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Cutaneous melanoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445498/widespread-finger-skin-metastases-of-melanoma
#1
Faruk Tas, Kayhan Erturk
Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease with a rapid systemic dissemination. Almost every organ might be affected, but lungs, liver, bone, brain, and skin are the most frequently involved sites. Intravascular microtumoral embolism is believed to account for the distant cutaneous metastases that might be the first manifestation of disease progression in most of the cases.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441299/livedo-racemosa-reticulated-ulcerations-panniculitis-and-violaceous-plaques-in-a-46-year-old-woman
#2
Alfredo Agulló, Brian Hinds, Mónica Larrea, Ignacio Yanguas
Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) is a subset of dermatomyositis (DM) that has conventional cutaneous manifestations of DM, but paradoxically, little or no muscle involvement. In 2005, a novel antibody was described in association with CADM - anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5). Patients with this serologic marker have a characteristic mucocutaneous phenotype consisting of skin ulceration among other signs. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman with CADM, elevated anti-MDA5 autoantibodies, and unusual clinical features (livedo racemosa, florid acral edema) among the classical phenotype of MDA5 DM (arthralgias, ulcerations, panniculitis) and classical DM lesions (Gottron papules, heliotrope rash)...
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438650/updated-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-melanoma-definitive-excision-margins-for-primary-cutaneous-melanoma
#3
Michael J Sladden, Omgo E Nieweg, Julie Howle, Brendon J Coventry, John F Thompson
Definitive management of primary cutaneous melanoma consists of surgical excision of the melanoma with the aim of curing the patient. The melanoma is widely excised together with a safety margin of surrounding skin and subcutaneous tissue, after the diagnosis and Breslow thickness have been established by histological assessment of the initial excision biopsy specimen. Sentinel lymph node biopsy should be discussed for melanomas ≥ 1 mm thickness (≥ 0.8 mm if other high risk features) in which case lymphoscintigraphy must be performed before wider excision of the primary melanoma site...
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438161/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-serum-levels-and-melanoma-risk-a-case-control-study-and-evidence-synthesis-of-clinical-epidemiological-studies
#4
Maria Sofia Cattaruzza, Daniela Pisani, Laura Fidanza, Sara Gandini, Giovanna Marmo, Alessandra Narcisi, Armando Bartolazzi, Marta Carlesimo
There is accumulating evidence that the vitamin D pathway may play a role in melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and the risk of cutaneous melanoma. A case-control study with 137 incident cases of melanoma (serum samples collected at the time of diagnosis) and 99 healthy controls (serum samples collected between October and April) was carried out and evaluated in the framework of an evidence synthesis of clinical epidemiological studies on the topic to facilitate comparisons and summarize the scientific evidence produced so far...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435687/hypertonicity-primes-malignant-melanoma-cells-for-apoptosis
#5
Diana Nicoleta Calance, Charlotte Steixner, Stefanie Gross, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner, Gertrud Knoll, Martin Ehrenschwender
The tumor environment critically influences responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapies, most of which activate the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic cascade to kill malignant cells. Especially skin tumors encounter an environment with remarkable biophysical properties. Cutaneous accumulation of Na+ locally establishes osmotic pressure gradients in vivo (hypertonicity or hyperosmotic stress), but whether cutaneous hypertonicity is a factor that modulates the responsiveness of skin cancers to therapeutic apoptosis-induction has thus far not been investigated...
February 13, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433557/metastatic-uveal-melanoma-showing-durable-response-to-anti-ctla-4-and-anti-pd-1-combination-therapy-after-experiencing-progression-on-anti-pd-1-therapy-alone
#6
Muhammad Zubair Afzal, Rodwell Mabaera, Keisuke Shirai
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma accounts for 85% of the ocular melanomas and has an increased risk of hematogenous spread, most commonly to the liver. After curative intent therapy like surgery and radiation, fifty percent of patients present with distant metastasis. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) does not harbor typically targetable mutations, e.g., BRAF as in cutaneous melanoma. As a result, there is no proven therapy for MUM. Various chemotherapy and immunotherapy regimens have been tried and only partial response (PR) is the best that has been achieved in most of the cases...
