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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244542/differential-long-term-medication-impact-on-executive-function-and-delay-aversion-in-adhd
#1
Belen Rubio Morell, Sergio Hernández Expósito
The objective was to compare long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive functions (EF) and delay aversion (DAv) in ADHD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at three moments (Naive, Post-1, Post-2). ADHD participants who showed deficits in the naive evaluation (n = 26) were randomized to receive either MPH (n = 13; Mage = 11 ± 1, MIQ 96 ± 8) or ATX (n = 13; Mage = 10 ± 1, MIQ 106 ± 16...
December 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243875/allometric-considerations-when-assessing-aortic-aneurysms-in-turner-syndrome-implications-for-activity-recommendations-and-medical-decision-making
#2
Holly Corbitt, Cheryl Maslen, Siddharth Prakash, Shaine A Morris, Michael Silberbach
In Turner syndrome, the potential to form thoracic aortic aneurysms requires routine patient monitoring. However, the short stature that typically occurs complicates the assessment of severity and risk because the relationship of body size to aortic dimensions is different in Turner syndrome compared to the general population. Three allometric formula have been proposed to adjust aortic dimensions, all employing body surface area: aortic size index, Turner syndrome-specific Z-scores, and Z-scores based on a general pediatric and young adult population...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243472/preliminary-ethical-appraisal-of-a-trial-what-s-it-all-about
#3
Helena Siipi
Preliminary ethical appraisal of medical trials is often based on the following four principles: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Preliminary ethical appraisal should, however, not be understood solely as application of these four principles to practice. Ethical committees will inevitably interpret the principles and make decisions about their reciprocal importance in connection with each trial. Reasoning does not always proceed from above towards practical recommendations of action, but can instead also be based on a moral rule or practice relating to a certain action...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243305/opioid-analgesic-dose-and-the-risk-of-misuse-overdose-and-death-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
David Tyler Coyle, Chih-Ying Pratt, Josephine Ocran-Appiah, Alex Secora, Cynthia Kornegay, Judy Staffa
PURPOSE: Despite the rise in serious adverse events paralleling increased prescription opioid analgesic use in the United States over the past 2 decades, the association between opioid analgesic dose and the risk of serious adverse health outcomes is incompletely characterized. We sought to synthesize the medical literature for observational studies examining the association between opioid analgesic dose and the risk of serious adverse health outcomes, with particular attention to the outcomes of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose, and death...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243008/examining-the-psychosocial-impact-of-genetic-testing-for-cardiomyopathies
#5
Julia Wynn, David T Holland, Jimmy Duong, Priyanka Ahimaz, Wendy K Chung
Inherited cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), are the most common monogenic cause of cardiac disease and can rarely lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). They are characterized by incomplete and age-dependent penetrance and are usually initially symptomatic in adulthood yet can present in childhood as well. Over 20 genes have been identified to cause HCM, and more than 40 genes are known to cause DCM. Genetic testing for these genes has been integrated into medical care; however, the psychological impact of genetic testing and the impact of the uncertainty that comes with receiving these results have not been well studied...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242573/extremely-premature-birth-informed-written-consent-and-the-greek-ideal-of-sophrosyne
#6
Joseph W Kaempf, Kevin Dirksen
Most extremely premature infants die in the intensive care unit or suffer significant neurologic impairment. Many therapies result in unhealthy consequences, and the emotional and financial turmoil for families warrant reappraisal of our motives. Shared decision-making and informed consent in preference-sensitive conditions imply the family: (a) understands the medical problem, (b) grasps the risks and benefits of each therapy, (c) has the opportunity to ask questions and reflect upon options, (d) knows their values and preferences are understood, and (e) accepts or declines therapies without judgment or penalty...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242181/a-data-model-for-teleconsultation-in-managing-high-risk-pregnancies-design-and-preliminary-evaluation
#7
Kolsoum Deldar, Fatemeh Tara, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Mohammad Khajedaluee, Mahmood Tara
BACKGROUND: Teleconsultation is a guarantor for virtual supervision of clinical professors on clinical decisions made by medical residents in teaching hospitals. Type, format, volume, and quality of exchanged information have a great influence on the quality of remote clinical decisions or tele-decisions. Thus, it is necessary to develop a reliable and standard model for these clinical relationships. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to design and evaluate a data model for teleconsultation in the management of high-risk pregnancies...
