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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#1
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#2
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803256/surface-structure-changes-of-pathological-placenta-tissue-observed-using-scanning-electron-microscopy-a-pilot-study
#3
Rafał Bobiński, Anna Pielesz, Wioletta Waksmańska, Ewa Sarna, Izabela Ulman-Włodarz, Justyna Kania, Monika Mikulska, Agnieszka Turbiarz
Structural changes within the placenta are observed in the course of pathological pregnancy. The aim of the study was to perform initial assessment of morphological features of placenta. The analysis was conducted by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Samples of placenta of women who delivered neonates appropriate for gestational age were characterized by a homogenous surface texture with natural corrugation. The surface of IUGR placenta from the group of mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension was definitely heterogeneous - noticeable swelling of tissue surface was observed...
August 12, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801627/increased-risk-of-low-birth-weight-in-women-with-placental-malaria-associated-with-p-falciparum-var2csa-clade
#4
Jaymin C Patel, Nicholas J Hathaway, Christian M Parobek, Kyaw L Thwai, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Carole Khairallah, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Victor Mwapasa, Achille Massougbodji, Nadine Fievet, Jeffery A Bailey, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Philippe Deloron, Stephanie M Engel, Steve M Taylor, Jonathan J Juliano, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Steven R Meshnick
Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) causes adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes owing to Plasmodium falciparum accumulation in the placenta. Placental accumulation is mediated by P. falciparum protein VAR2CSA, a leading PAM-specific vaccine target. The extent of its antigen diversity and impact on clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. Through amplicon deep-sequencing placental malaria samples from women in Malawi and Benin, we assessed sequence diversity of VAR2CSA's ID1-DBL2x region, containing putative vaccine targets and estimated associations of specific clades with adverse birth outcomes...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798930/adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-of-patients-with-history-of-first-trimester-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#5
Jing Yang, Yan Wang, Xiao-Ye Wang, Yan-Yu Zhao, Jing Wang, Yang-Yu Zhao
Although a history of first-trimester recurrent spontaneous abortion (FRSA) is regarded as a risk factor in antenatal care, the characteristic of subsequent pregnancy outcome is not clearly elucidated. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 492 singleton pregnant women. 164 of them with the history of FRSA were enrolled in study group, compared to 328 deliveries without the history of FRSA. For maternal outcomes, patients in the study group delivered earlier with mean gestational age and the incidences of cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage were higher compared to the control group...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781890/self-reported-pregnancy-exposures-and-placental-dna-methylation-in-the-marbles-prospective-autism-sibling-study
#6
Rebecca J Schmidt, Diane I Schroeder, Florence K Crary-Dooley, Jacqueline M Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Cheryl K Walker, Sally Ozonoff, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Janine M LaSalle
Human placenta is a fetal-derived tissue that offers a unique sample of epigenetic and environmental exposures present in utero. In the MARBLES prospective pregnancy study of high-risk younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), pregnancy and environmental factors collected by maternal interviews were examined as predictors of placental DNA methylation, including partially methylated domains (PMDs), an embryonic feature of the placental methylome. DNA methylation data from MethylC-seq analysis of 47 placentas of children clinically diagnosed at 3 years with ASD or typical development using standardized assessments were examined in relation to: child's gestational age, birth-weight, and diagnosis; maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, parity, height, prenatal vitamin and folate intake; home ownership; pesticides professionally applied to lawns or gardens or inside homes, pet flea/tick pouches, collars, or soaps/shampoos used in the 3 months prior to or during pregnancy...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770411/effect-of-iodine-nutrition-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-an-iodine-sufficient-area-in-china
#7
Yue Xiao, Huakun Sun, Chenyan Li, Yongze Li, Shiqiao Peng, Chenling Fan, Weiping Teng, Zhongyan Shan
Many studies focused on the association between thyroid disease and pregnancy outcomes. The present study explored the effect of iodine nutrition during the first trimester on pregnancy outcomes. One thousand five hundred sixty-nine pregnant, euthyroid women at ≤12 weeks of gestation in an iodine-sufficient area in China were recruited. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for iodine nutrition during pregnancy, participants were divided into four groups: adequate iodine (median urinary iodine concentration (UIC), 150-249 μg/L), mild deficiency (UIC, 100-150 μg/L), moderate and severe deficiency (UIC, <100 μg/L), and more than adequate and excessive (UIC, ≥250 μg/L) groups...
August 2, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#8
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
August 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765661/-factors-associated-with-blood-loss-during-precipitate-labor
#9
A Rubio Álvarez, A Hernández Martínez, M Molina Alarcón
BACKGROUND: Precipitate labour is related to the appearance of postpartum haemorrhage due to posterior uterine atony. However, preventive measures that may be effective in reducing blood loss in this type of delivery are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with blood loss produced in precipitate labour. METHODS: This was an observational, analytical retrospective cohort study based on a total sample of 742 women with vaginal delivery whose duration was less than 180 minutes, during the period 2010-2014...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758828/second-trimester-extracellular-micrornas-in-maternal-blood-and-fetal-growth-an-exploratory-study
#10
Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Heather H Burris, Alison P Sanders, Allan C Just, Alexandra E Dereix, Katherine Svensson, Maritsa Solano, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli
Healthy feto-maternal communication is critical during pregnancy and is orchestrated by the placenta. Dysfunction of the placenta leads to fetal growth complications; however, the underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Circulating extracellular microRNAs (exmiRNAs) in the blood have been implicated in cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, exmiRNAs may provide useful biological information about communication between the mother, the fetus, and the placenta during pregnancy. We used logistic regression to determine the association of exmiRNAs with abnormal fetal growth by comparing mothers of infants classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) (n = 36) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) (n = 13) to appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), matched by gestational age at delivery and infant sex...
