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Dysplasia in ulcerative colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524162/targeted-sequencing-based-analyses-of-candidate-gene-variants-in-ulcerative-colitis-associated-colorectal-neoplasia
#1
Sanjiban Chakrabarty, Vinay Koshy Varghese, Pranoy Sahu, Pradyumna Jayaram, Bhadravathi M Shivakumar, Cannanore Ganesh Pai, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
BACKGROUND: Long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) leading to colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most serious and life-threatening consequences acknowledged globally. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis showed distinct molecular alterations when compared with sporadic colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Targeted sequencing of 409 genes in tissue samples of 18 long-standing UC subjects at high risk of colorectal carcinoma (UCHR) was performed to identify somatic driver mutations, which may be involved in the molecular changes during the transformation of non-dysplastic mucosa to high-grade dysplasia...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428105/microcarcinoid-arising-in-patients-with-long-standing-ulcerative-colitis-histological-analysis
#2
Sachie Kanada, Akira Sugita, Tetuo Mikami, Kenichi Ohashi, Hiroyuki Hayashi
Some case reports of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) have been published. Most NET cases are small lesions corresponding to microcarcinoids (MCs). However, published case reports have presented findings of MCs as single-case reports. Thus, the frequency of MCs is still unclear. In this study, we described the clinical and morphological features of 14 cases of UC-associated MC and estimated the frequency of MC. Consecutive patients with UC who underwent complete removal of the large intestine were assessed, and 135 patients were selected...
April 17, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383667/inactivation-of-jnk2-as-carcinogenic-factor-in-colitis-associated-and-sporadic-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#3
Wiebke Lessel, Andrew Silver, Doerthe Jechorek, Thomas Guenther, Friedrich-Wilhelm Roehl, Thomas Kalinski, Albert Roessner, Angela Poehlmann-Nitsche
We recently reported that dysregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activity causes defective cell cycle checkpoint control, inducing neoplastic transformation in a cellular ulcerative colitis (UC) model. In the quiescent chronic phase of UC, p-p54 JNK was down-regulated and p-p46 JNK was up-regulated. Both were up-regulated in the acute phase. Consequently, increased p21WAF1 and γ-H2AX, two JNK-regulated proteins, induced cell cycle arrest. Their down-regulation led to checkpoint override, causing increased proliferation and undetected DNA damage in quiescent chronic phase, all characteristics of tumorigenesis...
May 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369329/vedolizumab-induces-long-term-mucosal-healing-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Maja Noman, Marc Ferrante, Raf Bisschops, Gert De Hertogh, Karolien Van den Broeck, Karen Rans, Paul J Rutgeerts, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche
Introduction.: Vedolizumab has proven efficacy in IBD, but long term mucosal healing in Crohn's disease (CD), as well as the incidence of colorectal neoplasia in IBD, among patients treated with vedolizumab have not been studied. We aimed to document mucosal healing and to explore the risk of colorectal neoplasia with vedolizumab maintenance therapy. Methods.: Surveillance colonoscopy was prospectively scheduled for patients with longstanding UC or CD at a tertiary referral center in the open label extension phase (vedolizumab 300 mg IV q 4 wks) of the Gemini studies (GEMINI LTS, study number NCT00790933)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321155/pseudopolyps-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-have-we-learned-enough
#5
REVIEW
Dimitrios S Politis, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Epameinondas V Tsianos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou
Pseudopolyps are a well described entity in the literature and even though the exact pathogenesis of their formation is not completely understood, they are considered non-neoplastic lesions originating from the mucosa after repeated periods of inflammation and ulceration associated with excessive healing processes. Their occurrence is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, and their overall prevalence ranges from 4% to 74%; moreover, they are found more often in colon but have been detected in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract as well...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288169/the-mir-200-family-is-increased-in-dysplastic-lesions-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#6
Amy Lewis, Carla Felice, Tomoko Kumagai, Cecilia Lai, Kriti Singh, Rosemary R Jeffery, Roger Feakins, Eleni Giannoulatou, Alessandro Armuzzi, Noor Jawad, James O Lindsay, Andrew Silver
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a life-threatening complication of ulcerative colitis (UC), and patients are routinely screened for the development of precancerous lesions (dysplasia). However, rates of CRC development in patients with confirmed low-grade dysplasia vary widely between studies, suggesting a large degree of heterogeneity between these lesions that is not detectable macroscopically. A better understanding of the underlying molecular changes that occur in dysplasia will help to identify lesions at higher risk of malignancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261835/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-use-of-5-aminosalicylates-and-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
S Bonovas, G Fiorino, T Lytras, G Nikolopoulos, L Peyrin-Biroulet, S Danese
BACKGROUND: The relationship of 5-aminosalicylates' use with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the focus of a growing body of research. AIM: To investigate this association through an updated meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and major conference proceedings were searched up to December 2016. The identified studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity...
