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Deaf AND child OR children AND language OR grammar

Susan Goldin-Meadow, Charles Yang
Can a child who is not exposed to a model for language nevertheless construct a communication system characterized by combinatorial structure? We know that deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from acquiring spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In this study, we call upon a new formal analysis that characterizes the statistical profile of grammatical rules and, when applied to child language data, finds that young children's language is consistent with a productive grammar rather than rote memorization of specific word combinations in caregiver speech...
October 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Susan Nittrouer, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Emily Sansom, Jill Twersky, Joanna H Lowenstein
PURPOSE: Cochlear implants (CIs) can facilitate the acquisition of spoken language for deaf children, but challenges remain. Language skills dependent on phonological sensitivity are most at risk for these children, so having an effective way to diagnose problems at this level would be of value for school speech-language pathologists. The goal of this study was to assess whether a nonword repetition (NWR) task could serve that purpose. METHOD: Participants were 104 second graders: 49 with normal hearing (NH) and 55 with CIs...
November 2014: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Aaron Shield
Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication...
November 2014: Seminars in Speech and Language
Pasquale Rinaldi, Francesca Baruffaldi, Sandro Burdo, Maria Cristina Caselli
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of deaf children received cochlear implants (CI) in the first years of life, but no study has focused on linguistic and pragmatic skills in children with CI younger than 3 years of age. AIMS: To estimate the percentage of children who had received a CI before 2 years of age whose linguistic skills were within the normal range; to compare linguistic skills of children implanted by 12 months of age with children implanted between 13 and 26 months of age; and to describe the relationship among lexical, grammar and pragmatic skills...
November 2013: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Anna Maria Chilosi, Alessandro Comparini, Maria Flora Scusa, Laura Orazini, Francesca Forli, Paola Cipriani, Stefano Berrettini
OBJECTIVE: A growing number of studies on deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) document a significant improvement in receptive and expressive language skills after implantation, even if they show language delay when compared with normal-hearing peers. Data on language acquisition in CI Italian children are still scarce and limited to only certain aspects of language. The purpose of this study is to prospectively describe the trajectories of language development in early CI Italian children, with particular attention to the transition from first words to combinatorial speech and to acquisition of complex grammar in a language with rich morphology, such as Italian...
May 2013: Ear and Hearing
Johanna G Nicholas, Ann E Geers
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cochlear implantation surgery before 12 months of age yields better spoken language results than surgery between 12 and 18 months of age. STUDY DESIGN: Language testing administered to children at 4.5 years of age (± 2 mo). SETTING: Schools, speech-language therapy offices, and cochlear implant (CI) centers in the United States and Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-nine children who received a cochlear implant between ages 6 and 18 months of age...
April 2013: Otology & Neurotology
Birgit May-Mederake
OBJECTIVE: Age is one of the most important determinants of the benefit achieved in the cochlear implantation of pre-lingually deafened children. Earlier age at implantation increases the exposure of children with a hearing impairment to auditory stimuli. Earlier auditory stimulation enables children to better understand spoken language and to use spoken language themselves. Furthermore, there appears to be critical period under 2 years of age during which access to spoken language is essential in order for language development to proceed appropriately...
July 2012: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
G Mantokoudis, M Vischer, P Dubach, M Kompis, E Seifert Eberhard, P Senn
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess speech perception and communication skills in adolescents between ages 8 and 18 that received cochlear implants for pre- and peri-lingual deafness. METHODS: We studied 15 adolescents, aged 12 to 23 years, with late cochlear implantation. Speech perception was assessed with the Bishop sentences test and a memory number sequence test at 3-9 years after cochlear implantation. A questionnaire completed retrospectively was used to investigate communication skills pre- and post implantation...
2011: B-ENT
Maria Cristina Caselli, Pasquale Rinaldi, Cristiana Varuzza, Anna Giuliani, Sandro Burdo
PURPOSE: The authors studied the effect of the cochlear implant (CI) on language comprehension and production in deaf children who had received a CI in the 2nd year of life. METHOD: The authors evaluated lexical and morphosyntactic skills in comprehension and production in 17 Italian children who are deaf (M = 54 months of age) with a CI and in 2 control groups of children with normal hearing (NH; 1 matched for chronological age and the other whose chronological age corresponded to the duration of CI activation)...
April 2012: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Liliana Colletti, Marco Mandalà, Leonardo Zoccante, Robert V Shannon, Vittorio Colletti
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of cochlear implants (CIs) in infants versus children operated at later age in term of spoken language skills and cognitive performances. METHOD: The present prospective cohort study focuses on 19 children fitted with CIs between 2 and 11 months (X=6.4 months; SD=2.8 months). The results were compared with two groups of children implanted at 12-23 and 24-35 months. Auditory abilities were evaluated up to 10 years of CI use with: Category of Auditory Performance (CAP); Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R); Test of Reception of Grammar (TROG) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR)...
