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Mohammad F Khanfar, Wisam Al-Faqheri, Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli
The diagnostics of health status and the quality of drinking water are among the most important United Nations sustainable development goals. However, in certain areas, wars and instability have left millions of people setting in refugee camps and dangerous regions where infrastructures are lacking and rapid diagnostics of water quality and medical status are critical. In this work, microfluidic testing chips and photometric setups are developed in cheap and portable way to detect nitrate concentrations in water...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
Michał Chudy, Katarzyna Tokarska, Elżbieta Jastrzębska, Magdalena Bułka, Sławomir Drozdek, Łukasz Lamch, Kazimiera A Wilk, Zbigniew Brzózka
In recent years photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its smaller surgical trauma, better selectivity towards tumor cells, reduced side effects and possibility of repeatable treatment. Since cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, scientists constantly seek for new potential therapeutic agents including nanotechnology-based photosensitizers used in PDT. The new-designed nanostructures must be carefully studied and well characterized what require analytically useful and powerful tools that enable real progress in nanoscience development...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kuang Hong Neoh, Ayon Ahmed Hassan, Anqi Chen, Yukun Sun, Peng Liu, Kai-Feng Xu, Alice S T Wong, Ray P S Han
Traditionally, liquid biopsy is a blood test involving the harvesting of tumor materials from peripheral blood. Tumor cells from non-blood body fluids have always been clinically available in cytological examinations but limited for use in differential diagnosis due to the low sensitivity of conventional cytopathology. With the recent significant progress in microfluidic and downstream molecular technologies, liquid biopsies have now evolved to include harvesting tumor cells and DNA fragments in all kinds of non-blood body fluids...
October 3, 2017: Biomaterials
Marian Weiss, Johannes Patrick Frohnmayer, Lucia Theresa Benk, Barbara Haller, Jan-Willi Janiesch, Thomas Heitkamp, Michael Börsch, Rafael B Lira, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Jean-Christophe Baret, Tanja Vidakovic-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P Spatz
Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed 'droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)'. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
Juan Carlos Colmenares, Rajender S Varma, Vaishakh Nair
This tutorial review assesses the available and possible strategies for attaining higher selectivity and yield of value-added chemicals from lignin using nanocatalysts embedded in a photomicroreactor. The design of the photomicroreactor, the choice of photocatalysts and the techniques for assembling the catalysts in such confined spaces are crucial elements. Lignin, a predominant industrial byproduct and pollutant, has been recognized today as a rich reservoir for aromatic chemicals and a prominent resource...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Nuno M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, João F Mano
Biological tissues are recurrently exposed to several dynamic mechanical forces that influence cell behavior. On this work, the focus is on the shear stress forces induced by fluid flow. The study of flow-induced effects on cells leads to important advances in cardiovascular, cancer, stem cell, and bone biology understanding. These studies are performed using cell culture flow (CCF) systems, mainly parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC), and microfluidic systems. Here, it is proposed an original CCF system based on the open fluidics concept...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Kangfu Chen, Teodor Z Georgiev, Weian Sheng, Xiangjun Zheng, Jose I Varillas, Jinling Zhang, Z Hugh Fan
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have shown potential for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Affinity-based CTC isolation methods have been proved to be efficient for CTC detection in clinical blood samples. One of the popular choices for affinity-based CTC isolation is to immobilize capture agents onto an array of microposts in microchannels, providing high CTC capture efficiency due to enhanced interactions between tumor cells and capture agents on the microposts. However, how the cells interact with microposts under different flow conditions and what kind of capture pattern results from the interactions have not been fully investigated; a full understanding of these interactions will help to design devices and choose experimental conditions for higher CTC capture effeciency...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Andrea L Kadilak, Jessica C Rehaag, Cameron A Harrington, Leslie M Shor
Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing techniques have recently begun to enable simpler, faster, and cheaper production of millifluidic devices at resolutions approaching 100-200 μm. At this resolution, cell culture devices can be constructed that more accurately replicate natural environments compared with conventional culturing techniques. A number of microfluidics researchers have begun incorporating additive manufacturing into their work, using 3D-printed devices in a wide array of chemical, fluidic, and even some biological applications...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Ji-Chul Hyun, Jongchan Choi, Yu-Gyung Jung, Sung Yang
In this study, a microfluidic cell concentrator with a reduced-deviation-flow herringbone structure is proposed. The reduced-deviation-flow herringbone structure reduces the magnitude of deviation flow by a factor of 3.3 compared to the original herringbone structure. This structure shows higher recovery efficiency compared to the original herringbone structure for various particle sizes at high flow rate conditions. Using the reduced-deviation-flow herringbone structure, the experimental results show a recovery efficiency of 98...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Yu Chen, Robert H Austin, James C Sturm
Flow cytometry analysis requires a large amount of isolated, labelled, and purified cells for accurate results. To address the demand for a large quantity of cells prepared in a timely manner, we describe a novel microfluidic trap structure array for on-chip cell labelling, such as intracellular and extracellular labelling, and subsequent washing and release of cells. Each device contains [Formula: see text] trap structures, which made the preparation of large numbers of cells [Formula: see text] possible. The structure has a streamlined shape, which minimizes clogging of cells in capture and release steps...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jiyoung Son, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Douglas T Carrell, James M Hotaling
Microfluidic technology has potential to separate sperm cells from unwanted debris while improving the effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Current clinical protocol limitations regarding the separation of sperm cells from other cells/cellular debris can lead to low sperm recovery when the sample contains a low concentration of mostly low motility sperm cells and a high concentration of unwanted cells/cellular debris, such as in semen samples from patients with pyospermia [high white blood cell (WBC) semen]...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Hesam Babahosseini, Jeannine S Strobl, Masoud Agah
This study describes the development of a microfluidic biosensor called the iterative mechanical characteristics (iMECH) analyzer which enables label-free biomechanical profiling of individual cells for distinction between metastatic and non-metastatic human mammary cell lines. Previous results have demonstrated that pulsed mechanical nanoindentation can modulate the biomechanics of cells resulting in distinctly different biomechanical responses in metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines. The iMECH analyzer aims to move this concept into a microfluidic, clinically more relevant platform...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
Lewis A Fraser, Andrew B Kinghorn, Roderick M Dirkzwager, Shaolin Liang, Yee-Wai Cheung, Bryce Lim, Simon Chi-Chin Shiu, Marco S L Tang, Dean Andrew, Joseph Manitta, Jack S Richards, Julian A Tanner
There is a critical need for better biosensors for the detection and diagnosis of malaria. We previously developed a DNA aptamer that recognises the Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) enzyme with high sensitivity and specificity. The aptamer was integrated into an Aptamer-Tethered Enzyme Capture (APTEC) assay as a laboratory-based diagnostic approach. However, a portable equipment-free point-of-care aptamer-mediated biosensor could have a significant impact on malaria diagnosis in endemic regions...
