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Immunohistochemistry for gastrointestinal neoplasms

Patrizia Rubini, Francesco Tartamella
The present case report described the acute presentation, diagnosis and management of a primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the ileum. A male patient (age, 51 years) was admitted to Maggiore Hospital (Parma, Italy) due to presenting with fever, dysuria and lower abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a 7,5×5,5-cm pelvic mass containing air and purulent fluid indicative of an intraperitoneal abscess. The patient was subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy, which revealed a huge, soft cystic mass arising from the small bowel...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
S F Lax
The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of uterine tumors revealed simplification of the classification by fusion of several entities and the introduction of novel entities. Among the multitude of alterations, the following are named: a simplified classification for precursor lesions of endometrial carcinoma now distinguishes between hyperplasia without atypia and atypical hyperplasia, the latter also known as endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). For endometrial carcinoma a differentiation is made between type 1 (endometrioid carcinoma with variants and mucinous carcinoma) and type 2 (serous and clear cell carcinoma)...
November 2016: Der Pathologe
David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Faqian Li
CONTEXT: -High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids can arise in different sites such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and skin. Classic neuroendocrine markers such as CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin cannot distinguish carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Recently, mouse monoclonal mASH1 has been shown to help discriminate carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in various neoplastic sites. To date, there have been no comprehensive immunohistochemistry studies with mASH1 on nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
R J Rieker, A Marx, A Agaimy, P Ströbel
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
Marcus Vinicius Rozo Rodrigues, Valdir Tercioti-Junior, Luiz Roberto Lopes, João de Souza Coelho-Neto, Nelson Adami Andreollo
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm in the female population. However, stomach is a rare site for metastasis, and can show up many years after initial diagnosis and treatment of the primary tumor. AIM: Analyze a case series of this tumor and propose measures that can diagnose it with more precocity. METHODS: Were analyzed 12 patients with secondary gastric tumors. Immunohistochemistry has demonstrated that primary tumor was breast cancer...
April 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Jennifer M Boland, Andrew L Folpe
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor is a very rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm that may occur in any location in the gastrointestinal tract. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumors typically consist of sheet-like to pseudopapillary proliferation of primitive-appearing epithelioid cells with a moderate amount of lightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei and small nucleoli, often in association with osteoclast-like giant cells. By immunohistochemistry, these tumors show expression of S100 protein and SOX10, in the absence of expression of more specific melanocytic markers (e...
June 23, 2016: Human Pathology
Heewon A Kwak, Xiuli Liu, Daniela S Allende, Rish K Pai, John Hart, Shu-Yuan Xiao
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is considered a precursor lesion to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These are further classified into four histologic subtypes: gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic. The first aim of this study was to assess the interobserver variability among five gastrointestinal pathologists in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes by morphology alone. The second aim of the study was to compare intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes, which received consensus diagnoses (≥80% agreement) with their respective mucin immunoprofiles (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CDX2)...
September 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Jennifer Wang, Juliana Andrici, Loretta Sioson, Adele Clarkson, Amy Sheen, Mahtab Farzin, Christopher W Toon, John Turchini, Anthony J Gill
SMARCB1 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes for the protein INI1. SMARCB1 is commonly inactivated and INI1 correspondingly shows loss of expression in a range of malignant neoplasms including rhabdoid tumors, renal medullary carcinomas, and epithelioid sarcomas. Loss of INI1 expression has recently been reported in occasional gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. We sought to investigate the incidence and clinicopathological significance of INI1 loss in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Immunohistochemistry for INI1 was performed in tissue microarray (TMA) format on a well-characterized and unselected cohort of CRCs undergoing surgical resection...
September 2016: Human Pathology
Enrico Fiori, Daniele Ferraro, Alessandro De Cesare, Giovanni Leone, Cecilia Barmann, Alberto Schillaci, Francesco Borrini
UNLABELLED: In this article, we reviewed the case of a patient who was object, in 1999, of a published case report of schwannoma of the jejunal wall. Recently, the patient has been referred to our institution for a mass of the stomach identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient underwent a wedge resection of the stomach and a histopathological diagnosis of GIST of the stomach, based on a positive immunohistochemical staining of c-kit and CD34, was made. In consideration of these findings, we performed immunohistochemistry for c-kit and for CD34 on the previous lesion of the jejunal wall, which resulted strongly positive for CD117 and negative for CD34...
2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Michele De Benedittis, Alice Palmiotto, Monica Turco, Massimo Petruzzi, Roberto Cortelazzi
Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is a malignancy rarely affecting the salivary glands, with fewer than 30 cases described in the medical literature. MAC is mostly observed in the minor salivary glands of the palate, and to date, no case of salivary MAC has been reported in the mandible. Identifying a salivary MAC may be both clinically and histopathologically challenging, as differential diagnosis must consider not only other salivary malignancies expressing a mucinous component but also metastases from MACs of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, and sweat glands that strongly resemble a salivary MAC on histopathology...
May 11, 2016: Odontology
Sambit K Mohanty, Stacey A Kim, Deborah F DeLair, Shikha Bose, Anna R Laury, Shefali Chopra, Richard B Mertens, Deepti Dhall
Metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast may show considerable morphologic overlap with primary mammary carcinomas, particularly those showing evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation, and may be misdiagnosed as such. Accurate distinction between these two entities is crucial for determination of appropriate clinical management. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast were studied and compared with the features of primary invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, which served as controls...