December 14, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241885/cost-effectiveness-of-the-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-the-netherlands-a-country-adaptation-analysis-under-the-former-and-current-dutch-pharmacoeconomic
#8
Isaac Corro Ramos, Matthijs M Versteegh, Rudolf A de Boer, Jolanda M A Koenders, Gerard C M Linssen, Joan G Meeder, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken
OBJECTIVES: To describe the adaptation of a global health economic model to determine whether treatment with the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 is cost effective compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the Netherlands; and to explore the effect of performing the cost-effectiveness analyses according to the new pharmacoeconomic Dutch guidelines (updated during the submission process of LCZ696), which require a value-of-information analysis and the inclusion of indirect medical costs of life-years gained...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241773/alopecia-areata-an-appraisal-of-new-treatment-approaches-and-overview-of-current-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Lauren C Strazzulla, Eddy Hsi Chun Wang, Lorena Avila, Kristen Lo Sicco, Nooshin Brinster, Angela M Christiano, Jerry Shapiro
Many therapies are available for the treatment of alopecia areata, including topical, systemic, and injectable modalities. However, these treatment methods produce variable clinical outcomes and there are no currently available treatments that induce and sustain remission. When making management decisions, clinicians must first stratify patients into pediatric versus adult populations. Disease severity should then be determined (limited vs extensive) before deciding the final course of therapy. The second article in this continuing medical education series describes the evidence supporting new treatment methods, among them Janus kinase inhibitors...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241715/engaging-patients-in-decisions-about-cancer-screening-exploring-the-decision-journey-through-the-use-of-a-patient-portal
#10
Steven H Woolf, Alex H Krist, Jennifer Elston Lafata, Resa M Jones, Rebecca R Lehman, Camille J Hochheimer, Roy T Sabo, Dominick L Frosch, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Daniel R Longo
INTRODUCTION: Engaging patients to make informed choices is paramount but difficult in busy practices. This study sought to engage patients outside the clinical setting to better understand how they approach cancer screening decisions, including their primary concerns and their preferences for finalizing their decision. METHODS: Twelve primary care practices offering patients an online personal health record invited eligible patients to complete a 17-item online interactive module...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240347/genomic-data-into-everyday-work-of-a-medical-practitioner-digital-tools-for-decision-making
#11
Sakari Jokiranta, Kristina Hotakainen, Iiris Salonen, Pasi Pöllänen, Kai-Petri Hänninen, Jari Forsström, Ilkka Kunnamo
Recent technological development has enabled fast and cost-effective simultaneous analyses of several gene variants or sequence of even the whole genome. For medical practitioners this has created challenges although genomic information may be clinically useful in new applications such as finding out individual risk for diseases influenced by as many as 50,000 variable DNA regions or in detecting pharmacogenetic risks prior to prescribing a medicine. New digital tools have paved the way for utilization of genomic data via easy access and clear clinical interpretation for both doctor and patient...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239630/a-meta-analytic-review-of-two-modes-of-learning-and-the-description-experience-gap
#12
Dirk U Wulff, Max Mergenthaler-Canseco, Ralph Hertwig
People can learn about the probabilistic consequences of their actions in two ways: One is by consulting descriptions of an action's consequences and probabilities (e.g., reading up on a medication's side effects). The other is by personally experiencing the probabilistic consequences of an action (e.g., beta testing software). In principle, people taking each route can reach analogous states of knowledge and consequently make analogous decisions. In the last dozen years, however, research has demonstrated systematic discrepancies between description- and experienced-based choices...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238495/assessment-of-life-skills-of-medical-students-in-mashhad-iran-in-2015
#13
Arash Akhavan Rezayat, Shabnam Niroumand, Elham Shiehzadeh, Ali Saghebi, Reza Rahimzadeh Oskooie, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam
