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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213929/exploration-of-the-brn4-regulated-genes-enhancing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-rna-sequencing
#1
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213864/electrical-stimulation-of-denervated-rat-skeletal-muscle-ameliorates-bone-fragility-and-muscle-loss-in-early-stage-disuse-musculoskeletal-atrophy
#2
Hiroyuki Tamaki, Kengo Yotani, Futoshi Ogita, Keishi Hayao, Kouki Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Hikari Kirimoto, Hideaki Onishi, Norikatsu Kasuga, Noriaki Yamamoto
We tested whether daily muscle electrical stimulation (ES) can ameliorate the decrease in cortical bone strength as well as muscle and bone geometric and material properties in the early stages of disuse musculoskeletal atrophy. 7-week-old male F344 rats were randomly divided into three groups: age-matched control group (Cont); a sciatic denervation group (DN); and a DN + direct electrical stimulation group (DN + ES). Denervated tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in the DN + ES group received ES with 16 mA at 10 Hz for 30 min/day, 6 days/week...
February 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#3
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212603/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-local-activity-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-acute-myocardial-infracted-dogs
#4
Qiaoli Feng, Chengzhi Lu, Li Wang, Lijun Song, Chao Li, Ravi Chandra Uppada
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the therapeutic effects of renal denervation (RDN) on acute myocardial infarction (MI) in canines and explore its possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Eighteen healthy mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either the control group, the MI group or the MI + RDN group. To assess cardiac function, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and fraction shortening (FS) were recorded...
February 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212299/exogenous-and-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-protects-gastric-mucosa-against-the-formation-and-time-dependent-development-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lesions-progressing-into-deeper-ulcerations
#5
Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Robert Pajdo, Grzegorz Ginter, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is an endogenous mediator, synthesized from l-cysteine by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). The mechanism(s) involved in H₂S-gastroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) lesions and their time-dependent progression into deeper gastric ulcerations have been little studied. We determined the effect of l-cysteine, H₂S-releasing NaHS or slow H₂S releasing compound GYY4137 on gastric blood flow (GBF) and gastric lesions induced by 30 min of I followed by 3, 6, 24 and 48 h of R...
February 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210561/thermal-injury-in-tapia-breast-reconstruction-thermal-injury-to-thoracodorsal-artery-perforator-flap
#6
Mikkel Børsen-Koch, Gudjon L Gunnarsson, Jens Ahm Sørensen, Jørn Bo Thomsen
This paper presents two case reports on thermal injury to a breast reconstructed by the TAPIA method. In both cases the injuries were caused by excessive sun exposure. Thermal injury to flaps used in breast reconstruction has previously been described but most commonly in abdominal flaps, which may be due to the relative high frequency of this type of reconstructions. Reports of thermal injury to reconstructions using the Latissimus Dorsi flap are rare. The injuries previously described are most often caused by severe heat exposure...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207618/magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-surgical-invasiveness-on-paravertebral-muscles-after-muscle-preserving-interlaminar-decompression-mild
#7
Hitoshi Tonomura, Yoichiro Hatta, Yasuo Mikami, Takumi Ikeda, Tomohisa Harada, Masateru Nagae, Hironori Koike, Hitoshi Hase, Toshikazu Kubo
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the extent of damage to the paravertebral muscles after muscle-preserving interlaminar decompression (MILD) using magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate changes in the multifidus muscle (MF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Short-term surgical outcomes of MILD for lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) are satisfactory; however, the extent of damage to the paravertebral muscles after MILD remains unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202630/targets-and-end-points-in-cardiac-autonomic-denervation-procedures
#8
Esteban W Rivarola, Denise Hachul, Tan Wu, Cristiano Pisani, Carina Hardy, Fabrizio Raimundi, Sissy Melo, Francisco Darrieux, Mauricio Scanavacca
BACKGROUND: Autonomic denervation is an alternative approach for patients with symptomatic bradycardia. No consensus exists on the critical targets and end points of the procedure. The aim of this study was to identify immediate end points and critical atrial regions responsible for vagal denervation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 14 patients (50% men; age: 34.0±13.8 years) with cardioinhibitory syncope, advanced atrioventricular block or sinus arrest, and no structural heart disease...
