-lactase-analyzed-by-saxs
#7
Maria Victoria Traffano-Schiffo, Marta Castro-Giraldez, Pedro J Fito, Mercedes Perullini, Patricio R Santagapita
Previous works show that the addition of trehalose and gums in β-galactosidase (lactase) Ca(II)-alginate encapsulation systems improved its intrinsic stability against freezing and dehydration processes in the pristine state. However, there is no available information on the evolution in microstructure due to the constraints imposed by the operational conditions. The aim of this research is to study the time course of microstructural changes of Ca(II)-alginate matrices driven by the presence of trehalose, arabic and guar gums as excipients and to discuss how these changes influence the diffusional transport (assessed by LF-NMR) and the enzymatic activity of the encapsulated lactase...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103513/a-new-study-of-iodine-complexes-of-oxidized-gum-arabic-an-interaction-between-iodine-monochloride-and-aldehyde-groups
#8
Akbar Ali, Showkat Ali Ganie, Nasreen Mazumdar
Gum arabic, a plant polysaccharide was oxidized with periodate to produce aldehyde groups by the cleavage of diols present in the sugar units. The oxidized gum was then iodinated with iodine monochloride (ICl) and the interaction between electrophilic iodine, I(+) and reactive carbonyl groups of the modified gum was studied.Results of titrimetric estimation performed to determine the extent of oxidation and aldehyde content in the oxidized gum showed that degree of oxidation ranged between 19.68-50.19% which was observed to increase with periodate concentration; the corresponding aldehyde content was calculated to be 5...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051636/effects-of-different-carrier-materials-on-physicochemical-properties-of-microencapsulated-grape-skin-extract
#9
Ana M Kalušević, Steva M Lević, Bojan R Čalija, Jela R Milić, Vladimir B Pavlović, Branko M Bugarski, Viktor A Nedović
The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of grape skin extract (GSE) spray dried with different carriers: maltodextrin (MD), gum Arabic (GA) and skim milk powder (SMP). The grape skin extract was obtained from winery by-product of red grape variety Prokupac (Vitis vinifera L.). The morphology of the powders, their thermal, chemical and physical properties (water activity, bulk and tapped densities, solubility), as well as release studies in different pH conditions were analyzed. Total anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were determined by spectrophotometric methods...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030181/use-of-gelatin-and-gum-arabic-for-encapsulation-of-black-raspberry-anthocyanins-by-complex-coacervation
#10
Rezvan Shaddel, Javad Hesari, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Hamed Hamishehkar, Bahram Fathi-Achachlouei, Qingrong Huang
Protein-polysaccharide interactions offer opportunities for designing the new functional foods with applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, we microencapsulated black raspberry water extracts by double emulsion technique prior to complex coacervation using gelatin and gum Arabic to diminish the instability of their anthocyanins (ANCs) as water soluble compounds, particularly under harsh processing and storage conditions. Subsequently, optical microscopy, moisture, hygroscopicity, solubility, particle size, loading capacity, zeta potential, color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, H° and TCD), stability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal behavior were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024919/graphene-oxide-gold-nanorods-for-chemo-photothermal-treatment-and-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-in-mice-tumor
#11
M Shahnawaz Khan, Sunil Pandey, Mukesh L Bhaisare, Gangaraju Gedda, Abou Talib, Hui-Fen Wu
Graphene oxide (GO) is a close derivative of graphene has unlocked many pivotal steps in drug delivery due to their inherent biocompatibility, excellent drug loading capacity, and shows antibacterial, antifungal properties etc. We used a novel plant material called Gum arabic (GA) to increase the solubility of GO as well as to chemically reduce it in the solution. GA functionalized GO (fGO) exhibited increased absorption in near infra-red region (NIR) which was exploited in photothermal therapy for cancer. In order to understand the shape and size effect of GO which may affect their rheological properties, we have conjugated them with gold nanorods (GNRs) using in situ synthesis of GO@GNRs via seed mediated method...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986134/consequences-of-adding-gum-arabic-as-a-cryoprotectant-on-motility-and-viability-of-frozen-stallion-semen
#12
Mohamed Ali, Musa M Musa, Sulaiman Alfadul, K Al-Sobayel
A trial was conducted to check effect of adding gum Arabic (GA) instead of egg yolk (EY) as a cryoprotectant for stallion sperm. Two experiments were designed; experiment I tested adding 3 levels of nonheated GA (i.e., 3, 6 and 9 g/100 mL diluents) in HF-20 extender. However, in experiment II the same levels were tested except that GA was heated at 80 °C for 60 min. HF-20 containing 10% of EY was used as control. In experiment I, sperm frozen in HF-20 containing nonheated GA exhibited lower percentages of motile sperm, progressively motile sperm and sperm with intact plasma membranes, vitality rate, and acrosome integrity after cooling or after deep freezing...
