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Denervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922171/pancreatic-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-potential-marker-of-parasympathetic-denervation
#1
Karoline Knudsen, Bolette Hartmann, Tatyana D Fedorova, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Niels Møller, Jens J Holst, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Early secretion after sham feeding has been validated as a marker of vagal integrity. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the ratio of increased PP plasma levels after sham feeding in PD and correlate findings with gastrointestinal transit time (GITT)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#2
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920069/assessment-of-thermal-pain-sensation-in-rats-and-mice-using-the-hargreaves-test
#3
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
The Hargreaves test is specifically designed to assess thermal pain sensation in rodents such as rats and mice. This test has been used in experiments involving pain sensitization or recovery of thermal pain response following neural injury and regeneration. We present here a step-by-step protocol highlighted with important notes to guide first-time users through the learning process. Additionally, we have also included representative data from a rat model of sensory denervation showing how the data can be analysed to obtain meaningful results...
August 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919807/effect-of-nerve-injury-on-the-number-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-and-autotomy-behavior-in-adult-bax-deficient-mice
#4
Chuang Lyu, Gong-Wei Lyu, Aurora Martinez, Tie-Jun Sten Shi
BACKGROUND: The proapoptotic molecule BAX, plays an important role in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons depend on neurotrophic factors for survival at early developmental stages. Withdrawal of neurotrophic factors will induce apoptosis in DRG neurons, but this type of cell death can be delayed or prevented in neonatal Bax knockout (KO) mice. In adult animals, evidence also shows that DRG neurons are less dependent upon neurotrophic factors for survival...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919800/renal-sympathetic-denervation-increases-renal-blood-volume-per-cardiac-cycle-a-serial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-resistant-hypertension
#5
Sinny Delacroix, Ramesh G Chokka, Adam J Nelson, Dennis T Wong, Samuel Sidharta, Stephen M Pederson, Adil Rajwani, Joanne Nimmo, Karen S Teo, Stephen G Worthley
AIM: Preclinical studies have demonstrated improvements in renal blood flow after renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN); however, such effects are yet to be confirmed in patients with resistant hypertension. Herein, we assessed the effects of RSDN on renal artery blood flow and diameter at multiple time points post-RSDN. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=11) with systolic blood pressures ≥160 mmHg despite taking three or more antihypertensive medications at maximum tolerated dose were recruited into this single-center, prospective, non-blinded study...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917558/cardiac-sympathectomy-for-the-management-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-refractory-to-catheter-ablation
#6
Travis Richardson, Ricardo Lugo, Pablo Saavedra, George Crossley, Walter Clair, Sharon Shen, Juan Carlos Estrada, Jay Montgomery, M Benjamin Shoemaker, Christopher Ellis, Gregory F Michaud, Eric Lambright, Arvindh Kanagasundram
BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation is now a mainstay of therapy for ventricular arrhythmias (VA). However, there are scenarios where either physiologic or anatomical factors make ablation less likely to be successful. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) may be an alternate therapy for patients with difficult to ablate VA. METHODS: We identified all patients referred for CSD at a single center for indications other than LQTS and CPVT who had failed catheter ablation...
September 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905871/hypertension-proof-of-concept-for-renal-denervation
#7
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#8
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904095/distinct-roles-for-motor-neuron-autophagy-early-and-late-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#9
Noam D Rudnick, Christopher J Griffey, Paolo Guarnieri, Valeria Gerbino, Xueyong Wang, Jason A Piersaint, Juan Carlos Tapia, Mark M Rich, Tom Maniatis
Mutations in autophagy genes can cause familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of autophagy in ALS pathogenesis is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of cell type-specific manipulations of this pathway in animal models. Using a mouse model of ALS expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)), we show that motor neurons form large autophagosomes containing ubiquitinated aggregates early in disease progression. To investigate whether this response is protective or detrimental, we generated mice in which the critical autophagy gene Atg7 was specifically disrupted in motor neurons (Atg7 cKO)...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903327/pericardial-effusion-is-correlated-with-clinical-outcome-after-pulmonary-artery-denervation-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Shao-Liang Chen, Hang Zhang, Du-Jiang Xie, Juan Zhang, Ling Zhou, Meng-Xuan Chen, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: Pericardial effusion (PE) is correlated with outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) was used for treatment of PAH. The present study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of PE for outcomes after PADN in patients with WHO Group I, Group II and Group IV PAH. RESULTS: PE, frequently seen in patients with connective tissue disease, was featured by fast heart rate, decreased exercise capacity, more syncope, worsening pulmonary arterial hemodynamic and right atrium size...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902469/time-dependent-changes-in-the-structure-of-calcified-fibrocartilage-in-the-rat-achilles-tendon-bone-interface-with-sciatic-denervation
#11
Hideaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Mineo Oyama, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Onishi
The enthesis transmits a physiological load from soft to hard tissue via fibrocartilage. The histological alterations induced by this physiological loading remain unclear. This study was performed to examine the histomorphological alterations in the collagen fiber bundle alignment and depth of collagen interdigitation between the calcified fibrocartilage and the bone. We examined the Achilles enthesis of rats with sciatic denervation to explore the mechanical effects of structural changes in the enthesis. The parallelism of the collagen fiber bundles was significantly reduced 8 weeks after denervation...