July 31, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753968/differential-mir-346-and-mir-582-3p-expression-in-association-with-selected-maternal-and-fetal-complications
#11
Pei-Yin Tsai, Sheng-Hsiang Li, Wan-Ni Chen, Hui-Ling Tsai, Mei-Tsz Su
Several miRNAs are expressed in human gestational tissue, and some have been shown to be associated with placental dysfunction and complicated pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the roles of miR-346 and miR-582-3p in adverse obstetric events, we analyzed these 2 miRNAs in three samples (maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and placenta) obtained from pregnant women in four groups, including healthy control (n = 60), preeclampsia (n = 31), preterm delivery (n = 29) and small for gestational age (n = 19) patients...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753649/pregnant-women-carrying-female-fetuses-are-at-higher-risk-of-placental-malaria-infection
#12
Ishag Adam, Magdi M Salih, Ahmed A Mohmmed, Duria A Rayis, Mustafa I Elbashir
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of the placental malaria is not fully understood. If there is a fetal sex-specific susceptibility to malaria infection, this might add to the previous knowledge on the immunology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of placental malaria infections. AIMS: This study was conducted to assess whether the sex of the fetus was associated with placental malaria infections. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including a secondary analysis of a cohort of women who were investigated for prevalence and risk factors (including fetal sex) for placental malaria in eastern Sudan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752144/is-there-any-relationship-between-low-papp-a-levels-and-measures-of-umbilical-vein-and-placental-thickness-during-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#13
Gulsum Uysal, Sadan Tutus, Fulya Cagli, Cevdet Adiguzel
OBJECTIVE: Low pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) level is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationship between umbilical cord diameter (UCD), umbilical vein and artery diameters (UVD, UAD), placental thickness, and PAPP-A level at gestational age of between 11 and 14 weeks. METHODS: UCD, UVD, UAD, and placental thickness of 246 women were assessed during ultrasound examination at between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation, as well as measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) and crown-rump length (CRL)...
2017: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750937/castor-oil-for-induction-of-labor-in-post-date-pregnancies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Ronit Gilad, Hagit Hochner, Bella Savitsky, Shay Porat, Drorith Hochner-Celnikier
BACKGROUND: Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. METHODS: Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil...
July 24, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744866/effect-of-moderate-30-percent-global-maternal-nutrient-reduction-on-fetal-and-postnatal-baboon-phenotype
#15
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura A Cox, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Most developmental programming studies on maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) are in altricial rodents whose maternal nutritional burden and offspring developmental trajectory differ from precocial non-human primates and humans. METHODS: Control (CTR) baboon mothers ate ad libitum; MNR mothers ate 70% global control diet in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: We present offspring morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) during second half of gestation (G) and first three postnatal years...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743766/the-evolution-of-duplicate-gene-expression-in-mammalian-organs
#16
Katerina Guschanski, Maria Warnefors, Henrik Kaessmann
Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs...
July 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733353/use-of-proteomics-to-investigate-kidney-function-decline-over-5-years
#17
Axel C Carlsson, Erik Ingelsson, Johan Sundström, Juan Jesus Carrero, Stefan Gustafsson, Tobias Feldreich, Markus Stenemo, Anders Larsson, Lars Lind, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Using a discovery/replication approach, we investigated associations between a multiplex panel of 80 circulating proteins associated with cardiovascular pathology or inflammation, and eGFR decline per year and CKD incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used two cohorts, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (PIVUS; n=687, mean age of 70 years, 51% women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n=360 men, mean age of 78 years), with 5-year follow-up data on eGFR...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732072/placental-peptides-metabolism-and-maternal-factors-as-predictors-of-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-in-pregnant-women-a-case-control-study
#18
Robert Amadu Ngala, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Peter Gmagna, Frank Naku Ghartey, Martin Akilla Awe
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for perinatal complications; include shoulder dystocia, birth injuries such as bone fractures and nerve palsies. It is associated with later development of type 2 diabetes, the risk of macrosomia and other long-term health effects of infants born to diabetic mothers. The study assesses placental peptides and maternal factors as potential predictors of gestational diabetes among pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for the study, 150 pregnant women without pre gestational diabetes including 50 women with low risk factors of diabetes as controls and 50 other pregnant women with pregestational diabetes as control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730238/altered-expression-of-mtor-and-autophagy-in-term-normal-human-placentas
#19
Qiu Xia Zhang, Quan Na, Weiwei Song
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and autophagy have been implied in trophoblast cells proliferation and invasion. This study investigated whether mTOR and autophagy were involved in placental development and fetal programming. A total of 90 term normal placentas (37-42 gestational weeks) were collected from women who underwent elective cesarean section, with large for gestational age (LGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (n=30, respectively). Capillary volume density within peripheral villi significantly decreased in the FGR placentas compared with the AGA group (p<0...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729313/fetal-doppler-velocimetry-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-risk-among-growth-restricted-preterm-infants-an-observational-study
#20
Alessandra Lio, Paolo Rosati, Roberta Pastorino, Francesco Cota, Milena Tana, Chiara Tirone, Claudia Aurilia, Cinzia Ricci, Alessandro Gambacorta, Angela Paladini, Ilenia Mappa, Silvia Buongiorno, Gian Franco Zannoni, Costantino Romagnoli, Giovanni Vento
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fetal growth restriction (FGR) diagnosis, based on pathological prenatal fetal Doppler velocimetry, is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) independently of being small for gestational age (SGA) per se at birth among very preterm infants. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. FGR was defined as failing fetal growth in utero and fetal Doppler velocimetry abnormalities. SETTING: Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Roma, Italy...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
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