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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351049/macular-edema-of-choroidal-origin
#1
Gisèle Soubrane
Macular edema is most often clinically defined as an accumulation of serous fluid within the neurosensory retina with increased thickness of the central retina. In exudative age-related macular degeneration the leakage of fluid from the choroidal new vessels may be the origin of macular edema. Their abnormal permeability and the inflammatory reaction are mechanisms involved in this accumulation of fluid, which occurs in all layers. Cystoid macular edema is more often associated with subepithelial occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) than it is with pre-epithelial classic CNV...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350984/autophagy-it-s-in-your-blood
#2
Sergei Doulatov, George Q Daley
Autophagy, a central pathway for cellular homeostasis, plays diverse roles in development, cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration. In a new report in Nature, Ho et al. (2017) show that autophagy is essential for maintaining the replicative quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells throughout life by limiting the number of active mitochondria.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350953/degradation-of-hole-transport-materials-via-exciton-driven-cyclization
#3
Bruce M Bell, Michael B Clark, David D Devore, Timothy S De Vries, Robert D J Froese, Kaitlyn C Gray, David H K Jackson, Thomas F Kuech, Hong-Yeop Na, Kenneth L Kearns, Kyung Joo Lee, Sukrit Mukhopadhyay, Aaron A Rachford, Liam Patrick Spencer, William Henry Hunter Woodward
Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays have been an active and intense area of research for well over a decade and have now reached commercial success for displays from cell phones to large format televisions. A more thorough understanding of the many different potential degradation modes which cause OLED device failure will be necessary to develop the next generation of OLED materials, improve device lifetime, and to ultimately improve the cost vs. performance ratio. Each of the different organic layers in an OLED device can be susceptible to unique decomposition pathways, however stability towards excitons is critical for emissive layer (EML) materials as well as any layer near the recombination zone...
March 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350945/intervertebral-disk-degeneration-and-repair
#4
James Dowdell, Mark Erwin, Theodoe Choma, Alexander Vaccaro, James Iatridis, Samuel K Cho
Intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is a natural progression of the aging process. Degenerative disk disease (DDD) is a pathologic condition associated with IVD that has been associated with chronic back pain. There are a variety of different mechanisms of DDD (genetic, mechanical, exposure). Each of these pathways leads to a final common result of unbalancing the anabolic and catabolic environment of the extracellular matrix in favor of catabolism. Attempts have been made to gain an understanding of the process of IVD degeneration with in Vitro studies...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350813/role-of-p63-and-p73-isoforms-on-the-cell-death-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-submitted-to-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#5
Raúl González, Ángel J De la Rosa, Alessandro Rufini, María A Rodríguez-Hernández, Elena Navarro-Villarán, Trinidad Marchal, Sheila Pereira, Manuel De la Mata, Martina Müller-Schilling, Juan M Pascasio-Acevedo, María T Ferrer-Ríos, Miguel A Gómez-Bravo, Francisco J Padillo, Jordi Muntané
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have a variable 5-year survival rate limited mostly by tumor recurrence. The etiology, age, sex, alcohol, Child-Pugh, and the immunesuppressor have been associated with tumour recurrence. The expression of ΔNp73 is related to the reduced survival of patients with HCC. The study evaluated the expression of p63 and p73 isoforms and cell death receptors, and their relation to tumour recurrence and survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#6
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350724/prevalence-and-predictors-of-unsatisfactory-anal-cytology-tests-in-a-cohort-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-sydney-australia-baseline-findings-from-the-study-of-the-prevention-of-anal-cancer-spanc
#7
David J Templeton, Jennifer M Roberts, I Mary Poynten, Carmella Law, Richard J Hillman, Annabelle Farnsworth, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Suzanne M Garland, Andrew E Grulich, Fengyi Jin
Anal cytology has been suggested as a screening test for the anal cancer precursor high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of initial unsatisfactory anal cytology tests ('unsats'). The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and precancerous lesions among gay and bisexual men (GBM) of at least 35 years in Sydney, Australia. At each study visit, an anal swab is collected for cytological testing...
May 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346848/cardiovascular-protective-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-resveratrol
#8
Sanghyun Cho, Kyung Namkoong, Minji Shin, Jueun Park, Eunyeong Yang, Jinsoo Ihm, Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346726/predictive-value-of-p63-ki-67-and-survivin-expression-in-oral-leukoplakia-a-tissue-microarray-study
#9
Kelly Bienk Dias, Anacláudia Pereira Costa Flores, Márcia Gaiger Oliveira, Pantelis Varvaki Rados, Manoel Sant'ana Filho
The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of survivin, ki-67, and p63 in oral leukoplakic lesions, histopathologically differentiated into dysplastic and nondysplastic. A tissue microarray containing 57 samples of biopsies from clinically classified lesions, such as leukoplakia, was immunolabeled for survivin, ki-67, and p63. Samples were scored for percentage of positively stained. Scores were designated as follows: low = less than 25% of positive cells; and high = more than 25% of positive cells...
