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Immunohistochemistry for carcinoma of unknown primary

Ildikó Krencz, Anna Sebestyén, Katalin Fábián, Ágnes Márk, Judit Moldvay, András Khoor, László Kopper, Judit Pápay
Brain metastases are common complications of adenocarcinomas of the lung and are associated with a poor prognosis. Although an increasing amount of data indicates that dysregulated activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can influence the metastatic potential of various tumors, the role of mTOR complexes in the development of brain metastases from adenocarcinomas of the lung is largely unknown. To estimate mTOR activity, we studied the expression of mTOR related proteins (mTORC1: p-mTOR, p-S6; mTORC2: p-mTOR, Rictor) in primary (n=67) and brain metastatic (n=67) lung adenocarcinomas, including 15 paired tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
Hyun-Wook Lee, Mary E Handlogten, Gunars Osis, William L Clapp, Dara N Wakefield, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Regulated dicarboxylate transport is critical for acid-base homeostasis, prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis, regulation of collecting duct sodium chloride transport and the regulation of blood pressure. Although luminal dicarboxylate reabsorption via NaDC1 (SLC13A2) is believed to be the primary mechanism regulating renal dicarboxylate transport, the specific localization of NaDC1 in the human kidney is currently unknown. This study's purpose was to determine NaDC1's expression in normal and neoplastic human kidneys...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Stefania Bellone, Eliana Bignotti, Silvia Lonardi, Francesca Ferrari, Floriana Centritto, Alice Masserdotti, Francesca Pettinella, Jonathan Black, Gulden Menderes, Gary Altwerger, Pei Hui, Salvatore Lopez, Christopher de Haydu, Elena Bonazzoli, Federica Predolini, Luca Zammataro, Emiliano Cocco, Federico Ferrari, Antonella Ravaggi, Chiara Romani, Fabio Facchetti, Enrico Sartori, Franco E Odicino, Dan-Arin Silasi, Babak Litkouhi, Elena Ratner, Masoud Azodi, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
OBJECTIVE: Up to 12% of all endometrial-carcinomas (EC) harbor DNA-polymerase-ε-(POLE) mutations. It is currently unknown whether the favorable prognosis of POLE-mutated EC is derived from their low metastatic capability, extraordinary number of somatic mutations thus imparting immunogenicity, or a high sensitivity to chemotherapy. METHODS: Polymerase-chain-reaction-amplification and Sanger-sequencing were used to test for POLE exonuclease-domain-mutations (exons 9-14) 131 EC...
January 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Kristine M Cornejo, Lloyd Hutchinson, Keith Tomaszewicz, Karen Dresser, April Deng, Patrick OʼDonnell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor that typically occurs on the head and neck of the elderly and follows an aggressive clinical course. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been identified in up to 80% of cases and has been shown to participate in MCC tumorigenesis. Complete spontaneous regression of MCC has been rarely reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 79-year-old man that presented with a rapidly growing, 3-cm mass on the left jaw. An incisional biopsy revealed MCC...
November 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Alina Busch, Larissa Bauer, Eva Wardelmann, Claudia Rudack, Inga Grünewald, Markus Stenner
AIMS: Cancer of the major salivary glands comprises a morphologically diverse group of rare tumours of largely unknown cause. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a significant prognostic role in various human cancers. The aim was to assess the expression of EMT markers in different histological subtypes of parotid gland cancer (PGC) and analyse their prognostic value. METHODS: We examined 94 PGC samples (13 histological subtypes) for the expression of MIB-1, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, vimentin and cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18) by means of immunohistochemistry...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Ying-Bei Chen, Jianing Xu, Anders Jacobsen Skanderup, Yiyu Dong, A Rose Brannon, Lu Wang, Helen H Won, Patricia I Wang, Gouri J Nanjangud, Achim A Jungbluth, Wei Li, Virginia Ojeda, A Ari Hakimi, Martin H Voss, Nikolaus Schultz, Robert J Motzer, Paul Russo, Emily H Cheng, Filippo G Giancotti, William Lee, Michael F Berger, Satish K Tickoo, Victor E Reuter, James J Hsieh
Renal cell carcinomas with unclassified histology (uRCC) constitute a significant portion of aggressive non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas that have no standard therapy. The oncogenic drivers in these tumours are unknown. Here we perform a molecular analysis of 62 high-grade primary uRCC, incorporating targeted cancer gene sequencing, RNA sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. We identify recurrent somatic mutations in 29 genes, including NF2 (18%), SETD2 (18%), BAP1 (13%), KMT2C (10%) and MTOR (8%)...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Marc R Rohrbach, Christopher J Britt, Michael Schwalbe, Aaron M Wieland, Gregory K Hartig
PURPOSE: Metastatic cervical carcinoma of unknown primary (MCCUP) is increasing in frequency owing in part to rising human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal carcinoma. Identifying the primary site is valuable, because it is associated with increased survival and decreased morbidity. HPV-positive cervical nodal disease focuses attention on the oropharynx for directed biopsy examinations, including tonsillectomy. When the primary is small, carcinoma might not be apparent by traditional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining alone...
