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Ana C Fernandes, Benjamin Petersen, Lars Møller, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
The need for fast and comprehensive characterization of biocatalysts has pushed the development of new screening platforms based on microfluidics, capable of monitoring several parameters simultaneously, with new configurations of liquid handling, sample treatment and sensing. Modular microfluidics allows the integration of these newly developed approaches in a more flexible way towards increasing applicability of the microfluidic chips to different types of biocatalysts and reactions. A highly relevant operation in such a system is biocatalyst inactivation, which can enable the precise control of reaction time by avoiding the continuation of the reaction in another module or connecting tubes...
April 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Mohammad Nooraiepour, Hossein Fazeli, Rohaldin Miri, Helge Hellevang
Fracture networks inside the caprock for CO2 storage reservoirs may serve as leakage pathways. Fluid flow through fractured caprocks and bypass conduits, however, can be restrained or diminished by mineral precipitations. This study investigates precipitation of salt crystals in an artificial fracture network as a function of pressure-temperature conditions and CO2 phase states. The impact of CO2 flow rate on salt precipitation was also studied. The primary research objective was to examine whether salt precipitation can block potential CO2 leakage pathways...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuji Nashimoto, Yukako Teraoka, Ramin Banan Sadeghian, Akiko Nakamasu, Yuichiro Arima, Sanshiro Hanada, Hidetoshi Kotera, Koichi Nishiyama, Takashi Miura, Ryuji Yokokawa
A spheroid (a multicellular aggregate) is regarded as a good model of living tissues in the human body. Despite the significant advancement in the spheroid cultures, a perfusable vascular network in the spheroids remains a critical challenge for long-term culture required to maintain and develop their functions, such as protein expressions and morphogenesis. The protocol presents a novel method to integrate a perfusable vascular network within the spheroid in a microfluidic device. To induce a perfusable vascular network in the spheroid, angiogenic sprouts connected to microchannels were guided to the spheroid by utilizing angiogenic factors from human lung fibroblasts cultured in the spheroid...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Navjot Kaur, Bhushan J Toley
There has been a recent resurgence in the use of paper as a substrate for developing point-of-care medical diagnostic tests, possibly triggered by expiring patents published in the 1990s. A hallmark of this resurgence has been the development of advanced shapes and structures made from paper to conduct multi-step fluidic operations using the wicking action of porous materials. Such devices indicate a distinct improvement over lateral flow immunoassays, which are restricted to conducting one-step operations...
April 23, 2018: Analyst
Shi-Yang Tang, Ruirui Qiao, Sheng Yan, Dan Yuan, Qianbin Zhao, Guolin Yun, Thomas P Davis, Weihua Li
Functional nanoparticles comprised of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, present exciting opportunities in the fields of flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Methods used currently for producing liquid metal nanoparticles have significant disadvantages as they rely on both bulky and expensive high-power sonication probe systems, and also generally require the use of small molecules bearing thiol groups to stabilize the nanoparticles. Herein, an innovative microfluidics-enabled platform is described as an inexpensive, easily accessible method for the on-chip mass production of EGaIn nanoparticles with tunable size distributions in an aqueous medium...
April 22, 2018: Small
Bo Zhang, Fanshu Meng, Jiangang Feng, Jingxia Wang, Yuchen Wu, Lei Jiang
The assembly of nanoparticles into ordered 3D architectures, which requires more complex spatial arrangements of nanoparticles than 2D, is essential to develop new nano- or microdevices in the fields of biotechnology, magnetic devices, catalysis, and optoelectronics. However, because of the long-distance interactions among the nanoparticles or the applied external force, the movement of nanoparticles cannot be precisely controlled, particularly in multidimensional architectures. Therefore, controlling the 3D architecture remains challenging...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ying Zhao, Wengeng Zhang
Microfluidic impedance pulse sensor has emerged as easy-handling and low-cost platform in the electrical analysis of biological cells. In the conventional method, impedance sensor demanded expensively patterning metal electrodes on the substrate, which are directly in touch with electrolytes in order to measure the microfluidic channel impedance change. In this letter, a cost-effective microfluidic impedance sensor building upon a dielectric film coated printed circuit board is introduced. Impedance electrodes are protected by a dielectric film layer from electrochemical erosion between electrodes and electrolyte...
April 22, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jing Jin, Chin Hong Ooi, Dzung Viet Dao, Nam-Trung Nguyen
The coalescence process of liquid marbles is vital to their promising roles as reactors or mixers in digital microfluidics. However, the underlying mechanisms and critical conditions of liquid marble coalescence are not well understood. This paper studies the coalescence process of two equally-sized liquid marbles via vertical collision aided by dielectrophoretic handling. A liquid marble was picked up using the dielectrophoretic force and then dropped vertically onto another liquid marble resting on a hydrophobic powder bed...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Rohit Chand, Saipriya Ramalingam, Suresh Neethirajan
Nanoscale MoS2 has attracted extensive attention for sensing due to its superior properties. This study outlines a microfluidic and electrochemical biosensing methodology for the multiplex detection of paratuberculosis-specific miRNAs. Herein, we report the synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets decorated with a copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticle composite and molecular probe immobilized MoS2 nanosheets as nanocarriers for the electrochemical detection of miRNAs. Paratuberculosis is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract of dairy cattle, and is a cause of substantial economic and animal losses all over the world...
April 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Anil B Shrirao, Zachary Fritz, Eric M Novik, Gabriel M Yarmush, Rene S Schloss, Jeffrey D Zahn, Martin L Yarmush
Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool utilized in modern biomedical research and clinical applications requiring high throughput, high resolution particle analysis for cytometric characterization and/or sorting of cells and particles as well as for analyzing results from immunocytometric assays. In recent years, research has focused on developing microfluidic flow cytometers with the motivation of creating smaller, less expensive, simpler, and more autonomous alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. These devices could ideally be highly portable, easy to operate without extensive user training, and utilized for research purposes and/or point-of-care diagnostics especially in limited resource facilities or locations requiring on-site analyses...