March 27, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346719/reduced-th22-cell-proportion-and-prevention-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-infants-following-maternal-probiotic-supplementation
#10
Anne Dorthea Bjerkenes Rø, Melanie Rae Simpson, Torstein Baade Rø, Ola Storrø, Roar Johnsen, Vibeke Videm, Torbjørn Øien
In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#11
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346682/age-related-variation-in-the-cellular-composition-of-equine-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid
#12
Shannon J Hostetter, Sandra K Clark, Jessica M Gilbertie, Sarah A Wiechert, Doug E Jones, Brett A Sponseller
BACKGROUND: Previous reports reveal variation in the cellular composition of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the profiles of BALF from horses to assess age-related differences. Serial BALF samples were collected from the same individuals over a one-year period to identify changes in individual animals as they aged. METHODS: Collection of BALF was performed on horses aged one week and one, 2, 6, and 12 months...
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346656/7-year-follow-up-after-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-results-of-a-phase-2-clinical-trial
#13
Bing Sun, Eric D Brooks, Ritsuko U Komaki, Zhongxing Liao, Melenda D Jeter, Mary F McAleer, Pamela K Allen, Peter A Balter, James D Welsh, Michael S O'Reilly, Daniel Gomez, Stephen M Hahn, Jack A Roth, Reza J Mehran, John V Heymach, Joe Y Chang
BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the efficacy, patterns of failure, and toxicity of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for patients with medically inoperable, clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a prospective clinical trial with 7 years of follow-up. Clinical staging was performed according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system. METHODS: Eligible patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC of clinical stage I as determined using positron emission tomography staging were treated with SABR (50 grays in 4 fractions)...
March 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346597/association-of-risk-of-viremia-immunosuppression-serious-clinical-events-and-mortality-with-increasing-age-in-perinatally-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-youth
#14
Anne M Neilan, Brad Karalius, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke, Mark J Abzug, Allison L Agwu, Paige L Williams, Murli Purswani, Deborah Kacanek, James M Oleske, Sandra K Burchett, Andrew Wiznia, Miriam Chernoff, George R Seage, Andrea L Ciaranello
Importance: As perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth (PHIVY) in the United States grow older and more treatment experienced, clinicians need updated information about the association of age, CD4 cell count, viral load (VL), and antiretroviral (ARV) drug use with risk of opportunistic infections, key clinical events, and mortality to understand patient risks and improve care. Objective: To examine the incidence or first occurrence during follow-up of key clinical events (including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B [CDC-B] and stage C [CDC-C] events) and mortality among PHIVY stratified by age, CD4 cell count, and VL and ARV status...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#15
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346445/potential-energy-landscapes-identify-the-information-theoretic-nature-of-the-epigenome
#16
Garrett Jenkinson, Elisabet Pujadas, John Goutsias, Andrew P Feinberg
Epigenetics is the study of biochemical modifications carrying information independent of DNA sequence, which are heritable through cell division. In 1940, Waddington coined the term "epigenetic landscape" as a metaphor for pluripotency and differentiation, but methylation landscapes have not yet been rigorously computed. Using principles from statistical physics and information theory, we derive epigenetic energy landscapes from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data that enable us to quantify methylation stochasticity genome-wide using Shannon's entropy, associating it with chromatin structure...
March 27, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346415/haplo-cord-transplantation-compared-to-haploidentical-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-in-patients-with-aml
#17
M Kwon, G Bautista, P Balsalobre, I Sánchez-Ortega, P Montesinos, A Bermúdez, A de Laiglesia, P Herrera, C Martin, K Humala, A Zabalza, M Torres, L Bento, L L Corral, I Heras, D Serrano, I Buño, J Anguita, C Regidor, R Duarte, R Cabrera, J Gayoso, J L Diez-Martin
For patients with AML, the best alternative donor remains to be defined. We analyze outcomes of patients who underwent myeloablative umbilical cord blood or haploidentical hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Spain. Fifty-one patients underwent single umbilical cord blood transplantation supported by a third party donor (Haplo-Cord) between 1999 and 2012, and 36 patients received an haploidentical HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY-haplo) between 2012 and 2014 in GETH centers. The Haplo-Cord cohort included a higher proportion of patients with high disease risk index and use of TBI in the conditioning regimen, and hematopoietic cell transplantation-age Comorbidity Age Index was higher in PTCY-haplo patients...
March 27, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346404/chemical-screening-identifies-atm-as-a-target-for-alleviating-senescence
#18
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Yongsub Kim, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Senescence, defined as irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is the main driving force of aging and age-related diseases. Here, we performed high-throughput screening to identify compounds that alleviate senescence and identified the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibitor KU-60019 as an effective agent. To elucidate the mechanism underlying ATM's role in senescence, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and found that ATM interacted with the vacuolar ATPase V1 subunits ATP6V1E1 and ATP6V1G1. Specifically, ATM decreased E-G dimerization through direct phosphorylation of ATP6V1G1...
March 27, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#19
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346326/sarcomas-with-cic-rearrangements-are-a-distinct-pathologic-entity-with-aggressive-outcome-a-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-study-of-115-cases
#20
Cristina R Antonescu, Adepitan A Owosho, Lei Zhang, Sonja Chen, Kemal Deniz, Joseph M Huryn, Yu-Chien Kao, Shih-Chiang Huang, Samuel Singer, William Tap, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher D Fletcher
CIC-DUX4 gene fusion, resulting from either a t(4;19) or t(10;19) translocation, is the most common genetic abnormality detected in EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors. Following their discovery it was debated if these tumors should be classified as variants of Ewing sarcoma (ie, atypical Ewing sarcoma) or as a stand-alone pathologic entity. As such the WHO classification temporarily grouped the CIC-rearranged tumors under undifferentiated sarcomas with round cell phenotype, until further clinical evidence was available...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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