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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231937/microfluidic-formation-of-proteinosomes
#1
Martina Ugrinic, Adrian Zambrano, Simon Berger, Stephen Mann, T-Y Dora Tang, Andrew deMello
Herein we describe a novel microfluidic method for the generation of proteinosome micro-droplets, based on bovine serum albumin and glucose oxidase conjugated to PNIPAAm chains. The size of such water-in-oil droplets is regulated via control of the input reagent flow rate, with generated proteinosome populations exhibiting narrower size distributions than those observed when using standard bulk methodologies. Importantly, proteinosomes transferred from an oil to an aqueous-environment remain intact, become fully hydrated and exhibit an increase in average size...
December 12, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231744/microfluidic-generation-of-particle-stabilized-water-in-water-emulsions
#2
Niki Abbasi, Maryam Navi, Scott S H Tsai
Herein, we present a microfluidic platform that generates particle-stabilized water-in-water emulsions. The water-in-water system that we use is based on an aqueous two-phase system of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX). DEX droplets are formed passively, in the continuous phase of PEG and carboxylated particle suspension, at a flow focusing junction inside a microfluidic device. As DEX droplets travel downstream inside the microchannel, carboxylated particles that are in the continuous phase partition to the interface of the DEX droplets, due to their affinity to the interface of PEG and DEX...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231738/affinity-purification-and-single-molecule-analysis-of-integral-membrane-proteins-from-crude-cell-membrane-preparations
#3
Anders Oskar Lundgren, Björn Johansson Fast, Stephan Block, Björn Agnarsson, Erik Reimhult, Anders Gunnarsson, Fredrik Höök
The function of integral membrane proteins is critically dependent on their naturally surrounding lipid membrane. Detergent-solubilized and purified membrane proteins are therefore often reconstituted into cell-membrane mimics and analysed for their function with single-molecule microscopy. Expansion of this approach towards a broad range of pharmaceutically interesting drug targets and biomarkers however remains hampered by the fact that these proteins have low expression levels, and that detergent solubilisation and reconstitution often cause protein conformational changes and loss of membrane-specific co-factors, which may impair protein function...
December 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231737/stability-of-polyethylene-glycol-and-zwitterionic-surface-modifications-in-pdms-microfluidic-flow-chambers
#4
Thomas James Plegue, Kyle M Kovach, Alex J Thompson, Joseph A Potkay
Blood-material interactions are crucial to the lifetime, safety, and overall success of a blood contacting devices. Hydrophilic polymer coatings have been employed to improve device lifetime by shielding blood contacting materials from the natural foreign body response, primarily the intrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. These coatings have the ability to repel proteins, cells, bacteria, and other micro-organisms. Coatings are desired to have long-term stability, so that the nonthrombogenic and nonfouling effects gained are long lasting...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231220/plug-and-actuate-on-demand-multimodal-individual-addressability-of-microarray-plates-using-modular-hybrid-acoustic-wave-technology
#5
Amgad R Rezk, Shwathy Ramesan, Leslie Y Yeo
The microarray titre plate remains a fundamental workhorse in genomic, proteomic and cellomic analyses that underpin the drug discovery process. Nevertheless, liquid handling technologies for sample dispensing, processing and transfer have not progressed significantly beyond conventional robotic micropipetting techniques, which are not only at their fundamental sample size limit, but are also prone to mechanical failure and contamination. This is because alternative technologies to date suffer from a number of constraints, mainly their limitation to carry out only a single liquid operation such as dispensing or mixing at a given time, and their inability to address individual wells, particularly at high throughput...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230463/real-time-two-photon-lithography-in-controlled-flow-to-create-a-single-microparticle-array-and-particle-cluster-array-for-optofluidic-imaging
#6
Bing Xu, Yang Shi, Zhaoxin Lao, Jincheng Ni, Guoqiang Li, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Jiaru Chu, Dong Wu, Koji Sugioka
Microarray technology provides an excellent platform for biomedical and biochemical research including basic scientific studies, drug discovery, and diagnostics. Here, we develop a novel method referred to as real-time two-photon lithography in a controlled flow in which femtosecond laser two-photon lithography is performed in situ in the sequential mode stopping and flowing the flow of liquid resin containing microparticles to achieve 100% trapping on a one-bead-to-one-trap basis. Polydisperse particles can be all trapped to form a desired array by freely designing trap structures, resulting in an unprecedentedly high capture efficiency of ∼100%...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230350/spatially-graded-hydrogels-for-preclinical-testing-of-glioblastoma-anticancer-therapeutics