May 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255443/well-differentiated-adenocarcinoma-associated-with-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Tomoko Yamamoto, Atsuko Hiroi, Hiroko Itagaki, Yoichiro Kato, Bunei Iizuka, Michio Itabashi, Noriyuki Shibata, Yoji Nagashima
OBJECTIVES: Adenocarcinoma is known to be associated with ulcerative colitis, but the diagnosis is sometimes challenging, both clinically and pathologically. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a case of extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma associated with ulcerative colitis, in which preoperative diagnosis was not possible. Glands in biopsy specimens showed a serrated appearance that looked like low-grade dysplasia or regenerative mucosa. After an operation due to severe symptoms of stenosis, carcinoma was diagnosed...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244237/usefulness-of-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-to-diagnose-ulcerative-colitis-associated-neoplasia
#9
Naoki Ohmiya, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomomitsu Tahara, Dai Yoshida, Hyuga Yamada, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Makoto Kuroda
Chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging (NBI), and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) have been introduced in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated neoplasia surveillance. We aimed to determine the ability of CLE to differentiate among UC-associated neoplasia (differentiated type or undifferentiated type), sporadic adenoma, and circumscribed regenerative lesions. Of 665 patients with UC, we performed probe-based CLE (pCLE) on 12 patients with suspected UC-associated neoplasia in addition to magnifying chromoendoscopy with crystal violet and NBI...
February 28, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198364/interleukin-22-drives-nitric-oxide-dependent-dna-damage-and-dysplasia-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis-associated-cancer
#10
C Wang, G Gong, A Sheh, S Muthupalani, E M Bryant, D A Puglisi, H Holcombe, E A Conaway, N A P Parry, V Bakthavatchalu, S P Short, C S Williams, G N Wogan, S R Tannenbaum, J G Fox, B H Horwitz
The risk of colon cancer is increased in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflammation-induced DNA damage could be an important link between inflammation and cancer, although the pathways that link inflammation and DNA damage are incompletely defined. RAG2-deficient mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) develop colitis that progresses to lower bowel cancer. This process depends on nitric oxide (NO), a molecule with known mutagenic potential. We have previously hypothesized that production of NO by macrophages could be essential for Hh-driven carcinogenesis, however, whether Hh infection induces DNA damage in this model and whether this depends on NO has not been determined...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182112/prevalence-and-anatomic-distribution-of-serrated-and-adenomatous-lesions-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Lik Hang Lee, Marietta Iacucci, Miriam Fort Gasia, Subrata Ghosh, Remo Panaccione, Stefan Urbanski
Background. Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) have not been well characterized in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study assesses the prevalence and anatomic distribution of SSA/Ps, TSAs, and conventional adenomas/dysplasia (Ad/Ds) in IBD patients. Methods. IBD patients with serrated, adenomatous, or hyperplastic lesions between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the regional tertiary-care hospital database. Clinicopathological information was reviewed and the histology of biopsies was reevaluated...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129293/ocular-surface-epithelial-atypia-mimicking-squamous-neoplasia-in-association-with-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Sally S Ong, Scott D Walter, Xi Chen, Gargi K Vora, Melissa Daluvoy, Alan D Proia, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease may be associated with extraintestinal manifestations. We report a case of severe reactive epithelial atypia resembling ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in a patient with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 32-year-old woman presented with sequential, progressive keratoconjunctival lesions in the left and right eyes, and both lesions were excised. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography demonstrated features similar to OSSN, whereas histological examination revealed severe reactive epithelial atypia mimicking severe dysplasia...
January 26, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126349/full-spectrum-endoscopy-improves-surveillance-for-dysplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
Rupert W Leong, Marie Ooi, Crispin Corte, Yunki Yau, Melissa Kermeen, Peter H Katelaris, Charles McDonald, Meng Ngu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Surveillance colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy is recommended, but conventional forward-viewing colonoscopy (FVC) detects dysplasia with low levels of sensitivity. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) incorporates 2 additional lateral cameras to the forward camera of the colonoscope, allowing endoscopists to view behind folds and in blind spots, which might increase dysplasia detection. We compared FUSE vs FVC in the detection of dysplasia in patients with IBDs...