February 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197624/-nerve-distribution-and-density-in-the-canine-hip-joint-capsule-comparison-of-healthy-and-dysplastic-hip-joints
#9
Felix Giebels, Andreas Prescher, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Arno Bücker, Sylvia Kinzel
OBJECTIVE: The hip-joint capsule is exposed to increased tension forces during canine hip dysplasia, resulting in inflammation of the capsular tissue. It has been postulated that inflammation is associated with an increased nerve-distribution density. Therefore, it could be supposed that the nerve-distribution density in the hip-joint capsule is higher in dogs with dysplastic hip compared to healthy dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 16 Labrador Retriever dogs that had been euthanised due to unrelated reasons, the hip joints were classified as normoplastic (group 1, n = 18) or dysplastic (group 2, n = 14) based on radiography...
February 15, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197197/fine-motor-skill-training-enhances-functional-plasticity-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jian Liu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Wei-Wei Xia, Jian Dong, Mao-Guang Yang, Jian-Hang Jiao
Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196441/radial-shortening-osteotomy-for-treatment-of-lichtman-stage-iiia-kienb%C3%A3-ck-disease
#11
M Luegmair, F Goehtz, K Kalb, J Cip, J van Schoonhoven
: We carried out a retrospective study to analyse the long-term outcome of 36 patients after radial shortening osteotomy for treatment of Lichtman Stage IIIA Kienböck disease at a mean follow-up of 12.1 years (range 5.4-17.5). At review, seven wrists had progressed to Stage IIIB, eight wrists to Stage IV and 21 remained in Stage IIIA. Motion and grip strength were significantly improved. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score at review was 12 points (range 0-52), and patient satisfaction was high...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196204/selective-extraocular-muscle-atrophy-secondary-to-chronic-oculomotor-denervation
#12
Andrei-Alexandru Szigiato, Donald H Lee, J Alexander Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196035/perivascular-stem-cells-diminish-muscle-atrophy-following-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-in-a-small-animal-model
#13
Claire D Eliasberg, Ayelet Dar, Andrew R Jensen, Iain R Murray, Winters R Hardy, Tomasz J Kowalski, Cameron A Garagozlo, Kyle M Natsuhara, Adam Z Khan, Owen J McBride, Peter I Cha, Benjamin V Kelley, Denis Evseenko, Brian T Feeley, David R McAllister, Bruno Péault, Frank A Petrigliano
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and often necessitate operative repair. Muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration can develop after rotator cuff tears, which may compromise surgical outcomes. This study investigated the regenerative potential of 2 human adipose-derived progenitor cell lineages in a murine model of massive rotator cuff tears. METHODS: Ninety immunodeficient mice were used (15 groups of 6 mice). Mice were assigned to 1 of 3 surgical procedures: sham, supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon transection (TT), or TT and denervation via suprascapular nerve transection (TT + DN)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190561/correlation-between-the-high-frequency-content-of-the-qrs-on-murine-surface-electrocardiogram-and-the-sympathetic-nerves-density-in-left-ventricle-after-myocardial-infarction-experimental-study
#14
Golriz Sedaghat, Ryan T Gardner, Muammar M Kabir, Elyar Ghafoori, Beth A Habecker, Larisa G Tereshchenko
Denervated post-infarct scar is arrhythmogenic. Our aim was to compare QRS frequency content in denervated and innervated left ventricular (LV) scar. In-vivo single lead ECG telemetry device was implanted in 17 heterozygous PTPσ (HET) and 7 lacking PTPσ (KO) transgenic mice. Myocardial infarction (MI) with reperfusion and sham surgery was performed. HET mice developed a denervated scar, whereas KO mice developed innervated scar. The power spectral density was used to assess the QRS frequency content. Denervated as compared to innervated post-MI scar was characterized by the higher relative contribution of 300-500Hz (14±1 vs...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188385/pure-autonomic-failure-without-synucleinopathy
#15
Risa Isonaka, Courtney Holmes, Glen A Cook, Patti Sullivan, Yehonatan Sharabi, David S Goldstein
