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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728302/-clinical-efficacy-of-ladder-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-treatment-of-advanced-mid-low-rectal-cancer
#1
Y X Zhang, H B Wang, Y J Lu, H Y Liu
Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of ladder neoadjuvant therapy in treatment of advanced mid-low rectal cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of one hundred and eighty mid and low rectal cancer patients who underwent ladder neoadjuvant therapy(neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery if neoadjuvant chemotherapy was effective; neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy if neoadjuvant chemotherapy was ineffective)(n=90) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (n=90)...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728074/no-pain-no-gain-adjuvant-effects-of-alum-and-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-in-pertussis-and-hpv-vaccines
#2
REVIEW
Thomas C Mitchell, Carolyn R Casella
Development of non-infectious subunit vaccines is hampered by a slow pipeline of new adjuvants to replace or enhance alum in part because expectations of safety are high. Transient vaccine side effects are not clinical priorities because they cause no lasting harm and vaccine development has appropriately been focused on avoidance of serious adverse events. As a result, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which side effects caused by a vaccine's reactogencicity are predictive of successful immunization outcomes...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728062/investigation-of-factors-affecting-the-injury-severity-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-a-random-effects-generalized-ordered-probit-model
#3
Alireza Jafari Anarkooli, Mehdi Hosseinpour, Adele Kardar
Rollover crashes are responsible for a notable number of serious injuries and fatalities; hence, they are of great concern to transportation officials and safety researchers. However, only few published studies have analyzed the factors associated with severity outcomes of rollover crashes. This research has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the effects of various factors, of which some have been rarely reported in the existing studies, on the injury severities of single-vehicle (SV) rollover crashes based on six-year crash data collected on the Malaysian federal roads...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728040/measures-and-predictors-of-varenicline-adherence-in-the-treatment-of-nicotine-dependence
#4
Annie R Peng, Mark Morales, E Paul Wileyto, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Neal L Benowitz, Nicole L Nollen, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert Schnoll
INTRODUCTION: While adherence to medication in smoking cessation clinical trials is strongly associated with clinical outcome, very few studies have evaluated the validity of pill count as a measure of adherence relative to a biological assay, and evaluated a broad range of correlates of adherence. METHODS: In a smoking cessation clinical trial of varenicline, we compared pill counts collected over 4 different time periods to varenicline salivary levels taken after 2weeks of treatment, as well as evaluated predictors of adherence to varenicline...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728011/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-sugar-amino-acid-maillard-reaction-products-on-intestinal-inflammation-model-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Jun-Gu Oh, Su-Hyun Chun, Da Hyun Kim, Jin Hye Kim, Hye Soo Shin, Yong Soo Cho, Yong Ki Kim, Hee-Don Choi, Kwang-Won Lee
The Maillard reaction is a nonenzymatic reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar that usually occurs upon heating. This reaction occurs routinely in cooking, generates numerous products, which are collectively referred to as Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contributing to aroma and color features. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) transformed from MRPs are participated in many types of inflammation reaction. In this study, various sugar-amino acid MRPs were prepared from three different amino acids (lysine, arginine, and glycine) and sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) for 1 h with heating at 121 °C...