May 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110377/sulfasalazine-in-prevention-of-pouchitis-after-proctocolectomy-with-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-ulcerative-colitis
#14
Eleonora Scaioli, Alessandro Sartini, Elisa Liverani, Richard John Digby, Giampaolo Ugolini, Giancarlo Rosati, Gilberto Poggioli, Davide Festi, Franco Bazzoli, Andrea Belluzzi
BACKGROUND: Pouchitis is the most frequent complication after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for refractory ulcerative colitis. A non-standardized preventative treatment exists. Sulfasalazine has proved effective in acute pouchitis therapy. AIMS: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of sulfasalazine in primary prophylaxis of pouchitis after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. METHODS: Data files of patients who underwent total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for refractory ulcerative colitis and/or dysplasia from January 2007 to December 2014, with a follow-up until August 2015, were analyzed...
April 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091842/squamous-cell-dysplasia-in-the-proximal-rectum-of-three-patients-treated-for-ulcerative-colitis-on-immunomodulators
#15
James G Connolly, Stephen E Goldstone
BACKGROUND: Anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is the precursor to anal cancer. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk and disease is usually within 3 cm from the anal verge. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with an 8-cm anoscope is used to identify and guide cautery treatment of HSIL. PURPOSE: We report three patients with a long-term history of ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with systemic immunomodulators who developed proximally located rectal HSIL...
May 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078646/mucosal-healing-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Boal Carvalho, José Cotter
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by periods of remission and periods of relapse. Patients often present with symptoms such as rectal bleeding, diarrhea and weight loss, and may require hospitalization and even colectomy. Long-term complications of UC include decreased quality of life and productivity and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mucosal healing (MH) has gained progressive importance in the management of UC patients. In this article, we review the endoscopic findings that define both mucosal injury and MH, and the strengths and limitations of the scoring systems currently available in clinical practice...
February 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066941/surveillance-for-dysplasia-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-discrepancy-between-guidelines-and-practice
#17
Masaru Shinozaki, Kiyonori Kobayashi, Reiko Kunisaki, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Makoto Naganuma, Ken-Ichi Takahashi, Yasushi Iwao, Yasuo Suzuki, Mamoru Watanabe, Michio Itabashi, Akira Torii, Masakazu Takazoe, Akira Sugita
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The risk of developing colorectal cancer is higher in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) than in the general population. Guidelines recommend surveillance colonoscopy (SCS) to reduce mortality; however, few studies have assessed physicians' adherence to guidelines. This study was aimed to clarify the current status of SCS and adherence to guidelines through the characteristics of cancer/dysplasia surveillance for UC patients in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to 541 physicians who attended meetings on inflammatory bowel disease...
January 9, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013111/risk-of-rectal-cancer-after-colectomy-for-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-national-cohort-study
#18
Maie Abdalla, Kalle Landerholm, Peter Andersson, Roland E Andersson, Pär Myrelid
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of rectal cancer, therefore reconstruction with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) generally is preferred to an ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) after subtotal colectomy. Similarly, completion proctectomy is recommended for patients with ileostomy and a diverted rectum, although this approach has been questioned because anti-inflammatory agents might reduce cancer risk. We performed a national cohort study in Sweden to assess the risk of rectal cancer in patients with UC who have an IRA, IPAA, or diverted rectum after subtotal colectomy...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951611/clinical-implications-of-low-grade-dysplasia-found-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease-surveillance-a-retrospective-study-comparing-chromoendoscopy-and-white-light-endoscopy
#19
Joren R Ten Hove, Erik Mooiweer, Andrea E van der Meulen de Jong, Evelien Dekker, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Peter D Siersema, Bas Oldenburg
Background and study aims Current guidelines recommend the use of pancolonic chromoendoscopy for surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is currently unknown whether low grade dysplasia (LGD) found using chromoendoscopy carries a similar risk of high grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with LGD detected using white-light endoscopy (WLE). The aim of this study was to compare the risk of advanced neoplasia, a combined endpoint of HGD and CRC, during follow-up after detection of lesions containing LGD identified with either chromoendoscopy or WLE...
February 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930411/comprehensive-dna-methylation-profiling-of-inflammatory-mucosa-in-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Tomomitsu Tahara, Ichiro Hirata, Naoko Nakano, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya
INTRODUCTION: Aberrant DNA methylation frequently occurs in the inflammatory mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and is involved in UC-related tumorigenesis. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of the promoter regions of the inflamed rectal mucosae of patients with UC. DESIGN: The methylation status of the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 45 cancer/inflammation or age-related candidate genes and the LINE1 repetitive element were examined in the colonic mucosae of 84 cancer-free patients with UC by bisulfite pyrosequencing...
January 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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