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dorsal horn neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146456/is-more-always-better-how-different-doses-of-exercise-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-affects-the-membrane-properties-of-deep-dorsal-horn-interneurons
#1
M M Rank, M P Galea, R Callister, R J Callister
Interneurons in the deep dorsal horn (DDH) of the spinal cord process somatosensory input, and form an important link between upper and lower motoneurons to subsequently shape motor output. Exercise training after SCI is known to improve functional motor recovery, but little is known about the mechanisms within spinal cord neurons that underlie these improvements. Here we investigate how the properties of DDH interneurons are affected by spinal cord injury (SCI) alone, and SCI in combination with different 'doses' of treadmill exercise training (3, 6, and 9wks)...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142219/electroacupuncture-attenuates-induction-of-inflammatory-pain-by-regulating-opioid-and-adenosine-pathways-in-mice
#2
Hsien-Yin Liao, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Chun-Ping Huang, Yi-Wen Lin
Although inflammatory pain is a common clinical condition, its mechanisms are still unclear. Electroacupuncture (EA), a well-known method of pain management, may reduce inflammatory pain by regulating neurons, astrocytes, and inflammatory signaling pathways. Injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), which can initiate cell-mediated inflammatory pain, resulted in significant hyperalgesia, which was subsequently prevented by EA. In CFA-injected mice, a dramatic increase was observed in the expression of the following proteins in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord dorsal horn: the astrocytic marker GFAP, S100B, RAGE, pPKCε, COX-2, pERK, and pNFκB...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140922/fingolimod-reduces-neuropathic-pain-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-dependent-inhibition-of-central-sensitization-in-the-dorsal-horn
#3
Suzanne Doolen, Tommaso Iannitti, Benjamin C Shaw, Carolyn M Grachen, Renee R Donahue, Bradley K Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory neurodegenerative disease that is often accompanied by a debilitating neuropathic pain. Disease-modifying agents slow the progression of MS and prevent relapses, yet it remains unclear if they yield analgesia. We explored the analgesic potential of fingolimod (FTY720), an agonist/functional antagonist at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), because it reduces hyperalgesia in models of peripheral inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We used a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), modified to avoid frank paralysis and thus allow for assessment of withdrawal behaviors to somatosensory stimuli...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134656/long-term-dynamic-synaptic-reorganization-after-gabaergic-precursor-cell-transplantation-into-adult-mouse-spinal-cord
#4
Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Allan I Basbaum, João M Bráz
Transplanting embryonic precursors of GABAergic neurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into adult mouse spinal cord ameliorates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Although Fos and transneuronal tracing studies strongly suggest that integration of MGE-derived neurons into host spinal cord circuits underlies recovery of function, the extent to which there is synaptic integration of the transplanted cells has not been established. Here, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to assess directly integration of GFP-expressing MGE-derived neuronal precursors into dorsal horn circuitry in intact, adult mice with short- (5-6 weeks) or long-term (4-6 months) transplants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132544/histaminergic-receptors-modulate-spinal-cord-injury-induced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-upregulation-and-cord-pathology-new-roles-of-nanowired-drug-delivery-for-neuroprotection
#5
Hari S Sharma, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, Ala Nozari, Aruna Sharma
The possibility that histamine influences the spinal cord pathophysiology following trauma through specific receptor-mediated upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was examined in a rat model. A focal spinal cord injury (SCI) was inflicted by a longitudinal incision into the right dorsal horn of the T10-11 segments. The animals were allowed to survive 5h. The SCI significantly induced breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier to protein tracers, reduced the spinal cord blood flow at 5h, and increased the edema formation and massive upregulation of nNOS expression...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132543/intravenous-administration-of-functionalized-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-does-not-induce-cns-injury-in-the-rat-influence-of-spinal-cord-trauma-and-cerebrolysin-treatment
#6
Preeti K Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V Lafuente, Dafin F Muresanu, Zoraida P Aguilar, Y Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S Sharma
Influence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50mg/mL in 100μL, i.v.) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4-24h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors, and active peptide fragments was also evaluated on IOMNP-induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127599/cb1-receptors-mediated-inhibition-of-atp-induced-ca-2-i-increase-in-cultured-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-neurons
#7
Jingdong Long, Xiaolu Lei, Meiyun Chen, Shulei Yang, Tao Sun, Junwei Zeng, Deqian Yu, Hong Tian, Xiaohong Liu