September 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898491/skin-denervation-does-not-alter-cortical-potentials-to-surface-concentric-electrode-stimulation-a-comparison-with-laser-evoked-potentials-and-contact-heat-evoked-potentials
#12
S La Cesa, G Di Stefano, C Leone, A Pepe, E Galosi, F Alu, A Fasolino, G Cruccu, M Valeriani, A Truini
BACKGROUND: In the neurophysiological assessment of patients with neuropathic pain, laser evoked potentials (LEPs), contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and the evoked potentials by the intraepidermal electrical stimulation via concentric needle electrode are widely agreed as nociceptive specific responses; conversely, the nociceptive specificity of evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs) is still debated. METHODS: In this neurophysiological study we aimed at verifying the nociceptive specificity of SE-PREPs...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894304/quantification-of-brain-cholinergic-denervation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pet-imaging-with-18-f-feobv
#13
M Aghourian, C Legault-Denis, J-P Soucy, P Rosa-Neto, S Gauthier, A Kostikov, P Gravel, M-A Bédard
(18)F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV) is a new PET radiotracer that binds to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. In both animals and healthy humans, FEOBV was found sensitive and reliable to characterize presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the brain. It has been used here for we believe the first time in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to quantify brain cholinergic losses. The sample included 12 participants evenly divided in healthy subjects and patients with AD, all assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cognitive scales...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890798/american-football-and-other-sports-injuries-may-cause-migraine-persistent-pain-decades-later-and-can-be-treated-successfully-with-electrical-twitch-obtaining-intramuscular-stimulation-etoims
#14
J Chu, S McNally, F Bruyninckx, D Neuhauser
INTRODUCTION: Autonomous twitch elicitation at myofascial trigger points from spondylotic radiculopathies-induced denervation supersensitivity can provide favourable pain relief using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS). AIM: To provide objective evidence that ETOIMS is safe and efficacious in migraine and persistent pain management due to decades-old injuries to head and spine from paediatric American football. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An 83-year-old mildly hypertensive patient with 25-year history of refractory migraine and persistent pain self-selected to regularly receive fee-for-service ETOIMS 2/week over 20 months...
April 2017: BMJ Innovations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890682/impaired-mitophagy-plays-a-role-in-denervation-of-neuromuscular-junctions-in-als-mice
#15
Robert S Rogers, Sudheer Tungtur, Tomohiro Tanaka, Lisa L Nadeau, Yomna Badawi, Hua Wang, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding, Hiroshi Nishimune
Motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and animal models show degeneration from the nerve terminal, known as dying-back neuropathy. To investigate the mechanism underlying this neuropathy, we analyzed the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and motor neuron cell bodies in SOD1(G93A) mice using electron microscopy. NMJs of SOD1(G93A) mice exhibited significantly higher numbers of autophagosomes and degenerated mitochondria compared to wild-type controls. Mitophagosomes were identified in the NMJ presynaptic terminals of wild-type mice and SOD1(G93A) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887775/imaging-cardiac-innervation-in-amyloidosis
#16
Riemer H J A Slart, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Bouke P C Hazenberg, Walter Noordzij
Cardiac amyloidosis is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy resulting in heart failure and potential risk on arrhythmia, due to amyloid infiltration of the nerve conduction system and the myocardial tissue. The prognosis in this progressive disease is poor, probably due the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Early detection of cardiac sympathetic innervation disturbances has become of major clinical interest, because its occurrence and severity limits the choice of treatment. The use of iodine-123 labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([I-123]MIBG), a chemical modified analogue of norepinephrine, is well established in patients with heart failure and plays an important role in evaluation of sympathetic innervation in cardiac amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885911/renal-denervation-what-happened-and-why
#17
REVIEW
Mehdi H Shishehbor, Tarek A Hammad, George Thomas
Despite promising results in initial trials, renal denervation failed to achieve its efficacy end points as a treatment for resistant hypertension in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, the largest trial of this treatment to date (N Engl J Med 2014; 370:1393-1401). Is renal denervation dead, or will future trials and newer technology revive it?
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885900/renal-denervation-are-we-on-the-right-path
#18
EDITORIAL
Ali E Denktas, David Paniagua, Hani Jneid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884835/non-invasive-electromyographic-estimation-of-motor-unit-number-in-the-external-anal-sphincter-of-the-rat
#19
Chuan Zhang, Alvaro Munoz, H Henry Lai, Timothy Boone, Yingchun Zhang
AIMS: The external anal sphincter (EAS) is essential for maintaining fecal continence. Neurological disorders or traumatic injuries to muscle and nervous systems could lead to EAS denervation. Currently, there are no techniques available to document global innervation changes in the EAS in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop a novel approach to non-invasively estimate the number of functioning motor units (MUs) in the EAS and validate with immunofluorescent techniques in rats. METHODS: Intra-rectal surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the EAS, induced by a series of intra-vaginally delivered pudendal nerve stimulations with different intensities, were recorded...
September 8, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882490/patient-rated-long-term-results-after-complete-denervation-of-the-wrist
#20
T Fuchsberger, C E Boesch, F Tonagel, T Fischborn, H E Schaller, P Gonser
The aim of this study was to examine the long-term results after the denervation of the wrist. Between 1977 and 2001, we treated 375 patients in our clinic. The mean age was 43.5 years; 81% were male and 19% female. The long-term results were assessed by a questionnaire assessing pain on a visual analog scale and patient satisfaction and by the DASH questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 12.23 years, we found an overall pain reduction of 52.1%. In 67.7% of the patients, we found a relief of pain: of these, 44% are free of pain until today and 56% were temporarily asymptomatic...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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