April 2011: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Lindsey Edwards, Berta Figueras, Jane Mellanby, Dawn Langdon
The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of verbal and spatial analogical reasoning. Their vocabulary and grammar skills were also assessed to provide a measure of language attainment. Results indicated significant differences between the deaf and hard of hearing children (regardless of type of hearing device) and their hearing peers on vocabulary, grammar, and verbal reasoning tests...
2011: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Kathryn Mason, Katherine Rowley, Chloe R Marshall, Joanna R Atkinson, Rosalind Herman, Bencie Woll, Gary Morgan
This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5-14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressive grammar and narrative skills, alongside tests of non-verbal intelligence and fine motor control...
March 2010: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Liliana Colletti
CONCLUSION: In this study the outcomes from several indices (Category of Auditory Performance, CAP; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised), PPVT-R; Test of Reception of Grammar, TROG; and Speech Intellegibility Rating, SIR) in three groups of children with different ages at implantation (from 4 to 36 months) with a follow-up time from 4 to 9 years demonstrate that very early cochlear implantation (<11 months) provides normalization of audio-phonologic parameters with no complications...
April 2009: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Santiago Torres
This paper describes early language development in a deaf Spanish child fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 1;6 years old. The girl had been exposed to Cued Speech (CS) since that age. The main aim of the research was to identify potential areas of slow language development as well as the potential benefit of CI and CS. At the beginning of this research the child was 2;6 years (she had been using the CI for 12 months). Adult-child 30-minute sessions were videotaped every week for 1 year (13-24 months of CI use), and transcribed according to CHAT norms...
July 2008: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Pasquale Rinaldi, Cristina Caselli
We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and with another 20 hearing children for duration of experience. Deaf children showed a significant delay in both vocabulary and grammar when compared to same-age hearing children yet a similar development compared to hearing children matched for duration of formal language experience...
2009: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Gary Morgan, Rosalind Herman, Bencie Woll
BACKGROUND: Specific language impairment has previously solely been documented for children acquiring spoken languages, despite informal reports of deaf children with possible sign language disorder. The paper reports the case of a deaf child exposed to British Sign Language (BSL) from birth, who has significant developmental deficits in the comprehension and production of BSL grammar based on formal assessment and linguistic analyses of his sign communication in comparison with age-matched unimpaired signers...
January 2007: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Susan Rich Sheridan
A model of human language requires a theory of meaningful marks. Humans are the only species who use marks to think. A theory of marks identifies children's scribbles as significant behavior, while hypothesizing the importance of rotational systems to hominid brain evolution. By recognizing the importance of children's scribbles and drawings in developmental terms as well as in evolutionary terms, a marks-based rather than a predominantly speech-based theory of the human brain, language, and consciousness emerges...
2005: Medical Hypotheses
Thomas P Nikolopoulos, Dee Dyar, Sue Archbold, Gerard M O'Donoghue
OBJECTIVES: To assess the development of grammar comprehension in spoken language in prelingually deaf children following cochlear implantation and compare their grammatical abilities with those of their hearing peers. DESIGN: A prospective study of 82 consecutive prelingually deaf children up to 5 years following implantation. The children were less than 7 years old at the time of implantation (mean age +/- SD, 4.2 +/- 1.3 years). All received the same multichannel cochlear implant system...
May 2004: Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Diana M Glover
Diana Glover lives in Buckinghamshire, UK with her husband, Ray, and their three sons, William (21), Robin (19) and Benjamin (10). Robin and Benjamin are profoundly deaf. Ray also has a hearing loss, which is unconnected with the children's deafness. Diana is a trustee of the National Deaf Children's Society. Diana will compare Robin's experiences with those of Benjamin. She will show how difficult it was to obtain a diagnosis of Robin's deafness, in spite of her early anxieties about his hearing, and that this had a marked impact on Robin's speech and language acquisition...
December 2003: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Murielle D'Hondt, Jacqueline Leybaert
A visual hemifield experiment investigated hemispheric specialization among hearing children and adults and prelingually, profoundly deaf youngsters who were exposed intensively to Cued Speech (CS). Of interest was whether deaf CS users, who undergo a development of phonology and grammar of the spoken language similar to that of hearing youngsters, would display similar laterality patterns in the processing of written language. Semantic, rhyme, and visual judgement tasks were used. In the visual task no VF advantage was observed...
November 2003: Brain and Language
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