Spinal cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and purinergic P2X receptors (P2XR) play a critical role in the process of pathological pain. Both CB1R and P2XR are expressed in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons. It is not clear whether CB1 receptor activation modulates the function of P2X receptor channels within dorsal horn. For this reason, we observed the effect of CP55940 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) on ATP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured rat DH neurons. The changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluorescent indicator...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096654/the-analgesic-effects-of-triptolide-in-the-bone-cancer-pain-rats-via-inhibiting-the-upregulation-of-hdacs-in-spinal-glial-cells
#8
Xiao-Fan Hu, Xiao-Tao He, Kai-Xiang Zhou, Chen Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhao, Ting Zhang, Jin-Lian Li, Jian-Ping Deng, Yu-Lin Dong
BACKGROUND: Bone cancer pain (BCP) severely compromises the quality of life, while current treatments are still unsatisfactory. Here, we tested the antinociceptive effects of triptolide (T10), a substance with considerable anti-tumor efficacies on BCP, and investigated the underlying mechanisms targeting the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). METHODS: Intratibial inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells was used to establish a BCP model in rats. T10 was intrathecally injected, and mechanical allodynia was tested by measuring the paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080683/interaction-between-astrocytic-colony-stimulating-factor-and-its-receptor-on-microglia-mediates-central-sensitization-and-behavioral-hypersensitivity-in-chronic-post-ischemic-pain-model
#9
Yuying Tang, Lian Liu, Dan Xu, Wensheng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jieshu Zhou, Wei Huang
Accumulation of microglia occurs in the dorsal horn in the rodent model of chronic post ischemic pain (CPIP), while the mechanism how microglia affects the development of persistent pain largely remains unknown. Here, using a rodent model of CPIP induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the hindpaw, we observed that microglial accumulation occurred in the ipsilateral dorsal horn after ischemia 3h, and in ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal horn in the rats with ischemia 6h. The accumulated microglia released BDNF, increased neuronal excitability in dorsal horn, and produced pain behaviors in the modeled rodents...
October 30, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079432/peripheral-nerve-injury-induced-rearrangement-of-neural-circuit-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-revealed-by-cross-correlation-analysis
#10
Yu Takemura, Shunsaku Kobayashi, Eiko Kato, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Yuuichi Hori
Peripheral nerve injury often induces abnormal pain states, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. In this study, we attempted to elucidate how neurons are synaptically integrated into the neuronal circuitry in the spinal dorsal horn and how synaptic connectivity patterns among dorsal horn neurons are altered by peripheral nerve injury. Experiments were performed on 6-8-week-old ICR mice. Partial sciatic nerve ligation was performed. Transverse slices of the lumbar spinal cord were prepared. Spike activities were simultaneously recorded from multiple neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) using a multi-electrode array system, and cross-correlograms between spike trains of neuron pairs were constructed...
October 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075579/expression-of-bdnf-and-trkb-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-genetic-model-of-vulnerability-roman-low-avoidance-and-resistance-roman-high-avoidance-to-stress-induced-depression
#11
M Pina Serra, Laura Poddighe, Marianna Boi, Francesco Sanna, M Antonietta Piludu, M Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Marina Quartu
INTRODUCTION: The selective breeding of Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) rats for, respectively, rapid versus poor acquisition of the active avoidance response has generated two distinct phenotypes differing in many behavioral traits, including coping strategies to aversive conditions. Thus, RLA rats are considered as a genetic model of vulnerability to stress-induced depression whereas RHA rats are a model of resilience to that trait. Besides the monoamine hypothesis of depression, there is evidence that alterations in neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus and other brain areas are critically involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074619/presynaptic-mglur5-receptor-controls-glutamatergic-input-through-protein-kinase-c-nmda-receptors-in-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain
#12
Jing-Dun Xie, Shao-Rui Chen, Hui-Lin Pan
Chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel cause painful peripheral neuropathy in many cancer patients and survivors. Although NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at primary afferent terminals are known to be critically involved in chemotherapy-induced chronic pain, the upstream signaling mechanism that leads to presynaptic NMDAR activation is unclear. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play a role in synaptic plasticity and NMDAR regulation. Here we report that the Group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) significantly increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked from the dorsal root...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071294/data-on-the-expression-of-leptin-and-leptin-receptor-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-and-spinal-cord-after-preganglionic-cervical-root-avulsion
#13
Kai-Ting Chang, Yi-Lo Lin, Chi-Te Lin, May-Jywan Tsai, Wen-Cheng Huang, Yang-Hsin Shih, Yi-Yen Lee, Henrich Cheng, Ming-Chao Huang
Leptin (Lep) is mainly, although not exclusively, secreted by adipocytes. In addition to regulating lipid metabolism, it is also a proinflammatory factor and involved in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) (Lim et al., 2009; Maeda et al., 2009) [1,2]. Leptin or its messenger ribonucleic acid expression has been found in various brain regions normally and in the dorsal horn after PNI (Lim et al., 2009; Ur et al., 2002; La Cava et al., 2004; White et al., 2004) [1,[3], [4], [5]]...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068060/parvalbumin-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-horn-it-s-not-all-about-gaba