March 2018: Technology
E Du, Yuhao Qiang, Jia Liu
We envision that electrodeformation of biological cells through dielectrophoresis as a new technique to elucidate the mechanistic details underlying membrane failure by electrical and mechanical stresses. Here we demonstrate the full control of cellular uniaxial deformation and tensile recovery in biological cells via amplitude-modified electric field at radio frequency by an interdigitated electrode array in microfluidics. Transient creep and cyclic experiments were performed on individually tracked human erythrocytes...
2018: Applied Sciences
Yuhao Qiang, Jia Liu, E Du
Dielectrophoresis in microfluidics provides a useful tool to test biomechanics of living cells, regardless of surface charges on cell membranes. We have designed an experimental method to characterize the nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors of single cells using dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic channel. This method uses radio frequency, low voltage excitations through interdigitated microelectrodes, allowing probing multiple cells simultaneously with controllable load levels. Dielectrophoretic force was calibrated using a triaxial ellipsoid model...
2018: Micromachines
Yang Jun Kang
To evaluate variations of blood circulating in closed loops, hemorheological properties including blood viscosity and red blood cells (RBCs) are quantitatively measured with independent in-vitro instruments after collecting blood from a closed loop. But, most previous methods require periodic blood collections which induce several problems such as geometric differences between the fluidic channel and the in-vitro method, hemodilution, storage time, and unspecific blood flow rates. To resolve these issues, in this study, blood viscosity and RBC aggregation of blood circulating within a closed loop are measured with a microfluidic platform periodically and simultaneously...
March 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Monpichar Srisa-Art, Scott D Noblitt, Amber T Krummel, Charles S Henry
Coupling infrared (IR) spectroscopy to microfluidic devices provides a powerful tool for characterizing complex chemical and biochemical reactions. Examples of microfluidic devices coupled with infrared spectroscopy have been limited, however, largely due to the difficulties associated with fabricating systems in common infrared transparent materials like CaF2 . Recent reports have shown that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be used as an IR transparent substrate when fabricated with thin layers. The use of soft lithography with PDMS expands the library of possible designs that can be achieved for IR measurements in microfluidics...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mengqi Li, Dongqing Li
A novel microvalve using the electrokinetic motion of electrically induced Janus droplet (EIJD) is presented in this paper. The device is fabricated by injecting an EIJD with the diameter of approximately 80 μm into a microchamber connecting several microchannel branches. The EIJD is developed from an oil droplet covered by Al2 O3 -nanoparticles under electric field. The microvalve is controllable by electric field. Under an electric field, the Janus droplet undergoes electrokinetic motion in the microchamber, moves to one branch channel and blocks its entrance...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mohammad Paknahad, Jannat Singh Bachhal, Mina Hoorfar
This paper presents a cost-effective and reliable diffusion-based humidity removal membrane for microfluidic-based gas analyzers. The developed humidity control device reduces the relative humidity of a gas chamber and also stabilizes the humidity using inexpensive inorganic salts. A 3D-printed microfluidic gas sensor is used to test four different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including three alcohols and one ketone in different relative humidity levels ranging from 15% to 80%. To study the effects of humidity on different features of the transient response of the sensor, two different feature extraction methods are used...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Adam Kecskemeti, Attila Gaspar
The research and applications of liquid chromatographic (LC) chips receive more and more attention due to the numerous advantages over the traditional and larger analytical systems, e.g. requirement for small sample and reagent volumes, fast and inexpensive analysis, dead-volume free connections and the ability to multiplex measurements. Since LC is one of the most powerful separation techniques, its miniaturization seems an obvious target of lab-on-a-chip developments. However, the common procedures used in the preparation of chromatographic columns are not well applicable at the microscopic level...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
E Gibbin, A Gavish, I Domart-Coulon, E Kramarsky-Winter, O Shapiro, A Meibom, A Vardi
BACKGROUND: Global warming has triggered an increase in the prevalence and severity of coral disease, yet little is known about coral/pathogen interactions in the early stages of infection. The point of entry of the pathogen and the route that they take once inside the polyp is currently unknown, as is the coral's capacity to respond to infection. To address these questions, we developed a novel method that combines stable isotope labelling and microfluidics with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), to monitor the infection process between Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus under elevated temperature...
April 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Cristina Del Amo, Vanesa Olivares, Mar Cóndor, Alejandro Blanco, Jorge Santolaria, Jesús Asín, Carlos Borau, José Manuel García-Aznar
Osteoblast migration is a crucial process in bone regeneration, which is strongly regulated by interstitial fluid flow. However, the exact role that such flow exerts on osteoblast migration is still unclear. To deepen the understanding of this phenomenon, we cultured human osteoblasts on 3D microfluidic devices under different fluid flow regimes. Our results show that a slow fluid flow rate by itself is not able to alter the 3D migratory patterns of osteoblasts in collagen-based gels but that at higher fluid flow rates (increased flow velocity) may indirectly influence cell movement by altering the collagen microstructure...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Phenix-Lan Quan, Martin Sauzade, Eric Brouzes
Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) is a novel method for the absolute quantification of target nucleic acids. Quantification by dPCR hinges on the fact that the random distribution of molecules in many partitions follows a Poisson distribution. Each partition acts as an individual PCR microreactor and partitions containing amplified target sequences are detected by fluorescence. The proportion of PCR-positive partitions suffices to determine the concentration of the target sequence without a need for calibration...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
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