July 11, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727997/therapeutic-intranasal-instillation-of-allergen-loaded-microbubbles-suppresses-experimental-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#6
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Despite proven efficiency, subcutaneous immunotherapy for aeroallergens is impaired by the duration of the protocol, the repeated injections and potential side-effects associated with the doses of allergen administered. Intranasal delivery of immunotherapeutic agents may overcome several of these drawbacks, provided that an efficient allergen delivery vehicle can be identified. This study evaluates whether intranasally delivered gas-filled microbubble (MB)-associated ovalbumin (OVA), used as a model allergen, can serve as a therapeutic treatment in a mouse model of established allergic asthma...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727900/head-midline-position-for-preventing-the-occurrence-or-extension-of-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-preterm-infants
#7
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Grazia Calevo, Matteo Bruschettini
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Thus, it has been suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the patient is in supine midline position with the bed tilted 30°...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727839/cardiac-autonomic-modulation-induced-by-doxorubicin-in-a-rodent-model-of-colorectal-cancer-and-the-influence-of-fullerenol-pretreatment
#8
Nejka Potočnik, Martina Perše, Anton Cerar, Rade Injac, Žarko Finderle
The very effective anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is known to have cardiotoxic side effects, which could be accompanied by autonomic modulation. Autonomic disbalance might even be an initiating mechanism underlying DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and can be studied noninvasively by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). A number of strategies have been assessed to predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac dysfunction while HRV, a potential detecting tool, has not yet been tested. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of DOX treatment on HRV in a rat model of colorectal cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727818/prep-in-italy-the-time-may-be-ripe-but-who-s-paying-the-bill-a-nationwide-survey-on-physicians-attitudes-towards-using-antiretrovirals-to-prevent-hiv-infection
#9
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Alessio Signori, Renato Maserati, Silvia Nozza, Andrea Gori, Stefano Bonora, Marco Borderi, Diego Ripamonti, Maria Cristina Rossi, Giancarlo Orofino, Tiziana Quirino, Giuseppe Nunnari, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Salvatore Martini, Caterina Sagnelli, Giovanni Mazzola, Pietro Colletti, Dario Bartolozzi, Teresa Bini, Nicoletta Ladisa, Filippo Castelnuovo, Annalisa Saracino, Sergio Lo Caputo
Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) on preventing HIV-negative partners of HIV infected patients to become infected through sexual contacts. PrEP is already available in the United States and now is approved by European Medicine Agency. In this setting we would like to gauge physicians' knowledge, acquaintance with and attitude to include PrEP in their clinical practice. A cross sectional survey was conducted among Italian physicians expert on antiretroviral therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727797/prophylactic-supplementation-of-resveratrol-is-more-effective-than-its-therapeutic-use-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#10
Heba Samy Shoukry, Hania Ibrahim Ammar, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Maha Balegh Zikri, Ashraf Ali Shamaa, Sahar Gamal Abou Elfadl, Ejlal Abu-Al Rub, Sekaran Saravanan, Sanjiv Dhingra
Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound and naturally occurring phytoalexin, has been reported to exert cardio-protective effects in several animal studies. However, the outcome of initial clinical trials with RSV was less effective compared to pre-clinical studies. Therefore, RSV treatment protocols need to be optimized. In this study we evaluated prophylactic versus therapeutic effect of resveratrol (RSV) in mitigating doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. To investigate prophylactic effects, RSV was supplemented for 2 weeks along with Dox administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727722/an-attenuated-shigella-mutant-lacking-the-rna-binding-protein-hfq-provides-cross-protection-against-shigella-strains-of-broad-serotype
#11
Jiro Mitobe, Ritam Sinha, Soma Mitra, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Noriko Saito, Ken Shimuta, Nobuo Koizumi, Hemanta Koley
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727715/a-pilot-cross-sectional-study-of-postpartum-wrist-pain-in-an-urban-chinese-population-its-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#12
Regina W S Sit, Wing-Hung Tam, Dicken C C Chan, Benjamin H K Yip, Lucia W Y Tam, Lyan L Y Chow, Vincent C H Chung, Roger Y Chung, Samuel Y S Wong
BACKGROUND: Wrist pain after childbirth is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Little is known about the prevalence of this musculoskeletal disorder which is important to overall maternal health. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for de novo wrist pain in women after childbirth. STUDY DESIGN: A pilot cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A telephone interview was conducted 2 months after childbirth among women who delivered at a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727704/evaluating-the-adjuvant-effect-of-dexamethasone-to-ropivacaine-in-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-and-spermatocelectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Robert Wegner, Duane Akwar, Sarah Guzman-Reyes, Greesha Pednekar, Rabail Chaudhry, Navneet Grewal, Naveen Kukreja, Omar L Mancillas, George W Williams, Omonele Nwokolo