Background: Developing social skills and mental health is a crucial part of the psychosocial health status of medical students. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the life skills of medical students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2015. By census method, 146 interns were entered into the study. The life skill questionnaire, consisting of 144 questions, was used as the measurement tool...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237516/utility-of-cardiac-mri-in-paediatric-myocarditis
#14
Alice Hales-Kharazmi, Nina Hirsch, Michael Kelleman, Timothy Slesnick, Shriprasad R Deshpande
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic role of cardiac MRI in myocarditis is evolving, however with extremely limited data in paediatrics. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of cardiac MRI in paediatric myocarditis and present a new prognostic score for risk stratification. METHOD: The present study is a retrospective investigation of children with a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis, including analysis of demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, including cardiac MRI, and outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#15
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234481/in-defense-of-pharmaceutically-enhancing-human-morality
#16
Evangelos D Protopapadakis
Purpose: I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Background: Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? Methodology: I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233397/assessment-of-student-pharmacists-ethical-decision-making
#17
Jaclyn R Myers, Mary E Kiersma, Kimberly S Plake
INTRODUCTION: In previous research, investigators have expressed concern about the ethical ambivalence of pharmacists in decision-making. The objectives of this study were to examine student pharmacists': 1) attitudes and responses regarding specific common ethical situations and 2) perceived level of difficulty in making ethical decisions. METHODS: A self-administered 38-item survey was given to second and third year student pharmacists at Purdue University. The survey comprised five sections, including: 1) attitudes towards common ethical situations, 2) responses to specific ethical scenarios, 3) emergency lending, 4) perceived level of difficulty in resolving ethical dilemmas, and 5) demographics...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233371/experience-with-the-script-concordance-test-to-develop-clinical-reasoning-skills-in-pharmacy-students
#18
Kylee A Funk, Claire Kolar, Sarah K Schweiss, Jeffrey M Tingen, Kristin K Janke
BACKGROUND: The script concordance test (SCT) is used to assess clinical reasoning and was originally developed for medical learners. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) endorses the need for pharmacy students to develop clinical reasoning skills, but there is little documentation of use of the SCT for pharmacy learners. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: A script concordance test activity was designed for a diabetes and metabolic syndrome pharmacotherapy course...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233200/first-rescue-under-the-rubble-the-medical-aid-in-the-first-hours-after-the-earthquake-in-amatrice-italy-on-august-24-2016
#19
Angelo Geremia Blasetti, Emiliano Petrucci, Vincenza Cofini, Barbara Pizzi, Paolo Scimia, Tullio Pozone, Stefano Necozione, Pierfrancesco Fusco, Franco Marinangeli
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event Type: Earthquake measuring 6.2 (SD=0.016) on the moment magnitude; b. Event Onset: August 24, 2016 - 03:36:32 CEST (01:36 UTC); c. Location of Event: Central Italy, in the town of Amatrice; d. Geographic Coordinates: latitude (DMS): 42°37'45.77″N; longitude (DMS): 13°17'18.14″E; elevation: 955 meters above sea-level; e. Dates: August 24, 2016 at 4:48 AM; f. Response Type: Medical Relief. ABSTRACT: On August 24, 2016, an earthquake hit the town of Amatrice (Italy)...
December 13, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233172/the-effects-of-austerity-measures-on-quality-of-healthcare-services-a-national-survey-of-physicians-in-the-public-and-private-sectors-in-portugal
#20
Tiago Correia, Graça Carapinheiro, Helena Carvalho, José Manuel Silva, Gilles Dussault
BACKGROUND: The European Union member countries reacted differently to the 2008 economic and financial crisis. However, few countries have monitored the outcomes of their policy responses, and there is therefore little evidence as to whether or not savings undermined the performance of health systems. We discuss the situation in Portugal, where a financial adjustment program was implemented between 2011 and 2014, and explore the views of health workers on the effects of austerity measures on quality of care delivery...
December 12, 2017: Human Resources for Health
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