March 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Virginia E Duncan, Shuko Harada, Todd M Stevens
We report a case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with rectal bleeding and a 9.5 cm hemicircumferential ascending colon mass. Histology revealed adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), a rare subtype comprised of malignant squamous and glandular elements. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression and retained MSH2/MSH6 expression in squamous and glandular components, indicative of microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI is caused by loss-of-function defects in DNA mismatch repair genes, leading to increased susceptibility to a variety of neoplasms; the role of MSI in colorectal ASC is unknown...
October 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Eivind Valen Egeland, Kjersti Flatmark, Jahn M Nesland, Vivi Ann Flørenes, Gunhild M Mælandsmo, Kjetil Boye
Wee1 is a nuclear kinase regulating cell cycle progression, and has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Expression of Wee1 has been associated with poor outcome in certain tumor types, but the prognostic impact and clinical significance in colorectal cancer is unknown. The expression of Wee1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in primary colorectal carcinomas from a prospectively collected patient cohort, and associations with clinicopathological parameters and outcome were investigated. Cell culture experiments were performed using the cell lines RKO and SW620, and the relationship with the metastasis-promoting protein S100A4 was investigated...
September 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Natallia Kharytaniuk, Peter Molony, Seamus Boyle, Gerard O'Leary, Reiltin Werner, Cynthia Heffron, Linda Feeley, Patrick Sheahan
IMPORTANCE: The presence of extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastatic nodes is considered a poor prognosticator in head and neck cancer, with postoperative chemoradiation therapy often recommended over radiation therapy alone in such cases. However, there is less clarity regarding the effect of ECS on human papillomavirus-associated oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) or carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of ECS according to human papillomavirus status in OPSCC and CUP with survival...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Jianhui Shi, Haiyan Liu, Xiao-Jun Ma, Zongming Chen, Ming-Xiao He, Yuling Luo, Fan Lin
CONTEXT: TTF-1 and napsin A immunomarkers have a crucial role in differentiating lung adenocarcinoma from lung squamous cell carcinoma and in identifying a primary lung adenocarcinoma when working on a tumor of unknown origin. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic sensitivity of ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization (RNAscope) in the detection of expression of these biomarkers in lung adenocarcinomas and to compare RNAscope to immunohistochemical techniques...
April 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Ying Zhu, Meng-Xiao Zhu, Xiao-Dan Zhang, Xiu-E Xu, Zhi-Yong Wu, Lian-Di Liao, Li-Yan Li, Yang-Min Xie, Jian-Yi Wu, Hai-Ying Zou, Jian-Jun Xie, En-Min Li, Li-Yan Xu
Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in the regulation of cancer initiation and progression. SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a methyltransferase, plays an important role in transcriptional regulation during human cancer progression. However, SMYD3 expression and its function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unknown. In this study, SMYD3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in a tumor tissue microarray from 131 cases of ESCC patients...
June 2016: Human Pathology
Xing Tan, Li Liao, Yan-Ping Wan, Mei-Xiang Li, Si-Han Chen, Wen-Juan Mo, Qiong-Lan Zhao, Li-Fang Huang, Gu-Qing Zeng
BACKGROUND: We found that selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) was progressively decreased in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic processes. Knockdown of SBP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells significantly increased the efficiency of B[a]P-induced cell transformation. However, the relationship between SBP1 expression and clinicopathological factors of patients has not been defined completely. The specific role of SBP1 in prognosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is still unknown...