#7
S Pedron, H Polishetty, A M Pritchard, B P Mahadik, J N Sarkaria, B A C Harley
While preclinical models such as orthotopic tumors generated in mice from patient-derived specimens are widely used to predict sensitivity or therapeutic interventions for cancer, such xenografts can be slow, require extensive infrastructure, and can make in situ assessment difficult. Such concerns are heightened in highly aggressive cancers, such as glioblastoma (GBM), that display genetic diversity and short mean survival. Biomimetic biomaterial technologies offer an approach to create ex vivo models that reflect biophysical features of the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
September 2017: MRS Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229920/integration-of-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-models-for-constructing-a-neurovascular-tissue
#8
Hiroyuki Uwamori, Takuya Higuchi, Ken Arai, Ryo Sudo
Neurovascular unit (NVU) is a basic unit in the brain, including neurons, glial cells, blood vessels and extracellular matrix. This concept implies the importance of a three-dimensional (3D) culture model including these cell types for investigating brain functions. However, little is known about the construction of an in vitro 3D NVU model. In the present study, we aimed at constructing 3D neurovascular tissues by combining in vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis models using a microfluidic platform, which is a critical step toward the NVU construction in vitro...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228574/microfluidic-hydrodynamic-focusing-synthesis-of-polymer-lipid-nanoparticles-for-sirna-delivery
#9
Xueqin Huang, Robert J Lee, Yuhang Qi, Yujing Li, Jiahui Lu, Qingfan Meng, Lesheng Teng, Jing Xie
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising as therapeutics for intractable diseases such as cancer. However, efficient and safe delivery of siRNAs in vivo remains a challenge. Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (P/LNPs) have been evaluated for therapeutic delivery of siRNA. In this study, a microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MF) system was used to prepare P/LNPs loaded with VEGF siRNA. P/LNPs made by MF were smaller in particle size and had narrower size distribution compared to P/LNPs formed by bulk mixing (BM)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227552/microfluidics-assisted-tirf-imaging-to-study-single-actin-filament-dynamics
#10
Shashank Shekhar
Dynamic assembly of actin filaments is essential for many cellular processes. The rates of assembly and disassembly of actin filaments are intricately controlled by regulatory proteins that interact with the ends and the sides of filaments and with actin monomers. TIRF-based single-filament imaging techniques have proven instrumental in uncovering mechanisms of actin regulation. In this unit, novel single-filament approaches using microfluidics-assisted TIRF imaging are described. These methods can be used to grow anchored actin filaments aligned in a flow, thus making the analysis much easier as compared to open flow cell approaches...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227492/impact-of-complex-surfaces-on-biomicrorheological-measurements-using-optical-tweezers
#11
Shu Zhang, Lachlan J Gibson, Alexander B Stilgoe, Timo A Nieminen, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop
The characterisation of physical properties in biologically relevant processes and the development of novel microfluidic devices for this purpose are experiencing a great resurgence at present. In many of measurements of this type where a probe in a fluid is used, the strong influence of the boundaries of the volume used is a serious problem. In these geometries the proximity of a probe to a wall can severely influence the measurement. However, although much knowledge has been gained about flat walls, to date, the effect of non-planar surfaces at microscopic scale on rotational motion of micro-objects has not been studied...
December 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227278/an-automated-method-for-dynamic-red-blood-cell-aggregate-detection-in-microfluidic-flow
#12
Rym Mehri, Erfan Niazi, Catherine Mavriplis, Marianne Fenech
Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is a unique phenomenon that occurs when red blood cells are subjected to low shear rates. Little is known about the sizes, shapes and behaviour of aggregates flowing in healthy humans. However, excessive aggregation has been shown to be an indication of pathological conditions. Therefore, characterizing RBC aggregates is important to medical research. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable technique based on image processing to assess and characterize human RBC aggregation subjected to controlled and measurable shear rates in a two-fluid flow microfluidic shearing system...
