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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932492/novel-regulatory-roles-of-mff-and-drp1-in-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-march5-dependent-degradation-of-mid49-and-mcl1-and-control-of-mitochondrial-dynamics
#1
Edward Cherok, Shan Xu, Sunan Li, Shweta Das, W Alex Meltzer, Michal Zalzman, Chunxin Wang, Mariusz Karbowski
MARCH5, an OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial function. Despite its importance, the mechanism and factors controlling MARCH5 activity are largely unknown. Here we report that the MARCH5 C-terminal domain plays a critical role in degradation of MARCH5 substrates, likely by facilitating release of ubiquitinated proteins from the OMM. We also found that the mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1 and Mff negatively regulate MARCH5's activity toward MiD49 and Mcl1. Knockouts of either Drp1 or Mff led to reduced expression, shorter half-lives, and increased ubiquitination of MiD49 and Mcl1...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913278/molecular-basis-for-the-dual-subcellular-distribution-of-microsomal-glutathione-transferase-1
#2
Miyuki Shimoji, Ricardo A Figueroa, Etienne Neve, Danuta Maksel, Gabriela Imreh, Ralf Morgenstern, Einar Hallberg
Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is a membrane bound enzyme involved in the detoxification of reactive electrophiles and protection of membranes from oxidative stress. The enzyme displays an unusual and broad subcellular distribution with especially high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here we examined the molecular basis for this dual distribution. We hypothesized that the amphipathic properties of the first transmembrane segment (TMS), that contains a positively charged lysine (K25), is a central feature guiding dual targeting...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913212/vcp-cooperates-with-ubxd1-to-degrade-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-protein-mcl1-in-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#3
Xing Guo, Xin Qi
Proteasome-dependent turnover of mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM)-associated proteins is one of the mechanisms for maintaining proper mitochondrial quality and function. However, the underlying pathways and their implications in human disease are poorly understood. Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the N terminal of the huntingtin gene (mutant Huntingtin, mtHtt). In this study, we show an extensive degradation of the OMM protein MCL1 (Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) in both HD mouse striatal cells and HD patient fibroblasts...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893142/assessment-of-hospital-staff-s-knowledge-of-osteopathic-manipulative-medicine-a-survey-based-study
#4
Jessica B Smith-Kelly, Andres Cardenas
CONTEXT: Research has shown that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in hospitalized patients can shorten hospital length of stay. However, hospital staff may be unfamiliar with OMT and its use in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To assess a hospital staff's knowledge of osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) and investigate whether there is a correlation between job category and knowledge of OMM. METHODS: The study used a 13-item survey that was developed using SurveyMonkey...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814309/osteopathic-manipulation-as%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-complementary-approach-to%C3%A2-parkinson-s%C3%A2-disease-a%C3%A2-controlled-pilot%C3%A2-study
#5
Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Theresa Apoznanski, Kristen de Vries, Min-Kyung Jung, Jayme Mancini, Sheldon Yao
BACKGROUND: Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) is a therapy of manual forces that is directed to improve function and homeostasis. It has been shown to improve balance in individuals with dizziness, and improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was designed to determine if our pre-defined OMM protocol would improve motor function and balance in individuals with PD. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial to test OMM on balance and motor function in PD measured by the Mini-BESTest, Sensory Organization Test (SOT), and MDS-UPDRS...
October 31, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806990/influence-of-own-mother-s-milk-on-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-costs
#6
Aloka L Patel, Tricia J Johnson, Beverley Robin, Harold R Bigger, Ashley Buchanan, Elizabeth Christian, Vikram Nandhan, Anita Shroff, Michael Schoeny, Janet L Engstrom, Paula P Meier
BACKGROUND: Human milk from the infant's mother (own mother's milk; OMM) feedings reduces the risk of several morbidities in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, but limited data exist regarding its impact on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the impact of OMM received in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on the risk of BPD and associated costs. DESIGN/METHODS: A 5-year prospective cohort study of the impact of OMM dose on growth, morbidity and NICU costs in VLBW infants...