March 8, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Kerstin Holzer, Elisabeth Drucker, Scott Oliver, Juliane Winkler, Eva Eiteneuer, Esther Herpel, Kai Breuhahn, Stephan Singer
Thyroid carcinoma is among the most common malignant endocrine neoplasms with a rising incidence. Genetic alterations occurring in thyroid cancer frequently affect the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-pathway such as the oncogenic, kinase-activating BRAF(V600E) mutation. Nuclear transport receptors including importins and exportins represent an important part of the nuclear transport machinery providing nucleo-cytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. The role of nuclear transport receptors in the development and progression of thyroid carcinomas is largely unknown...
April 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Lachlan J McDowell, Richard J Young, Meredith L Johnston, Tze-Jian Tan, Stephen Kleid, Chen S Liu, Mathias Bressel, Vanessa Estall, Danny Rischin, Benjamin Solomon, June Corry
BACKGROUND: The incidence of p16 overexpression and the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (cHNSCC) are unclear. METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients with cHNSCC lymph node metastases involving the parotid gland were evaluated for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. The detection of 18 high-risk HPV subtypes was performed with HPV RNA in situ hybridization for a subset of 59 patients. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features and outcomes...
April 15, 2016: Cancer
Atsuko Kasajima, José Cameselle-Teijeiro, Lourdes Loidi, Yoshio Takahashi, Noriaki Nakashima, Satoko Sato, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Mika Watanabe, Tadao Nakazawa, Hiroshi Naganuma, Tetsuo Kondo, Ryohei Kato, Hironobu Sasano
Neuroendocrine tumors of the thyroid gland are generally considered to derive from parafollicular endocrine cells (C cells) and are generally referred to as medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Calcitonin secretion is almost always detected in MTC and a prerequisite for both clinical and pathological diagnosis. Thyroid neuroendocrine tumors without any apparent calcitonin secretion reflect a diagnostic dilemma because non-calcitonin-producing MTCs have virtually not been characterized. Here, we report a case of primary thyroid neuroendocrine tumors lacking calcitonin secretion or expression...
December 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Satu Luhtala, Synnöve Staff, Minna Tanner, Jorma Isola
Cyclin E is a well-characterized cell cycle regulator and an amplified oncogene in breast cancer. Over-expression of cyclin E has generally been associated with poor survival. Recent studies have shown an interaction between HER-2 (ERBB2) and cyclin E, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Interestingly, cyclin E over-expression has been associated with trastuzumab resistance. We studied cyclin E over-expression, CCNE1 amplification, and relapse-free survival in HER-2-positive primary breast cancers treated with and without trastuzumab therapy...
July 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Deepali Jain, Saumya R Mallick, Varsha Singh, Geetika Singh, Sandeep R Mathur, Mehar C Sharma
BACKGROUND: Napsin A is frequently used to classify a tumor of unknown origin as lung primary. Recent studies have shown that Napsin A positivity occurs in adenocarcinomas of nonpulmonary origin such as renal cell carcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas of ovary. Nonspecific reactivity has been reported with polyclonal Napsin A antibody. On the basis of an index case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ALK-DLBCL) expressing Napsin A, which was misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinoma of pulmonary origin, we studied Napsin A expression in our archived cases of ALK-DLBCL...
May 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Liang Hu, Hai-Yang Chen, Jian Cai, Guang-Zhen Yang, Dan Feng, Yan-Xia Zhai, Hui Gong, Chen-Ye Qi, Yu Zhang, Hao Fu, Qing-Ping Cai, Chun-Fang Gao
BACKGROUND: Neuropilin and tolloid-like 2 (NETO2) has been found to be overexpressed in different human cancers, but its expression pattern and clinical relevance in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains unknown. METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses were used to analyze the expression of NETO2 in CRC clinical samples. The correlation of NETO2 expression with clinicopathologic features was estimated in a cohort containing 292 patients with primary CRC...
2015: BMC Cancer
Wayne A Warner, Deborah J Wong, Fernando Palma-Diaz, Terry Y Shibuya, Jamil Momand
We describe the presentation, treatment, clinical outcome, and targeted genome analysis of a metastatic salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). A 71-year-old male presented with a 3 cm right tail of a parotid lesion, first detected as a nodule by the patient seven months earlier. He had a right total parotidectomy with cranial nerve VII resection, right facial nerve resection and grafting, resection of the right conchal cartilage, and right modified radical neck dissection. The primary tumor revealed AciCC with two distinct areas: a well-differentiated component with glandular architecture and a dedifferentiated component with infiltrative growth pattern associated with prominent stromal response, necrosis, perineural invasion, and cellular pleomorphism...
2015: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
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