#14
Sam A Booker, David J A Wyllie
Parvalbumin containing inhibitory interneurons (PV + INs) are a key element controlling co-ordinated activity of neuronal ensembles in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066998/somatotopy-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-as-a-basis-for-orofacial-reflex-behavior
#15
W Michael Panneton, BingBing Pan, Qi Gan
The somatotopy of the trigeminocervical complex of the rat was defined as a basis for describing circuitry for reflex behaviors directed through the facial motor nucleus. Thus, transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase conjugates applied to individual nerves/peripheral receptive fields showed that nerves innervating oropharyngeal structures projected most rostrally, followed by nerves innervating snout, periocular, and then periauricular receptive fields most caudally. Nerves innervating mucosae or glabrous receptive fields terminated densely in laminae I, II, and V of the trigeminocervical complex, while those innervating hairy skin terminated in laminae I-V...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063143/the-nav1-7-blocker-protoxin-ii-reduces-burn-injury-induced-spinal-nociceptive-processing
#16
Jose Vicente Torres-Pérez, Pavel Adamek, Jiri Palecek, Marcela Vizcaychipi, Istvan Nagy, Angelika Varga
Controlling pain in burn-injured patients poses a major clinical challenge. Recent findings suggest that reducing the activity of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 in primary sensory neurons could provide improved pain control in burn-injured patients. Here, we report that partial thickness scalding-type burn injury on the rat paw upregulates Nav1.7 expression in primary sensory neurons 3 h following injury. The injury also induces upregulation in phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (p-CREB), a marker for nociceptive activation in primary sensory neurons...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046639/neonatal-colonic-inflammation-increases-spinal-transmission-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthetase-expression-in-spinal-dorsal-horn-of-rats-with-visceral-hypersensitivity
#17
Liting Zhao, Ying Xiao, Rui-Xia Weng, Xuelian Liu, Ping-An Zhang, Chuang-Ying Hu, Shan P Yu, Guang-Yin Xu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and alteration of bowel movements. The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients remains largely unknown. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is reported to play an important role in development of visceral hyperalgesia. However, the role of H2S at spinal dorsal horn level remains elusive in visceral hypersensitivity. The aim of this study is designed to investigate how H2S takes part in visceral hypersensitivity of adult rats with neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037608/chemokine-ccl8-and-its-receptor-ccr5-in-the-spinal-cord-are-involved-in-visceral-pain-induced-by-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#18
Ying Lu, Bao-Chun Jiang, De-Li Cao, Lin-Xia Zhao, You-Li Zhang
Visceral hypersensitivity induced by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical challenge since the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Chemokines and their receptors have been suggested to modulate inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. However, the exact chemokines involved in visceral pain remain to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of spinal chemokine CCL8 and its major receptor CCR5 on the development of visceral hyperalgesia. We showed that intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice produced significant colonic inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension...
October 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031858/involvement-of-integrin-%C3%AE-1-fak-signaling-in-the-analgesic-effects-induced-by-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-neuropathic-pain
#19
Hong-Jun Wang, Ge Song, Jian Liang, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Cun-Jin Wang
Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) continues to be a clinical challenge and the underlying mechanisms of NP remain elusive. More evidence suggests that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent anti-nociceptive effects on NP, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Recent data have shown that integrin β1 plays an important part in NP induction, and that the activity of integrin β1 signaling is associated with the phosphorylation of the conserved threonines in the cytoplasmic domain and recruitment of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the integrin β1 tail and phosphorylation...
October 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024431/the-cytoarchitecture-of-the-telencephalon-of-betta-splendens-regan-1910-perciformes-anabantoidei-with-a-stereological-approach-to-the-supracommissural-and-postcommissural-nuclei
#20
Ângelo Cássio Magalhães Horn, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
Teleostean fish brains are useful models to study cellular and functional specializations along the phylogenesis. The Betta splendens Regan 1910 (Siamese fighting fish; Perciformes:Anabantoidei) is known for its aggressive display, courtship behavior, nest building, and offspring care. Here, we present novel and detailed data about the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb and the telencephalic hemispheres of this fish. The hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl techniques served to identify brain nuclei (n = 19 males and n = 21 females) and for the stereological evaluation of the numerical density of cells and the proportion of neurons and glial cells in the ventral telencephalon supracommissural (Vs) and postcommissural (Vp) nuclei of adult males and females...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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