November 2, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763642/bcl-2-proteins-bid-and-bax-form-a-network-to-permeabilize-the-mitochondria-at-the-onset-of-apoptosis
#7
Robert F Gahl, Pallavi Dwivedi, Nico Tjandra
The most critical step in the initiation of apoptosis is the activation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins to oligomerize and permeabilize the outer-mitochondrial membrane (OMM). As this step results in the irreversible release of factors that enhance cellular degradation, it is the point of no return in programmed cell death and would be an ideal therapeutic target. However, the arrangement of the Bcl-2 proteins in the OMM during permeabilization still remains unknown. It is also unclear whether the Bcl-2 protein, Bid, directly participates in the formation of the oligomers in live cells, even though it is cleaved and translocates to the OMM at the initiation of apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697863/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-enhances-mitochondrial-metabolic-activity-in-mammalian-adrenals-and-gonads
#8
Manoj Prasad, Anna N Walker, Jasmeet Kaur, James L Thomas, Shirley A Powell, Amit V Pandey, Randy M Whittal, William E Burak, Guy Petruzzelli, Himangshu S Bose
The acute response to stress consists of a series of physiological programs to promote survival by generating glucocorticoids and activating stress response genes that increase the synthesis of many chaperone proteins specific to individual organelles. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), short-term stress triggers activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) module that either leads to neutralization of the initial stress or adaptation to it; chronic stress favors cell death. UPR induces expression of the transcription factor, C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), and its deletion protects against the lethal consequences of prolonged UPR...
December 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660309/the-role-of-drp1-adaptor-proteins-mid49-and-mid51%C3%A2-in-mitochondrial-fission-implications-for-human-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kathleen Atkins, Asish Dasgupta, Kuang-Hueih Chen, Jeff Mewburn, Stephen L Archer
Mitochondrial morphology is governed by the balance of mitochondrial fusion, mediated by mitofusins and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and fission, mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Disordered mitochondrial dynamics alters metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis and mitophagy, contributing to human diseases, including neurodegenerative syndromes, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), cancer and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Post-translational regulation of Drp1 (by phosphorylation and SUMOylation) is an established means of modulating Drp1 activation and translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM)...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637331/strategic-positioning-and-biased-activity-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-cardiac-muscle
#10
Sergio De La Fuente, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Caitlin Vail, Elorm J Agra, Kira Holmstrom, Junhui Sun, Jyotsna Mishra, Dewight Williams, Toren Finkel, Elizabeth Murphy, Suresh K Joseph, Shey-Shing Sheu, György Csordás
Control of myocardial energetics by Ca(2+) signal propagation to the mitochondrial matrix includes local Ca(2+) delivery from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) ryanodine receptors (RyR2) to the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) Ca(2+) uniporter (mtCU). mtCU activity in cardiac mitochondria is relatively low, whereas the IMM surface is large, due to extensive cristae folding. Hence, stochastically distributed mtCU may not suffice to support local Ca(2+) transfer. We hypothesized that mtCU concentrated at mitochondria-SR associations would promote the effective Ca(2+) transfer...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597980/the-relationship-of-metabolic-syndrome-traits-with-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-oral-minimal-model-assessment-in-south-asian-and-european-families-residing-in-the-netherlands
#11
Thekla Geragotou, Sjaam Jainandunsing, Behiye Özcan, Felix W M de Rooij, Alexander Kokkinos, Nicholas Tentolouris, Eric J G Sijbrands
Background. There are different metabolic syndrome traits among patients with different ethnicities. Methods. We investigated this by studying 44 South Asians and 54 Europeans and classified them in three groups according to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), static, dynamic, and total beta-cell responsivity indices (Φ), and disposition indices (DIs) were calculated with the use of oral minimal model (OMM). Results. In both ethnicities, ISI was lower in the subgroup with MetS and T2D as compared to the subgroup without MetS nor T2D (P < 0...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531991/regulation-of-star-by-the-n-terminal-domain-and-coinduction-of-sik1-and-tis11b-znf36l1-in-single-cells
#12
Jinwoo Lee, Tiegang Tong, Haichuan Duan, Yee Hoon Foong, Ibrahim Musaitif, Takeshi Yamazaki, Colin Jefcoate
The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393243/cryopreservation-of-lipid-bilayers-by-lea-proteins-from-artemia-franciscana-and-trehalose
#13
Daniel S Moore, Steven C Hand
The capacity of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and trehalose to protect liposomes against freezing-induced damage was examined by measuring the leakage of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF). Liposomes were prepared to simulate the lipid compositions of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Two recombinant LEA proteins belonging to Group 3 (AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m) were expressed and purified from embryos of Artemia franciscana...
