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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527920/emerging-bronchoscopic-treatments-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Wouter H van Geffen, Huib A M Kerstjens, Dirk-Jan Slebos
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) and long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). More recently bronchoscopic treatments are emerging for COPD. Among them endobronchial valves(EBV) and endobronchial coils (EBC), next to endobronchial stents, sclerosing agents, targeted lung denervation and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526609/effects-of-l-dopa-benserazide-co-treatment-on-colonic-excitatory-cholinergic-motility-and-enteric-inflammation-following-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-neurodegeneration
#2
C Pellegrini, L Antonioli, R Colucci, E Tirotta, D Gentile, C Ippolito, C Segnani, G Levandis, S Cerri, R F Blandini, E Barocelli, V Ballabeni, N Bernardini, C Blandizzi, M Fornai
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on L-3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) plus a DOPA-decarboxylase inhibitor. However, their effects on colonic dysmotility and inflammation observed in PD are undetermined. This study examined the effects of L-DOPA plus benserazide (BE) on colonic motility and inflammation in rats with central nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. METHODS: Neurodegeneration was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the median forebrain bundle (MFB)...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522760/on-the-existence-of-a-central-respiratory-oxygen-sensor
#3
Alexander V Gourine, Gregory D Funk
A commonly held view that dominates both the scientific and educational literature is that in terrestrial mammals the central nervous system lacks a physiological hypoxia sensor capable of triggering increases in lung ventilation in response to decreases in PO2 of the brain parenchyma. Indeed, a normocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response has never been observed in humans following bilateral resection of the carotid bodies. In contrast, almost complete or partial recovery of the hypoxic ventilatory response after denervation/removal of the peripheral respiratory oxygen chemoreceptors has been demonstrated in many experimental animals when assessed in an awake state...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520806/als-skeletal-muscle-shows-enhanced-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-fibrosis-and-induction-of-fibro-adipogenic-progenitor-markers
#4
David Gonzalez, Osvaldo Contreras, Daniela L Rebolledo, Juan Pablo Espinoza, Brigitte van Zundert, Enrique Brandan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which upper and lower motoneurons degenerate leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. Several studies indicate that skeletal muscle contributes to disease progression; however the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Fibrosis is a common feature in skeletal muscle under chronic damage conditions such as those caused by muscular dystrophies or denervation. However, the exact mechanisms of fibrosis induction and the cellular bases of this pathological response are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#5
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515119/pulse-wave-velocity-predicts-response-to-renal-denervation-in-isolated-systolic-hypertension
#6
Karl Fengler, Karl-Philipp Rommel, Robert Hoellriegel, Stephan Blazek, Christian Besler, Steffen Desch, Gerhard Schuler, Axel Linke, Philipp Lurz
BACKGROUND: Renal sympathetic denervation seems to be less effective as a treatment for hypertension in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, a condition associated with elevated central arterial stiffness. Because isolated systolic hypertension can also be caused by wave reflection or increased cardiac output, a more differentiated approach might improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation. We sought to evaluate the additional predictive value of invasive pulse wave velocity for response to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with combined versus isolated systolic hypertension...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510647/epicardial-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-in-a-4-month-old-infant-bridged-to-heart-transplantation
#7
Cristina Carro, Alberto Francesco Cereda, Giuseppe Annoni, Stefano Maria Marianeschi
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Nevertheless, ICD placement in the paediatric population is still limited because of several technical difficulties. Several implantation techniques have been proposed but experience in infants with very low weight and less than 6 months is very limited. We herein describe a case of a minimally invasive ICD epicardial implantation in a 4-month-old infant weighing 5 kg. A diagnosis of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction disease with ventricular tachycardia storms, QT prolongation and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern was made...