February 12, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433548/analytic-validity-of-decisiondx-melanoma-a-gene-expression-profile-test-for-determining-metastatic-risk-in-melanoma-patients
#7
Robert W Cook, Brooke Middlebrook, Jeff Wilkinson, Kyle R Covington, Kristen Oelschlager, Federico A Monzon, John F Stone
BACKGROUND: The DecisionDx-Melanoma test provides prognostic information for patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue, the RT-PCR-based test classifies patients into a low- (Class 1) or high-risk (Class 2) category for recurrence based on expression of 31 genes. The current study was designed to assess the analytical validity of this test. METHODS: Inter-assay, inter-instrument, and inter-operator studies were performed to evaluate reliability of the 31-gene expression test results, sample stability and reagent stability...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428356/classification-of-the-clinical-images-for-benign-and-malignant-cutaneous-tumors-using-a-deep-learning-algorithm
#8
Seung Seog Han, Myoung Shin Kim, Woohyung Lim, Gyeong Hun Park, Ilwoo Park, Sung Eun Chang
We tested the use of a deep learning algorithm to classify the clinical images of 12 skin diseases-basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, intraepithelial carcinoma, actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, malignant melanoma, melanocytic nevus, lentigo, pyogenic granuloma, hemangioma, dermatofibroma, and wart. The convolutional neural network (Microsoft ResNet-152 model) was fine-tuned with images from the training portion of the Asan dataset, MED-NODE dataset, and atlas site images (20,826 images in total)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427464/the-expression-and-function-of-galectins-in-skin-physiology-and-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Nan-Lin Wu, Fu-Tong Liu
The galectin family comprises β-galactoside-binding proteins widely expressed in many organisms. There are at least 16 family members, which can be classified into three groups based on their carbohydrate-recognition domains. Pleiotropic functions of different galectins in physiological and pathological processes through extracellular or intracellular actions have been revealed. In the skin, galectins are expressed in a variety of cells, including keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells...
February 10, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423085/the-anti-rheumatic-drug-leflunomide-synergizes-with-mek-inhibition-to-suppress-melanoma-growth
#10
Kimberley Hanson, Stephen R Robinson, Karamallah Al-Yousuf, Adam E Hendry, Darren W Sexton, Victoria Sherwood, Grant N Wheeler
Cutaneous melanoma, which develops from the pigment producing cells called melanocytes, is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Unlike the majority of other cancers, the incidence rates of melanoma are still on the rise and the treatment options currently available are being hindered by resistance, limited response rates and adverse toxicity. We have previously shown that an FDA approved drug leflunomide, used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), also holds potential therapeutic value in treating melanoma especially if used in combination with the mutant BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421403/plasma-levels-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-risk-of-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#11
Michele Magoni, Pietro Apostoli, Francesco Donato, Ausilia Manganoni, Pietro Comba, Lucia Fazzo, Fabrizio Speziani, Lucia Leonardi, Grazia Orizio, Carmelo Scarcella, Piergiacomo Calzavara Pinton
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Group 1 as carcinogenic to human, based on sufficient evidence in humans of an increased risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), however few studies have been done in the general population. This study examined the relationship between PCB plasma levels and risk of CMM adjusting for sun sensitivity and sun exposure in a province of Northern Italy (Brescia), where a chemical factory produced PCBs from 1938 to 1984 causing human contamination...
January 28, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420365/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-potential-involvement-in-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma
#12
Giulia Ganzetti, Davide Sartini, Anna Campanati, Corrado Rubini, Elisa Molinelli, Valerio Brisigotti, Monia Cecati, Valentina Pozzi, Roberto Campagna, Annamaria Offidani, Monica Emanuelli
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and pyridine compounds, participating in xenobiotic and drug metabolism. Data on literature have evidenced a possible role of NNMT in many solid cancers, but no data are currently available in cutaneous melanoma. Recent important advances have been achieved in the treatment of advanced melanoma with targeted therapy and immunotherapy. However, the identification of biomarkers that can be used for the detection of early stage disease as well as for monitoring the therapeutic response during treatment is of utmost importance...
February 7, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415335/high-density-of-m2-macrophages-in-acral-lentiginous-melanoma-compared-to-superficial-spreading-melanoma
#13
M Zúñiga-Castillo, N V Pereira, M N Sotto
AIMS: Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is the most common type of melanoma in people with darker skin phototypes. There is some evidences that the etiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, and natural history of ALM differ from those of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). ALM behaves more aggressively than SSM, but the biological explanation for these differences remains unknown. The presence of one subtype of macrophages, termed M2-macrophage (M2-M), has been found to be related to local progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several neoplasms...
