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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123150/lung-clearance-index-and-quantitative-computed-tomography-of-post-infectious-bronchiolitis-obliterans-in-infants
#1
Yoon Hee Kim, Hyun Joo Shin, In Suk Sol, Soo Yeon Kim, Jong Deok Kim, Haesung Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Myung-Joon Kim, Mi-Jung Lee, Myung Hyun Sohn
Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) could be diagnosed via spirometry and chest computed tomography (CT); however, these tests are limited in infants. We aimed to evaluate the utility of lung clearance index (LCI) and air-trapping lung volume from chest CT in infants. This prospective study included 20 infants (mean age, 10.9 ± 6.3 months) diagnosed with post-infectious BO between 2009 and 2016. All subjects underwent multiple breath washout tests. For quantitative analysis of chest CT, the mean lung area attenuation value was used as an individual cutoff to determine the air-trapping lung volume...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072814/multiple-resistance-to-glyphosate-paraquat-and-accase-inhibiting-herbicides-in-italian-ryegrass-populations-from-california-confirmation-and-mechanisms-of-resistance
#2
Parsa Tehranchian, Vijay Nandula, Mithila Jugulam, Karthik Putta, Marie Jasieniuk
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate, paraquat and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides are widely used in California annual and perennial cropping systems. Recently, glyphosate, paraquat, and ACCase- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance was confirmed in several Italian ryegrass populations from the Central Valley of California. This research characterized the possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Multiple-resistant populations (MR1, MR2) are resistant to several herbicides from at least three modes of action...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991267/cytotoxic-and-regulatory-roles-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-type-1-diabetes
#3
Ophélie Rouxel, Jennifer Da Silva, Lucie Beaudoin, Isabelle Nel, Céline Tard, Lucie Cagninacci, Badr Kiaf, Masaya Oshima, Marc Diedisheim, Marion Salou, Alexandra Corbett, Jamie Rossjohn, James McCluskey, Raphael Scharfmann, Manuela Battaglia, Michel Polak, Olivier Lantz, Jacques Beltrand, Agnès Lehuen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of pancreatic β-cells by the immune system that involves innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T-cells that recognize derivatives of precursors of bacterial riboflavin presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecule MR1. Since T1D is associated with modification of the gut microbiota, we investigated MAIT cells in this pathology. In patients with T1D and mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we detected alterations in MAIT cells, including increased production of granzyme B, which occurred before the onset of diabetes...
December 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947702/changes-of-host-dna-methylation-in-domestic-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-enterica
#4
Fei Wang, Jianchao Li, Qinghe Li, Ranran Liu, Maiqing Zheng, Qiao Wang, Jie Wen, Guiping Zhao
Cytosine methylation is an effective way to modulate gene transcription.However, very little is knownabout the epigenetic changes in the host that is infected with Salmonella enterica. In this study, we usedmethylatedDNA immunoprecipitation sequencing to analyse the genomewide DNA methylation changes in domestic chickens after infected with Salmonella. The level of DNA methylation was slightly higher in the genomic regions around the transcription start termination sites in a Salmonella-infected group compared to the controls...
