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Vagus stimulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057372/do-the-psychological-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-partially-mediate-vagal-pain-modulation
#1
Eleni Frangos, Emily A Richards, M Catherine Bushnell
There is preclinical and clinical evidence that vagus nerve stimulation modulates both pain and mood state. Mechanistic studies show brainstem circuitry involved in pain modulation by vagus nerve stimulation, but little is known about possible indirect descending effects of altered mood state on pain perception. This possibility is important, since previous studies have shown that mood state affects pain, particularly the affective dimension (pain unpleasantness). To date, human studies investigating the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on pain perception have not reliably measured psychological factors to determine their role in altered pain perception elicited by vagus nerve stimulation...
January 2017: Neurobiol Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054513/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-associated-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-during-pregnancy
#2
Anne Sabers, Dina Battino, Erminio Bonizzoni, John Craig, Dick Lindhout, Emilio Perucca, Sanjeev V Thomas, Torbjörn Tomson, Frank Vajda
OBJECTIVE: To access the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on the outcome of pregnancy. METHODS: We used the International Registry of Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy (EURAP) and its network to search for women receiving adjunctive VNS during pregnancy. Data on maternal and fetal outcomes were extracted from the registry databases and outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-six pregnancies were identified in 25 women. All women were exposed to a relative high VNS stimulation level (mean duty cycle 18%, range 5%-51%)...
November 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#3
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991730/closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation-based-on-state-transition-models
#4
Hector Manuel Romero Ugalde, Virginie Le Rolle, Jean-Luc Bonnet, Christine Henry, Philippe Mabo, Guy Carrault, Alfredo I Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a potential therapeutic approach in a number of clinical applications. Although VNS is commonly delivered in an open-loop approach, it is now recognized that closed-loop stimulation may be necessary to optimize the therapy. In this paper, we propose an original, generic closed-loop control system which can be readily integrated into an implantable device and allows for the adaptive modulation of multiple VNS parameters. METHODS: The proposed control method consists of a state transition model (STM), in which each state represents a set of VNS parameters, and a state transition algorithm that optimally selects the best STM state, minimizing the error between an observed physiological variable and a given target value...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977147/the-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-refractory-epilepsy
#5
Tatiana Von Hertwig Fernandes de Oliveira, Alexandre Novicki Francisco, Zeferino Demartini, Sergio Leandro Stebel
Vagus nerve stimulation is an adjunctive therapy used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or had poor results after surgical procedures. Its mechanism of action is not yet fully comprehended but it possibly involves modulation of the locus coeruleus, thalamus and limbic circuit through noradrenergic and serotonergic projections. There is sufficient evidence to support its use in patients with focal epilepsy and other seizure types. However, it should be recognized that improvement is not immediate and increases over time...
September 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971013/presurgical-thalamocortical-connectivity-is-associated-with-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#6
George M Ibrahim, Priya Sharma, Ann Hyslop, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Taylor J Abel, Lior Elkaim, Iahn Cajigas, Ashish H Shah, Aria Fallah, Alexander G Weil, Nolan Altman, Byron Bernal, Santiago Medina, Elysa Widjaja, Prasanna Jayakar, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia
Although chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for medically-intractable childhood epilepsy, there is considerable heterogeneity in seizure response and little data are available to pre-operatively identify patients who may benefit from treatment. Since the therapeutic effect of VNS may be mediated by afferent projections to the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity is associated with seizure response following chronic VNS in children with epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970585/targeting-neural-reflex-circuits-in-immunity-to-treat-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mark D Okusa, Diane L Rosin, Kevin J Tracey
Neural pathways regulate immunity and inflammation via the inflammatory reflex and specific molecular targets can be modulated by stimulating neurons. Neuroimmunomodulation by nonpharmacological methods is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases, including kidney diseases and hypertension. Electrical stimulation of vagus neurons or treatment with pulsed ultrasound activates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) and protects mice from acute kidney injury (AKI). Direct innervation of the kidney, by afferent and efferent neurons, might have a role in modulating and responding to inflammation in various diseases, either locally or by providing feedback to regions of the central nervous system that are important in the inflammatory reflex pathway...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964689/exercise-training-improves-hypertension-induced-autonomic-dysfunction-without-influencing-properties-of-peripheral-cardiac-vagus-nerve
#8
Octávio Barbosa Neto, Carla Cristina de Sordi, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Rosângela Soares Chriguer, Valdo José Dias da Silva
We examined the vagal transfer function of autonomic heart rate (HR) control in anesthetized sedentary and exercise-trained Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). To this end, male SHR and Wystar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with 48-50weeks of age-old were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SHRS, n=12) and trained (SHRT, n=14) hypertensive rats, sedentary (WKYS, n=13) and trained (WKYT, n=13) normotensive rats. The trained groups were submitted to swimming protocol for 9weeks. Blood pressure (BP), HR, HR variability (HRV), BP variability (BPV), baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac tonus were recorded in baseline conditions...
September 14, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961186/a-potential-novel-mechanism-for-vagus-nerve-stimulator-related-central-sleep-apnea
#9
Inga C Forde, Meghna P Mansukhani, Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Suresh Kotagal
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement...
September 29, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941985/stimulation-of-ganglionated-plexus-attenuates-cardiac-neural-remodeling-and-heart-failure-progression-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-heart-failure-post-myocardial-infarction
#10
Da Luo, Huihui Hu, Zhiliang Qin, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Ruisong Ma, Wenbo He, Jing Xie, Zhibing Lu, Bo He, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups...