August 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
José Francisco Juanmartiñena Fernández, Ignacio Fernández-Urien, Alicia Córdoba
Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is most common primary melanoma of gastrointestinal tract, accounting for 0.05% and 1% of all colorectal and anal cancers. We reported an 85 year-old woman with no significant past medical history who presented two-month period of rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, tenesmus and 2kg weight-loss. Laboratory markers were unremarkable, although rectal examination revealed two small haemorrhoids and a firm, non-obstructing mass in the lower rectum. Colonoscopy confirmed presence of an ulcerated pigmented neoplasm arising at dental line [A,B]...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Xiaoping Xu, Juan Su, Ran Li, Yadong Wang, Di Zeng, Baoping Wu
The SHH signaling pathway is critical for gastrointestinal development and organic patterning, and dysregulation of SHH pathway molecules has been detected in multiple gastrointestinal neoplasms. This study investigated the role of the SHH signaling pathway in PJS. Expression of SHH, PTCH, and GLI1 was examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in 20 normal tissues and 75 colorectal lesions (25 PJPs, 25 adenomas, and 25 adenocarcinomas). Expression of SHH, PTCH, and GLI1 mRNA was higher in PJPs than in normal tissue (P < ...
April 2016: Human Pathology
Vlado Janevski, Redžep Selmani, Vesna Janevska, Liljana Spasevska, Julija Zhivadinovik
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Leiomyosarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare mesenchymal neoplasms which grossly and histologically resemble gastrointestinal stromal tumors. They may be differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors by using immunohistochemistry and they are typically positive for a smooth muscle actin and desmin and negative for c-kit, CD34 and DOG1.1. They often express calponin and h-caldesmon...
November 2015: Medicinski Pregled
Shanna M Colletti, Ghassan A Tranesh, Chantel R Whetsell, Larissa N Chambers, Aziza Nassar
BACKGROUND: Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been suboptimal in the subclassification and grading of mesenchymal tumors. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have shown promise in improving this area. The institutional experience with CNBs of soft tissue lesions on cytology cases and correlated histologic follow-up has been evaluated. It also addressed the advantageous use of ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. METHODS: Archived cytologic CNB material and reports of patients with soft tissue lesions were retrieved and CNB results with final resection results were compared...
April 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher Dm Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
The diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is challenging, particularly in the sporadic setting. Inactivation of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), resulting from inactivating mutations of its constituents SUZ12 or EED1, has recently been identified in 70-90% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Homozygous PRC2 inactivation results in loss of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). PRC2 inactivation promotes tumor progression and may render patients sensitive to epigenetic-based targeted therapies...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Abbas Agaimy, Ondrej Daum, Bruno Märkl, Ines Lichtmannegger, Michal Michal, Arndt Hartmann
Undifferentiated gastrointestinal tract carcinomas are rare highly aggressive neoplasms with frequent but not obligatory rhabdoid features. Recent studies showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, in 50% of tested cases. However, the molecular pathways underlying histologically similar but SMARCB1-intact cases are unknown. We herein analyzed 13 cases for expression of 4 SWI/SNF complex subunits SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and ARID1A and the mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 by immunohistochemistry...
April 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Sarah Strickland, Jason K Wasserman, Ana Giassi, Bojana Djordjevic, Carlos Parra-Herran
Immunohistochemistry is frequently used to identify ovarian mucinous neoplasms as primary or metastatic; however, there is significant overlap in expression patterns. We compared traditional markers (CK7, CK20, CDX2, PAX8, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC) to 2 novel proteins identified through mining of the Human Protein Atlas expression database: SATB2 and POF1B. The study cohort included 49 primary gastrointestinal (GI) mucinous adenocarcinomas (19 colorectal, 15 gastric, 15 pancreatobiliary), 60 primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms (19 cystadenomas, 21 borderline tumors, 20 adenocarcinomas), and 19 metastatic carcinomas to the ovary (14 lower and 5 upper GI primaries)...
May 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Nermine M Abd Raboh, Sarah A Hakim
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of salivary carcinomas is always difficult and challenging. Salivary neoplasms often shows more than one growth pattern and significant morphologic variability may exist within a single tumor and between different tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the role of DOG1 (discovered on gastrointestinal tumor-1) and p63 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of salivary carcinomas. METHODS: we examined the expression of DOG1 and p63 immunohistochemistry in 33 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 9 acinic cell carcinomas (ACC), 10 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC) and 4 myoepithelial carcinomas...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
N Camargo Schneider, N Coelho, P Dutra, R Dalmolin, R Dincao, M Appel
INTRODUCTION: Male, 72-year-old, morbidly obese, diabetic, admitted for abdominal pain, prostration and fever that started last 3 days. Abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography scan showed liver injury in the transition of V and VI segments measuring 8.4 cm. Due to the possibility of liver abscess, initiate empirical antibiotic therapy with ampicillin and sulbactam and metronidazole and performed ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of liver injury. Negative for malignant cells, with the presence of leukocytes and negative culture...
April 2014: Endoscopic Ultrasound
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