October 3, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981776/heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-an-arabidopsis-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidase-and-%C3%AE-d-galactosidases-acting-on-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosyl-residues
#13
Chiemi Imaizumi, Harumi Tomatsu, Kiminari Kitazawa, Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Seiji Shibano, Kaoru Kikuchi, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake, Björn Usadel
The major plant sugar l-arabinose (l-Ara) has two different ring forms, l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf) and l-arabinopyranose (l-Arap). Although l-Ara mainly appears in the form of α-l-Araf residues in cell wall components, such as pectic α-1,3:1,5-arabinan, arabinoxylan, and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), lesser amounts of it can also be found as β-l-Arap residues of AGPs. Even though AGPs are known to be rapidly metabolized, the enzymes acting on the β-l-Arap residues remain to be identified. In the present study, four enzymes, which we call β-l-ARAPASE (APSE) and α-GALACTOSIDASE 1 (AGAL1), AGAL2, and AGAL3, are identified as those enzymes that are likely to be responsible for the hydrolysis of the β-l-Arap residues in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959642/vinblastine-an-anticancer-drug-causes-constipation-and-oxidative-stress-as-well-as-others-disruptions-in-intestinal-tract-in-rat
#14
Kaïs Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Slimen Selmi, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The purpose of this study is to examine the gastrointestinal disorders after injection of vinblastine (2 mg kg(-1) b.w. i.v.) in rats. Animals were divided into two equal groups: Group 1 was considered as a control group (NaCl, 0.9%). Group 2 was treated with intravenous injection of vinblastine for 7 days. Loperamide (2 mg kg(-1)) was injected in a saline solution subcutaneously to induce constipation in another group of rats during the same period. Fecal parameters of the different groups have been determined...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941839/the-effect-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-gum-arabic-conjugates-in-crosslinked-membrane-for-antibacterial-chlorine-resistance-and-boron-removal-performance
#15
Saba Asim, Maria Wasim, Aneela Sabir, Muhammad Shafiq, Huma Andlib, Sania Khuram, Adnan Ahmad, Tahir Jamil
In this work, we developed hybrid membranes integrated with Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/Gum Arabic (GuA) conjugates using crosslinked Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a matrix phase with the addition of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer that insured pore formation. At first, the NCC was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose via acid hydrolysis process. The performance property of hybrid NCC/GuA was measured using boron removal. The results showed that the rejection capability enhanced as compared to the control membranes, especially at 0...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915937/ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-procedure-for-analysis-of-monosaccharides-from-plant-gum-binders
#16
Volodymyr Pauk, Tomáš Pluháček, Vladimír Havlíček, Karel Lemr
The ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/MS) procedure for analysis of native monosaccharides was developed. Chromatographic conditions were investigated to separate a mixture of four hexoses, three pentoses, two deoxyhexoses and two uronic acids. Increasing water content in methanol modifier to 5% and formic acid to 4% improved peak shapes of neutral monosaccharides and allowed complete elution of highly polar uronic acids in a single run. An Acquity HSS C18SB column outperformed other three tested stationary phases (BEH (silica), BEH 2-ethylpyridine, CSH Fluoro-Phenyl) in terms of separation of isomers and analysis time (4...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899096/physical-rheological-functional-and-film-properties-of-a-novel-emulsifier-frost-grape-polysaccharide-from-vitis-riparia-michx
#17
William T Hay, Steven F Vaughn, Jeffrey A Byars, Gordon W Selling, Derek M Holthaus, Neil P J Price
A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essential details for the commercial adoption of this novel plant polysaccharide. FGP is capable of producing exceptionally stable emulsions when compared with the industrially ubiquitous gum arabic (GA). The FGP isolate contained a negligible amount of nitrogen (0...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892153/effects-of-ultra-high-pressure-homogenization-and-hydrocolloids-on-physicochemical-and-storage-properties-of-soymilk
#18
Dipaloke Mukherjee, Sam K C Chang, Yin Zhang, Soma Mukherjee
This study investigated the efficacy of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) in the presence or absence of added hydrocolloids for enhancing a range of physic-chemical properties of soymilk-which are important for extending shelf-life. Soymilk preparations containing different concentrations (0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.05%, w/v) of 2 different hydrocolloids (κ-carrageenan, κ-C, and gum Arabic, GA) were subjected to 3 different levels of UHPH (70, 140, and 210 MPa) and stored in sterilized containers at 4 °C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873691/encapsulation-of-lactase-in-ca-ii-alginate-beads-effect-of-stabilizers-and-drying-methods
#19
Maria Victoria Traffano-Schiffo, Marta Castro-Giraldez, Pedro J Fito, Patricio R Santagapita
The purpose of the present work was to analyze the effect of trehalose, arabic and guar gums on the preservation of β-galactosidase activity in freeze-dried and vacuum dried Ca(II)-alginate beads. Freezing process was also studied as a first step of freeze-drying. Trehalose was critical for β-galactosidase conservation, and guar gum as a second excipient showed the highest conservation effect (close to 95%). Systems with Tg values ~40°C which were stables at ambient temperature were obtained, being trehalose the main responsible of the formation of an amorphous matrix...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836674/effects-of-hydocolloids-as-fat-replacers-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-produced-labneh
#20
Mohammed Saleh, Fahed Al-Baz, Khalid Al-Ismail
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids when used as fat replacers on the physicochemical properties of Labneh. Four combination sets of carboxymethylcellulose, Arabic gum, carrageenan and xanthan were used in a three factor Mixture Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Labneh water holding capacity (WHC), viscosity parameters, texture and sensory attributes were assessed. Water holding capacity played the critical role in affecting produced Labneh physical properties. Hydrocolloids influenced Labneh WHC in the following order; xanthan > Arabic gum > carrageenan > carboxymethylcellulose...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
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