May 16, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507735/does-dysfunction-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-affect-success-of-renal-denervation-in-reducing-blood-pressure
#8
Lisa Fricke, David Petroff, Steffen Desch, Philipp Lurz, Sebastian Reinhardt, Melanie Sonnabend, Joseph Classen, Petra Baum
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation is an interventional approach aiming to reduce high blood pressure. Its efficacy is subject of controversial debate. We analyzed autonomic function in patients undergoing renal denervation to identify responders. METHODS: A total of 21 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension scheduled for renal denervation were included. Heart rate variability, pupillary function and sympathetic skin response were examined prior to intervention...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#9
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#10
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505064/changes-in-renal-artery-dimensions-are-associated-with-clinical-response-to-radiofrequency-renal-denervation-a-series-of-studies-using-quantitative-angiography-and-intravascular-ultrasound
#11
Thomas Weber, Jörg Kellermair, Karen T Witberg, Jurgen Ligthart, Robert J Melder, Thomas Forstner, Bernd Eber
OBJECTIVE: Renal denervation (RDN) can cause focal (notches) and global (spasms) changes in renal artery dimensions. We quantified these changes and related them to renal norepinephrin tissue content in animals and to blood pressure (BP) changes in patients. METHODS: We measured renal artery dimensions pre-RDN and post-RDN, utilizing quantitative renal angiography (QRA) in a porcine model and in a retrospective patient cohort, and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in a prospective patient cohort...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505045/resistant-hypertension-in-2017
#12
Sartaj Hans, John P Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is a ubiquitous condition and cause for significant morbidity and mortality. Over 400 000 deaths in the United States are related to HTN every year, more than all the Americans who died through all of World War II. As many as half the patients with HTN in the United States have resistant HTN, a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg despite three medications including a diuretic. It appears that the prevalence of HTN and resistant HTN is increasing over time...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501794/cochrane-corner-renal-denervation-for-resistant-hypertension-a-broken-promise
#13
EDITORIAL
Davide Bolignano, Giuseppe Coppolino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499718/family-amyloid-polyneuropathy-sympathetic-denervation-and-liver-transplantation
#14
Maria João Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499486/intra-osseous-local-anaesthetic-patellar-pain-catheter-suppresses-osteoarthritic-patello-femoral-pain
#15
Dominik C Meyer, José A Aguirre, Karl Wieser, Sandro F Fucentese, Stephan Wirth, Christian Gerber, Stefan Rahm
BACKGROUND: The source of pain in patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the origin of pain using intraosseous pain catheters and to show early results with an osteotomy that is potentially denervating and hydrostatic pressure-relieving. METHODS: Five patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis and pain with straight downward patellofemoral compression were included. All underwent arthroscopic placement of two 0...
May 9, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498963/hypertension-in-kidney-transplantation-is-associated-with-an-early-renal-nerve-sprouting
#16
Alessandro Mauriello, Valentina Rovella, Filippo Borri, Lucia Anemona, Elena Giannini, Erica Giacobbi, Andrea Saggini, Giampiero Palmieri, Alessandro Anselmo, Pierluigi Bove, Gerry Melino, Guardini Valentina, Manfredi Tesauro, D'Urso Gabriele, Nicola Di Daniele
Background.: Normalization of arterial pressure occurs in just a few patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease undergoing kidney transplantation. Hypertension in kidney transplant recipients may be related to multiple factors. We aimed to assess whether hypertension in kidney-transplanted patients may be linked to reinnervation of renal arteries of the transplanted kidney. Methods.: We investigated renal arteries innervation from native and transplanted kidneys in three patients 5 months, 2 years and 11 years after transplantation, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497431/effect-of-catheter-based-renal-denervation-on-left-ventricular-function-mass-and-un-twist-with-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#17
Lida Feyz, Bas M van Dalen, Marcel L Geleijnse, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Ron T van Domburg, Joost Daemen
BACKGROUND: Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is an echocardiography modality that is able to measure left ventricular (LV) characteristics, including rotation, strain and strain rate. Strain measures myocardial fibre contraction and relaxation. This study aims to assess the effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) on functional myocardial parameters, including STE, and to identify potential differences between responders and non-responders. METHODS: The study population consisted of 31 consecutive patients undergoing RDN in the context of treatment for resistant hypertension...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497057/electrical-stimulation-of-denervated-rat-skeletal-muscle-retards-capillary-and-muscle-loss-in-early-stages-of-disuse-atrophy
#18
Kouki Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Keishi Hayao, Kengo Yotani, Futoshi Ogita, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Onishi
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation (ES) on the decrease in muscle mass, fiber size, capillary supply, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) immunoreactivity in the early stages of denervation-induced limb disuse. Direct ES was performed on the tibialis anterior muscle following denervation in seven-week-old male rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: control (CON), denervation (DN), and denervation with direct ES (DN + ES)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495840/nonlinearities-of-heart-rate-variability-in-animal-models-of-impaired-cardiac-control-contribution-of-different-time-scales
#19
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Renata Maria Lataro, Jaci Airton Castania, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan, Alberto Porta
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been extensively explored by traditional linear approaches (e.g. spectral analysis). However, several studies have pointed to the presence of nonlinear features in HRV, suggesting that linear tools might fail to account for the complexity of the HRV dynamics. Even though the prevalent notion is that HRV is nonlinear, the actual presence of nonlinear features is rarely verified. In this study, the presence of nonlinear dynamics was checked as a function of time scales in three experimental models of rats with different impairment of the cardiac control, namely rats with heart failure (HF), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495182/threats-to-internal-validity-in-renal-sympathetic-denervation-trials
#20
Eduardo Infante de Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
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