September 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912775/shared-and-distinct-phenotypes-and-functions-of-human-cd161-v%C3%AE-7-2-t-cell-subsets
#5
Ayako Kurioka, Aminu S Jahun, Rachel F Hannaway, Lucy J Walker, Joannah R Fergusson, Eva Sverremark-Ekström, Alexandra J Corbett, James E Ussher, Christian B Willberg, Paul Klenerman
Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an important T cell subset that are enriched in tissues and possess potent effector functions. Typically such cells are marked by their expression of Vα7.2-Jα33/Jα20/Jα12 T cell receptors, and functionally they are major histocompatibility complex class I-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted, responding to bacterially derived riboflavin synthesis intermediates. MAIT cells are contained within the CD161++ Vα7.2+ T cell population, the majority of which express the CD8 receptor (CD8+), while a smaller fraction expresses neither CD8 or CD4 coreceptor (double negative; DN) and a further minority are CD4+...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877992/activation-of-human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-induces-cd40l-dependent-maturation-of-monocyte-derived-and-primary-dendritic-cells
#6
Mariolina Salio, Olivier Gasser, Claudia Gonzalez-Lopez, Anne Martens, Natacha Veerapen, Uzi Gileadi, Jacob G Verter, Giorgio Napolitani, Regan Anderson, Gavin Painter, Gurdyal S Besra, Ian F Hermans, Vincenzo Cerundolo
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate T cells that recognize intermediates of the vitamin B2 biosynthetic pathway presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. It remains unclear whether, in addition to their cytolytic activity that is important in antimicrobial defense, MAIT cells have immune-modulatory functions that could enhance dendritic cell (DC) maturation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms dictating the interactions between human MAIT cells and DCs and demonstrate that human MAIT cells mature monocyte-derived and primary DCs in an MR1- and CD40L-dependent manner...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872139/in-situ-characterization-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr1-biofilms-by-salvi-and-tof-sims
#7
Rachel Komorek, Wenchao Wei, Xiaofei Yu, Eric Hill, Juan Yao, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Bacterial biofilms are surface-associated communities that are vastly studied to understand their self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their roles in environmental microbiology. This study outlines a method to cultivate biofilm attachment to the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and achieve in situ chemical mapping of a living biofilm by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). This is done through the culturing of bacteria both outside and within the SALVI channel with our specialized setup, as well as through optical imaging techniques to detect the biofilm presence and thickness before ToF-SIMS analysis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807929/human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells-possess-capacity-for-b-cell-help
#8
Michael S Bennett, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Anita S Iyer, J Scott Hale, Daniel T Leung
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T cell subset, restricted by the nonclassic MHC class I-related protein MR1 and enriched at mucosal sites. Human studies have shown an association between MAIT cells and pathogen-specific antibody responses. In this study, we investigate the effect of human MAIT cells on B cells ex vivo. We found that supernatants from microbe- or cytokine-stimulated MAIT cells, when added to purified autologous B cells, increase frequencies of plasmablasts and promote IgA, IgG, and IgM production...
November 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798979/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-infiltrate-hepatic-metastases-in-patients-with-colorectal-carcinoma-but-are-rendered-dysfunctional-within-and-adjacent-to-tumor-microenvironment
#9
Christopher R Shaler, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Anton I Skaro, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Alexandra J Corbett, Tina Mele, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that are unusually abundant in the human liver, a common site of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) metastasis. However, whether they contribute to immune surveillance against colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is essentially unexplored. In addition, whether MAIT cell functions can be impacted by chemotherapy is unclear. These are important questions given MAIT cells' potent immunomodulatory and inflammatory properties. Herein, we examined the frequencies and functions of peripheral blood, healthy liver tissue, tumor-margin and tumor-infiltrating MAIT cells in 21 CRLM patients who received no chemotherapy, FOLFOX, or a combination of FOLFOX and Avastin before they underwent liver resection...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752299/silica-microparticles-for-sustained-zero-order-release-of-an-anti-cd40l-antibody
#10
Puneet Tyagi, Mika Koskinen, Jari Mikkola, Lasse Leino, Alexander Schwarz
Silica microparticle hydrogel depot (HG) formulation was prepared using spray drying of silica-based sol-gels for the sustained delivery of MR1 antibody which binds to CD40 ligand (CD40L). The formulation was tested in vitro for antibody release, surface morphology, particle size, rheology, and injectability. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed for the microparticle formulation and free MR1 antibody in BALB/c female mice. Serum samples up to day 62 were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 27, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733576/mait-cells-accumulate-in-placental-intervillous-space-and-display-a-highly-cytotoxic-phenotype-upon-bacterial-stimulation