Pure autonomic failure is a rare form of chronic autonomic failure manifesting with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and evidence of sympathetic noradrenergic denervation unaccompanied by signs of central neurodegeneration. It has been proposed that pure autonomic failure is a Lewy body disease characterized by intra-neuronal deposition of the protein alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites. A middle-aged man with previously diagnosed pure autonomic failure experienced a sudden, fatal cardiac arrest. He was autopsied, and tissues were harvested for neurochemical and immunofluorescence studies...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187460/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-remodeling
#16
Qian Liu, Jiyang Song, Dasheng Lu, Jie Geng, Zhixin Jiang, Kai Wang, Bin Zhang, Qijun Shan
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive disorder, which leads to right heart failure and even death. Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system accounts for the development and progression of PAH. The role of renal denervation (RDN) in different periods of PAH has not been fully elucidated. A single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) was used to induce pulmonary remodeling in male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40). After 24-hour of MCT administration, a subset of rats underwent RDN (RDN24h, n = 10); after 2-week of MCT injection, another ten rats received RDN treatment (RDN2w, n = 10) and the left 20 rats were divided to MCT group with sham RDN operation (MCT, n = 20)...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185233/sympathetic-drive-stimulating-diastolic-dysfunction
#17
EDITORIAL
Saad S Ahmad, Myron C Gerson
Diastolic heart failure accounts for half of the heart failure population and its pathophysiology remains an area of active research. The renin angiotensin and aldosterone axis has been the focus of clinical trials to treat patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, however with limited yield in terms of clinical success. Sympathetic activity has been considered a plausible cause for the molecular changes that lead to diastolic dysfunction. Based on this understanding the study by Gimelli et al uses MIBG to evaluate for association between diastolic dysfunction and sympathetic denervation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181735/the-innervation-of-the-kidney-in-renal-injury-and-inflammation-a-cause-and-consequence-of-deranged-cardiovascular-control
#18
REVIEW
Mohammed H Abdulla, Edward J Johns
Extensive investigations have revealed that renal sympathetic nerves regulate renin secretion, tubular fluid reabsorption and renal haemodynamics which can impact on cardiovascular homoeostasis normally and in pathophysiological states. The significance of the renal afferent innervation and its role in determining the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is uncertain. The transduction pathways at the renal afferent nerves have been shown to require pro-inflammatory mediators and TRPV1 channels. Reno-renal reflexes have been described, both inhibitory and excitatory, demonstrating that a neural link exists between kidneys and may determine the distribution of excretory and haemodynamic function between the two kidneys...
February 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181355/measures-of-and-changes-in-heart-rate-variability-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#19
T Williams, X Tang, G Gilmore, J Gossett, K R Knecht
Heart rate variability is primarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Heart transplant recipients undergo surgical denervation of the graft, which results in interruption of autonomic innervation with resultant diminished heart rate variability although some degree of autonomic control may return. This study aimed to characterize heart rate variability in this population. We report a retrospective review of Holter monitor data from transplanted patients between 2005 and 2013. Studies with significant atrial or ventricular arrhythmias were excluded...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177127/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kyle R Bohnert, Joseph D McMillan, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and can adapt its mass as a consequence of physical activity, metabolism, growth factors, and disease conditions. Skeletal muscle contains an extensive network of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays an important role in the regulation of proteostasis and calcium homeostasis. In many cell types, environmental and genetic factors that disrupt ER function cause an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that ultimately leads to ER stress...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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