October 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320914/moap-1-mediates-fas-induced-apoptosis-in-liver-by-facilitating-tbid-recruitment-to-mitochondria
#14
Chong Teik Tan, Qi-Ling Zhou, Yu-Chin Su, Nai Yang Fu, Hao-Chun Chang, Ran N Tao, Sunil K Sukumaran, Shairaz Baksh, Yee-Joo Tan, Kanaga Sabapathy, Chun-Dong Yu, Victor C Yu
Fas apoptotic signaling regulates diverse physiological processes. Acute activation of Fas signaling triggers massive apoptosis in liver. Upon Fas receptor stimulation, the BH3-only protein Bid is cleaved into the active form, tBid. Subsequent tBid recruitment to mitochondria, which is facilitated by its receptor MTCH2 at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), is a critical step for commitment to apoptosis via the effector proteins Bax or Bak. MOAP-1 is a Bax-binding protein enriched at the OMM. Here, we show that MOAP-1-deficient mice are resistant to Fas-induced hepatocellular apoptosis and lethality...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252588/transport-of-calcium-ions-into-mitochondria
#15
Zhaolong Xu, Dayong Zhang, Xiaolan He, Yihong Huang, Hongbo Shao
To uptake calcium ions of mitochondria is of significant functional connotation for cells, because calcium ions in mitochondria are involved in energy production, regulatory signals transfer, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and even programmed cell death of apoptosis, further playing more roles in plant productivity and quality. Cytoplasmic calcium ions access into outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) from voltage dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) and were absorbed into inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), rapid mitochondrial calcium uptake (RaM) or mitochondrial ryanodine receptor (mRyR)...
June 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252079/multiplexed-cassegrain-reflector-antenna-for-simultaneous-generation-of-three-orbital-angular-momentum-oam-modes
#16
Woo Jin Byun, Kwang Seon Kim, Bong Su Kim, Young Seung Lee, Myung Sun Song, Hyung Do Choi, Yong Heui Cho
A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203684/mitofusin-2-knockdown-increases-er-mitochondria-contact-and-decreases-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-production
#17
Nuno Santos Leal, Bernadette Schreiner, Catarina Moreira Pinho, Riccardo Filadi, Birgitta Wiehager, Helena Karlström, Paola Pizzo, Maria Ankarcrona
Mitochondria are physically and biochemically in contact with other organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Such contacts are formed between mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized subregions of ER, and the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). We have previously shown increased expression of MAM-associated proteins and enhanced ER to mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-related neuronal models. Here, we report that siRNA knockdown of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), a protein that is involved in the tethering of ER and mitochondria, leads to increased contact between the two organelles...
September 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195264/oral-malignant-melanoma-initially-misdiagnosed-as-a-racial-pigmentation-a-case-report
#18
Carla Patrícia Martinelli-Kläy, Marcel Leandro Laporte, Celso Ricardo Martinelli, Celso Martinelli, Tommaso Lombardi
Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is rare, representing less than 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The most affected sites are the palate and the maxillary gingiva. Histological examination is important to establish the diagnosis of any suspicious pigmented lesion in the oral cavity, mainly if a precise clinical diagnosis is not possible. We present one case of OMM that was initially diagnosed as a racial pigmentation elsewhere 2 years earlier. Clinical examination showed multiple macules and nodules located on the hard and soft palate, gingiva and superior alveolar mucosa...
January 2016: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114959/oral-malignant-melanoma-an-aggressive-clinical-entity-report-of-a-rare-case-with-review-of-literature
#19
Shamimul Hasan, Sami Faisal Jamdar, Jogender Jangra, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageel Al Beaiji
Melanomais one of the most dreaded and aggressive neoplasms, being derived from epidermal melanocytes. The majority of melanomas are seen to involve the skin, and primary mucosal melanomas account for less than 1% of all melanomas. Oral malignant melanomas (OMM) are asymptomatic at the initial presentation, but later they become painful with growth and expansion. In the late stages, the patient may present with ulceration, bleeding, tooth mobility, paresthesia, ill-fitting prosthesis, and delayed healing of the extraction sockets...
March 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064145/vdac1-interacting-anion-transport-inhibitors-inhibit-vdac1-oligomerization-and-apoptosis
#20
Danya Ben-Hail, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis involves pro-apoptotic protein release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, triggering apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which apoptotic initiators cross the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) remain unclear. The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), an OMM protein, is central to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In previous work, we demonstrated that apoptosis induction is associated with VDAC1 oligomerization, forming a mega-pore that mediates pro-apoptotic protein release...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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