BACKGROUND: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a relatively straightforward regional technique used for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries. Various adjuvants have been used in past to prolong the duration of action of analgesia in peripheral nerve blocks. Several studies investigating the analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone added to local anesthetic agents, such as bupivacaine, have shown promising results. However, there are few studies comparing the efficacy of dexamethasone with ropivacaine...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727701/randomized-placebo-controlled-placebo-trial-to-determine-the-placebo-effect-size
#14
Ludger Gerdesmeyer, Tim Klueter, Volker W Rahlfs, Munjed Al Muderis, Amol Saxena, Hans Gollwitzer, Norbert Harrasser, Martin Stukenberg, Alexander Prehn-Kristensen
BACKGROUND: It is the gold standard to use a placebo treatment as the control group in prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Although placebo-controlled trials can reveal an effect of an active treatment, the pure effect of a placebo treatment alone has never been presented or evaluated. No evidence-based, placebo-therapeutic options are currently available, and no placebo-controlled trials have been performed to elucidate the pure placebo effect. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the pure placebo effect on clinical, chronic pain through a blinded RCT...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727699/efficacy-of-palmitoylethanolamide-for-pain-a-meta-analysis
#15
Bekir Berker Artukoglu, Chad Beyer, Adi Zuloff-Shani, Ephraim Brener, Michael Howard Bloch
BACKGROUND: Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a cannabimimetic compound that has been investigated as an analgesic agent in animal models and clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of PEA for treating pain in randomized, controlled trials. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: This meta-analysis examined all randomized, controlled trials involving the effect of PEA on pain score...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727675/type-1-diabetes-mellitus-caused-by-treatment-with-low-dose-interferon-%C3%AE-in-a-melanoma-patient
#16
Daniel Sossau, Lukas Kofler, Thomas Eigentler
Interferon-α (INF-α) is used as an adjuvant treatment for high-risk cutaneous melanoma. It has a large variety of potentially severe and irreversible side effects and can contribute toward the development of autoimmune disease. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who developed type 1 diabetes following the use of low-dose IFN-α for the adjuvant treatment of stage IIB melanoma. Fifteen months after initiating IFN-α, she presented with blood glucose of 1126 mg/dl, hyponatremia, and microalbuminuria...
July 19, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727480/pilot-study-of-propranolol-premedication-to-reduce-fdg-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-on-pet-scans-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients
#17
Anil George, Partha Sinha, Gary Conrad, Aum A Memon, Emily V Dressler, Lars M Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Physiologic uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue (adipose tissue) of cancer patients may confound interpretation of positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Uptake in adipose tissue occurs in up to half of pediatric oncology patients undergoing PET scans, and is especially common in adolescents. adipose tissue is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and beta blockers such as propranolol have shown efficacy in reducing adipose tissue uptake on PET scans done in older adult oncology patients...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727460/2d-organic-superlattice-promoted-via-combined-action-of-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-and-dipole-dipole-interaction-in-discotic-liquid-crystals
#18
Wanying Zhang, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Zhenhu Zhang, Huanzhi Yang, Ao Zhang, Xingtian Hao, Jianchuang Wang, Chunxiu Zhang, Jialing Pu
A series of discotic liquid crystals based on hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5) have been investigated where one out of the six ether side chains of a triphenylene core was replaced by an ester side chain and named for 5a-5h. During the process of studying these compounds, the characteristic straight line defect of ordered columnar structure was identified by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and liquid crystal state over a wide temperature range was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic phase structure and molecular arrangement were assigned by one-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (1D WAXD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727373/new-concept-for-treating-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-with-radiofrequency
#19
Patrícia Lordelo, Andrea Vilas Boas, Danielle Sodré, Amanda Lemos, Sibele Tozetto, Cristina Brasil
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical response and adverse effects of radiofrequency on the urethral meatus in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase one study included ten women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). The evaluation consisted of 1 hour Pad tests to quantify urine loss and to assess the degree of procedure satisfaction by using the Likert scale. To evaluate safety, we observed the number of referred side effects...
June 14, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727332/-inhibitors-of-pcsk9
#20
Iveta Petrova-Slater, Andrea Denegri, Elena Pasotti, Maria Grazia Rossi, David Spirk, Walter F Riesen, Tiziano Moccetti, Marco Moccetti
Observational data show a consistent association between elevated low density lipoproteins (LDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reduction of LDL-C reduces the risk of CVD as has been shown by many trials. Statins are currently the most effective drugs for lowering LDL-C, but can present side effects which might limit the prescribed dosage and prevent patients from reaching the recommended LDL levels. Although treated with statins important residual cardiovascular event risk remains in patients in primary and secondary prevention for CVD...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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