October 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Yi Wu, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Takuro Ito, Yaxiaer Yalikun, Sangwook Lee, Akihiro Isozaki, Ming Li, Yiyue Jiang, Atsushi Yasumoto, Dino Di Carlo, Yo Tanaka, Yutaka Yatomi, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform...
October 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Rui Li, Xingjian Zhang, Xuefei Lv, Lina Geng, Yongrui Li, Kuiwei Qin, Yulin Deng
Pneumatic micro-valve controlled microfluidic chip provides precise fluidic control for cell manipulation. In this paper, a multi-functional microfluidic chip was designed for three separate experiments: 1. Different cell lines were dispensed and cultured; 2. Three transfected SH-SY5Y cells were introduced and treated with methyl-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) as drug delivery mode; 3. Specific protection and interaction were observed among cell co-culture after nerve damage. The outcomes revealed the potential and practicability of our entire multi-functional pneumatic chip system on different cell biology applications...
October 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Pedro Novo, Dirk Janasek
The research field on microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis has developed vast amounts of devices, methods, applications and raised new questions, often in analogy to conventional techniques from which it derives. Most efforts have been employed on device development and a myriad of architectures and fabrication techniques have been reported using simple proof-of-principle separations. As technological aspects reach a quite mature state, researchers' new challenges include the development of protocols for the separation of complex mixtures, as required in the fields of application...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Carla Berrospe-Rodriguez, Claas Willem Visser, Stefan Schlautmann, David Fernandez Rivas, Ruben Ramos-Garcia
This is a study motivated by the need to develop a needle-free device for eliminating major global healthcare problems caused by needles. The generation of liquid jets by means of a continuous-wave laser, focused into a light absorbing solution, was studied with the aim of developing a portable and affordable jet injector. We designed and fabricated glass microfluidic devices, which consist of a chamber where thermocavitation is created and a tapered channel. The growth of a vapor bubble displaces and expels the liquid through the channel as a fast traveling jet...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
L Weidenbacher, A Abrishamkar, M Rottmar, A G Guex, K Maniura-Weber, A J deMello, S J Ferguson, R M Rossi, G Fortunato
The fabrication of functional 3D tissues is a major goal in tissue engineering. While electrospinning is a promising technique to manufacture a structure mimicking the extracellular matrix, cell infiltration into electrospun scaffolds remains challenging. The robust and in situ delivery of cells into such biomimetic scaffolds would potentially enable the design of tissue engineered constructs with spatial control over cellular distribution but often solvents employed in the spinning process are problematic due to their high cytotoxicity...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Agnieszka Zuchowska, Elzbieta Jastrzebska, Michal Chudy, Artur Dybko, Zbigniew Brzozka
The purpose of this paper is to present a fully integrated microchip for the evaluation of PDT procedures efficiency on 3D lung spheroid cultures. Human lung carcinoma A549 and non-malignant MRC-5 spheroids were utilized as culture models. Spheroid viability was evaluated 24 h after PDT treatment, in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) had been used as a precursor of a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX - PpIX). Moreover, spheroid viability over a long-term (10-day) culture was also examined. We showed that the proposed PDT treatment was toxic only for cancer spheroids...
October 16, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xianbo Qiu, Junhui Zhang, Shisong Gong, Dong Wang, Shan Qiao, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia, Duli Yu, Shizhi Qian
A single-bead-based, fully integrated microfluidic system has been developed for high-throughput CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration at point-of-care testing. Instead of directly counting CD4+T lymphocytes, CD4+T lymphocyte enumeration is achieved by quantitatively detecting CD4 antigen from the lysed blood sample with a functionalized polycarbonate single bead based on chemiluminescence. To implement the sandwiched chemiluminescence immunoassay with reduced nonspecific binding, a streamlined microfluidic chip with multiple reaction chambers is developed to allow each reaction step to be completed in an independent chamber where reagent is pre-stored...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
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