February 7, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413689/germline-bap1-positive-patients-the-dilemmas-of-cancer-surveillance-and-a-proposed-interdisciplinary-consensus-monitoring-strategy
#14
Phoebe Star, Annabel Goodwin, Rony Kapoor, R Max Conway, Georgina V Long, Richard A Scolyer, Pascale Guitera
The germline BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) mutation and associated cancer pre-disposition syndrome was first described in 2011. Since then, physicians have considered this diagnosis for patients with a characteristic personal or family history of BAP1-associated tumours (mainly uveal and cutaneous melanoma, pleural/peritoneal mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma and BAP1-deficient melanocytic lesions). However, a positive germline BAP1 mutation detection creates significant uncertainty in terms of appropriate cancer surveillance...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411867/withdrawn-systemic-treatments-for-metastatic-cutaneous-melanoma
#15
REVIEW
Tom Crosby, Reg Fish, Bernadette Coles, Malcolm Mason
BACKGROUND: Systemic therapies for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers, remain disappointing. Few lasting remissions are achieved and the therapeutic aim remains one of palliation.Many agents are used alone or in combination with varying degrees of toxicity and cost. It is unclear whether evidence exists to support these complex regimens over best supportive care / placebo. OBJECTIVES: To review the benefits from the use of systemic therapies in metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to best supportive care/placebo, and to establish whether a 'standard' therapy exists which is superior to other treatments...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411863/when-is-a-sentinel-node-biopsy-indicated-for-patients-with-primary-melanoma-comment-on-the-australian-guidelines-for-the-management-of-cutaneous-melanoma
#16
Michael Sladden, Samuel Zagarella, Catalin Popescu, Michael Bigby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411301/emerging-biomarkers-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
Anna Eisenstein, Estela Chen Gonzalez, Rekha Raghunathan, Xixi Xu, Muzhou Wu, Emily O McLean, Jean McGee, Byungwoo Ryu, Rhoda M Alani
Earlier identification of aggressive melanoma remains a goal in the field of melanoma research. With new targeted and immune therapies that have revolutionized the care of patients with melanoma, the ability to predict progression and monitor or predict response to therapy has become the new focus of research into biomarkers in melanoma. In this review, promising biomarkers are highlighted. These biomarkers have been used to diagnose melanoma as well as predict progression to advanced disease and response to therapy...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410133/emt-related-transcription-factor-snail-up-regulates-fap%C3%AE-in-malignant-melanoma-cells
#18
Yanmei Yi, Zhaotong Wang, Yanqin Sun, Junhu Chen, Biao Zhang, Minhua Wu, Tianyu Li, Li Hu, Jun Zeng
FAPα is a cell surface serine protease, mainly expressed in tumor stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of human epithelial carcinomas. Due to its almost no expression in normal tissues and its tumor-promoting effects, FAPα has been studied as a novel potential target for antitumor therapy. However, the regulation mechanism on FAPα expression is poorly understood. In this study, we found that overexpression of snail significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of FAPα in malignant melanoma B16 and SK-MEL-28 cells...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408526/prognostic-value-of-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-according-to-breslow-thickness-for-cutaneous-melanoma
#19
Evan Stiegel, David Xiong, Jason Ya, Pauline Funchain, Raymond Isakov, Brian Gastman, Alok Vij
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely performed for melanoma of certain histologic parameters and offers important prognostic and staging information. Breslow thickness (BT) by itself also provides meaningful prognostic information. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) status provides independent prognostic information than that which is already provided by BT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 896 patients who underwent SLNB for primary cutaneous melanoma...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408204/high-mitf-expression-is-associated-with-super-enhancers-and-suppressed-by-cdk7-inhibition-in-melanoma
#20
Philip Eliades, Brian J Abraham, Zhenyu Ji, David M Miller, Camilla L Christensen, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Raj Kumar, Ching Ni Njauw, Michael Taylor, Benchun Miao, Tinghu Zhang, Kwok-Kin Wong, Nathanael S Gray, Richard A Young, Hensin Tsao
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive tumor which accounts for most of the skin cancer deaths. Among the physiological barriers against therapeutic success is a strong survival program driven by genes that specify melanocyte identity such as MITF - a phenomenon known in melanoma biology as "lineage dependency." MITF overexpression is occasionally explained by gene amplification, but here we demonstrate that "super-enhancers" are also important determinants of MITF overexpression in some melanoma cell lines and tumors...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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