December 11, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227109/fast-and-environmentally-friendly-microfluidic-technique-for-the-fabrication-of-polymer-microspheres
#13
Yanlin Zhang, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This paper reports on a novel microfluidic technique for the fabrication of microspheres of synthetic polymers including poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and polystyrene (PS). The polymers are dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the method is based on the diminished solubility of THF in a 20% (w/v) NaCl solution which allows the formation of droplets of the polymer solution. These polymer solution droplets are generated in a microfluidic system and their desolvation is accomplished within seconds by allowing the droplets to rise by buoyancy through a NaCl solution with a concentration lower than 15%...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226470/photo-crosslinkable-unnatural-amino-acids-enable-facile-synthesis-of-thermoresponsive-nano-to-microgels-of-intrinsically-disordered-polypeptides
#14
Simone A Costa, Joseph R Simon, Miriam Amiram, Lei Tang, Stefan Zauscher, Eric M Brustad, Farren J Isaacs, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Hydrogel particles are versatile materials that provide exquisite, tunable control over the sequestration and delivery of materials in pharmaceutics, tissue engineering, and photonics. The favorable properties of hydrogel particles depend largely on their size, and particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers are used in different applications. Previous studies have only successfully fabricated these particles in one specific size regime and required a variety of materials and fabrication methods. A simple yet powerful system is developed to easily tune the size of polypeptide-based, thermoresponsive hydrogel particles, from the nano- to microscale, using a single starting material...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226295/-bleaching-glycerol-in-a-microfluidic-fuel-cell-to-produce-high-power-density-at-minimal-cost
#15
Cauê A Martins, Omar A Ibrahim, Pei Pei, Erik Kjeang
Glycerol/bleach flow-through microfluidic fuel cells are presented. Carbon paper-modified Pt/C nanoparticles were used as the anode and cathode. Glycerol oxidation in alkaline medium was tested against hypochlorite reduction in alkaline and acidic media. The mixed media system displayed a power density of 315 mW cm-2 and an open circuit voltage of 1.9-2.0 V.
December 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226271/clusters-of-circulating-tumor-cells-a-biophysical-and-technological-perspective
#16
Sam H Au, Jon Edd, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran, Shannon L Stott, Mehmet Toner
The vast majority of cancer associated deaths result from metastasis, yet the behaviors of its most potent cellular driver, circulating tumor cell clusters, are only beginning to be revealed. This review highlights recent advances to our understanding of tumor cell clusters with emphasis on enabling technologies. The importance of intercellular adhesions among cells in clusters have begun to be unraveled with the aid of promising microfluidic strategies for isolating clusters from patient blood. Due to their metastatic potency, the utility of circulating tumor cell clusters for cancer diagnosis, drug screening, precision oncology and as targets of antimetastatic therapeutics are being explored...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225503/advection-and-taylor-aris-dispersion-in-rivulet-flow
#17
F H H Al Mukahal, B R Duffy, S K Wilson
Motivated by the need for a better understanding of the transport of solutes in microfluidic flows with free surfaces, the advection and dispersion of a passive solute in steady unidirectional flow of a thin uniform rivulet on an inclined planar substrate driven by gravity and/or a uniform longitudinal surface shear stress are analysed. Firstly, we describe the short-time advection of both an initially semi-infinite and an initially finite slug of solute of uniform concentration. Secondly, we describe the long-time Taylor-Aris dispersion of an initially finite slug of solute...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225421/flow-through-microfluidic-immunosensors-with-refractive-index-matched-silica-monoliths-as-volumetric-optical-detection-elements
#18
M S Wiederoder, E L Kendall, J-H Han, R G Ulrich, D L DeVoe
A sensitive and rapid absorbance based immunosensor that utilizes ex situ functionalized porous silica monoliths as volumetric optical detection elements is demonstrated in this study. The porous monolith structure facilitates high capture probe density and short diffusion length scales, enabling sensitive and rapid assays. Silica monoliths, synthesized and functionalized with immunocapture probes off-chip before integration into a sealed thermoplastic microfluidic device, serve to capture target antigens during perfusion through the porous structure...
January 2018: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#19
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224343/the-molecular-mechanism-of-nanodroplet-stability
#20
Evangelia Zdrali, Yixing Chen, Halil I Okur, David Mark Wilkins, Sylvie Roke
Mixtures of nano- and microscopic oil droplets in water have recently been rediscovered as miniature reaction vessels in microfluidic environments and are important constituents of many environmental systems, food, personal care and medical products. The oil nanodroplet/water interface stabilized by surfactants determines the physicochemical properties of the droplets. Surfactants are thought to stabilize nanodroplets by forming densely packed monolayers that shield the oil phase from the water. This idea has been inferred from droplet stability measurements in combination with molecular structural data obtained from extended planar interfaces...
December 11, 2017: ACS Nano
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