#11
Martin Solders, Laia Gorchs, Tom Erkers, Anna-Carin Lundell, Silvia Nava, Sebastian Gidlöf, Eleonor Tiblad, Isabelle Magalhaes, Helen Kaipe
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must tolerate the developing foetus, and yet retain a potent antimicrobial response to prevent infections. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognize microbial-derived vitamin B metabolites presented on the MR1 molecule, but their presence and function at the foetal-maternal interface is not known. We here isolated mononuclear cells from paired samples of peripheral blood (PB), intervillous blood (IVB), and decidua parietalis (DP) following uncomplicated term pregnancies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688841/how-mr1-presents-a-pathogen-metabolic-signature-to-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells
#12
REVIEW
Hamish E G McWilliam, Jose A Villadangos
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes restricted by the antigen (Ag)-presenting molecule MHC class I (MHC I)-related protein 1 (MR1). The Ags presented by MR1 are vitamin B-related Ags (VitBAgs), 'building-block' metabolites of riboflavin that are synthesized by a range of microbes. MR1 presentation is thus a unique mechanism for the immune detection of a pathogen metabolic signature. While the full picture of how MR1 accomplishes this remains incomplete, recent data show that, unlike other MHC molecules, MR1 operates by a presentation-on-demand mechanism...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632133/correction-functionally-diverse-human-t-cells-recognize-non-microbial-antigens-presented-by-mr1
#14
Marco Lepore, Artem Kalinichenko, Salvatore Calogero, Pavanish Kumar, Bhairav Paleja, Mathias Schmaler, Vipin Narang, Francesca Zolezzi, Michael Poidinger, Lucia Mori, Gennaro De Libero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630305/multiple-layers-of-heterogeneity-and-subset-diversity-in-human-mait-cell-responses-to-distinct-microorganisms-and-to-innate-cytokines
#15
Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large innate-like T-cell subset in humans defined by invariant TCR Vα7.2 use and expression of CD161. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites of bacterial or fungal origin presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. The extraordinary level of evolutionary conservation of MR1 and the limited known diversity of riboflavin metabolite antigens have suggested that MAIT cells are relatively homogeneous and uniform in responses against diverse microbes carrying the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518215/the-toll-like-receptor-9-signalling-pathway-regulates-mr1-mediated-bacterial-antigen-presentation-in-b-cells
#17
Jianyun Liu, Randy R Brutkiewicz
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen-presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial antigen in antigen-presenting cells are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression...
October 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518056/functionally-diverse-human-t-cells-recognize-non-microbial-antigens-presented-by-mr1
#18
Marco Lepore, Artem Kalinichenko, Salvatore Calogero, Pavanish Kumar, Bhairav Paleja, Mathias Schmaler, Vipin Narang, Francesca Zolezzi, Michael Poidinger, Lucia Mori, Gennaro De Libero
MHC class I-related molecule MR1 presents riboflavin- and folate-related metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T cells, but it is unknown whether MR1 can present alternative antigens to other T cell lineages. In healthy individuals we identified MR1-restricted T cells (named MR1T cells) displaying diverse TCRs and reacting to MR1-expressing cells in the absence of microbial ligands. Analysis of MR1T cell clones revealed specificity for distinct cell-derived antigens and alternative transcriptional strategies for metabolic programming, cell cycle control and functional polarization following antigen stimulation...
May 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494326/mait-cells-and-mr1-antigen-recognition
#19
REVIEW
Andrew N Keller, Alexandra J Corbett, Jacinta M Wubben, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T cells that recognise antigens presented by the monomorphic MHC-I related molecule, MR1. Distinct from the conventional MHC-restricted T cell system, MR1 presents small-molecule precursors, derived from microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin, to activate the innate MAIT cell effector potential. Recent data demonstrates how: vitamin B precursors modulate intracellular trafficking of MR1 and impact on MAIT cell development; variation in the MAIT cell antigen receptor sequence impacts MR1-antigen recognition; and most notably, how MR1 can capture chemical identities distinct from riboflavin precursors, including drugs and drug-like molecules...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419492/expression-and-trafficking-of-mr1
#20
REVIEW
Rajesh Lamichhane, James E Ussher
MHC class I-related gene protein (MR1) is a non-polymorphic MHC class IB antigen-presenting molecule that is the restricting molecule for mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a prominent population of innate-like antibacterial T cells. The MAIT cell-MR1 axis represents a new paradigm in antigen presentation, with the MR1 ligand derived from vitamin B compounds or their metabolic precursors. Many bacteria and some fungi produce the activating ligand for MR1. In evolution, MR1 is highly conserved in most, but not all, mammals...
July 2017: Immunology
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