September 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933067/central-modulation-of-energy-homeostasis-and-cognitive-performance-after-bariatric-surgery
#11
Hans Eickhoff
In moderately or morbidly obese patients, bariatric surgery has been proven to be an effective therapeutic approach to control body weight and comorbidities. Surgery-mediated modulation of brain function via modified postoperative secretion of gut peptides and vagal nerve stimulation was identified as an underlying mechanism in weight loss and improvement of weight-related diseases. Increased basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones like glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that act on specific areas of the hypothalamus to reduce food intake, either directly or mediated by the vagus nerve, are observed after surgery while suppression of meal-induced ghrelin release is increased...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932254/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-restores-reduced-insulinotropic-activity-of-a-low-protein-diet-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rats
#12
Mami Horiuchi, Tomoya Takeda, Hiroyuki Takanashi, Yori Ozaki-Masuzawa, Yusuke Taguchi, Yuka Toyoshima, Lila Otani, Hisanori Kato, Meri Sone-Yonezawa, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Asako Takenaka
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that a low-protein diet significantly reduced insulin secretion in response to feeding within 1 h in rats, suggesting that the insulinotropic effect of dietary protein plays an important role in maintaining normal insulin release. The current study aimed to elucidate whether deficiency of certain amino acids could diminish the insulinotropic activity and to investigate whether reduced insulin secretion in response to a low-protein diet is restored by supplementation with certain amino acids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932225/expression-and-function-of-the-cholinergic-system-in-immune-cells
#13
REVIEW
Takeshi Fujii, Masato Mashimo, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Hidemi Misawa, Shiro Ono, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Koichiro Kawashima
T and B cells express most cholinergic system components-e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, and both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Using ChAT(BAC)-eGFP transgenic mice, ChAT expression has been confirmed in T and B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Moreover, T cell activation via T-cell receptor/CD3-mediated pathways upregulates ChAT mRNA expression and ACh synthesis, suggesting that this lymphocytic cholinergic system contributes to the regulation of immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931943/vagus-nerve-stimulation-paired-with-tones-for-the-treatment-of-tinnitus-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-controlled-pilot-study-in-humans
#14
Richard Tyler, Anthony Cacace, Christina Stocking, Brent Tarver, Navzer Engineer, Jeffrey Martin, Aniruddha Deshpande, Nancy Stecker, Melissa Pereira, Michael Kilgard, Chester Burress, David Pierce, Robert Rennaker, Sven Vanneste
The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate the effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) paired with sounds in chronic tinnitus patients. All participants were implanted and randomized to a paired VNS (n = 16) or control (n = 14) group. After 6 weeks of home therapy, all participants received paired VNS. The device was used on 96% of days with good compliance. After 6 weeks, the paired VNS group improved on the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) (p = 0.0012) compared to controls (p = 0.1561). The between-group difference was 10...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919768/ictal-heart-rate-changes-and-the-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#15
Wei Chen, Fan-Gang Meng
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) shows long-term efficiency worldwide in most pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy; however, there are still a small number of patients who are non-responders to VNS therapy. It has been shown that VNS treatment outcomes for drug-resistant epilepsy may be predicted by preoperative heart-rate variability measurements and that patients with epilepsy with ictal tachycardia (IT) during seizures have good responses to VNS. However, few studies have reported the efficacy of VNS in patients with epilepsy with ictal bradycardia (IB) or normal heart rate (HR), and none have explored the possible mechanisms of VNS efficacy based on different HR types...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919363/thoracic-spinal-cord-and-cervical-vagosympathetic-neuromodulation-obtund-nodose-sensory-transduction-of-myocardial-ischemia
#16
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, David Gibbons, Matthew Hammer, Donald B Hoover, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation therapy involving either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or spinal cord stimulation (SCS) represents emerging bioelectronic therapies for heart disease. The objective of this study was to determine if VNS and/or SCS modulate primary cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Using extracellular recordings in 19 anesthetized canines, of 88 neurons evaluated, 36 ventricular-related nodose ganglia sensory neurons were identified by their functional activity responses to epicardial touch, chemical activation of their sensory neurites (epicardial veratridine) and great vessel (descending aorta or inferior vena cava) occlusion...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918943/vagus-nerve-stimulation-improves-locomotion-and-neuronal-populations-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ariana Q Farrand, Kristi L Helke, Rebecca A Gregory, Monika Gooz, Vanessa K Hinson, Heather A Boger
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic treatments are often limited by debilitating side effects. In PD, locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons degenerate prior to substantia nigra dopaminergic (SN-DA) neurons. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) activates LC neurons, and decreases pro-inflammatory markers, allowing improvement of LC targets, making it a potential PD therapeutic. OBJECTIVE: To assess therapeutic potential of VNS in a PD model...
August 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#18
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903938/atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-obstructive-sleep-apnea-autonomic-nervous-mechanism-and-modulation
#19
Lilei Yu, Xuefei Li, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Menglong Wang, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Yuhong Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not completely understood. This study investigated the roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system in OSA-induced AF and provided noninvasive autonomic nervous modulation for the suppression of OSA-induced AF by using low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation (LL-TS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the tragus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen dogs received tracheostomy under general anesthesia and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the OSA group (OSA was simulated via clamping of the endotracheal tube at end expiration for 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899205/non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-the-management-of-refractory-primary-chronic-headaches-a-real-world-experience
#20
Michele Trimboli, Adnan Al-Kaisy, Anna P Andreou, Madeleine Murphy, Giorgio Lambru
Background Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation has initial evidence of efficacy in migraine and cluster headache. However, little is known about its role in the management of refractory chronic headaches. Methods We evaluated the preventive and abortive effects of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in 41 consecutive patients with refractory primary chronic headaches in an open-label prospective clinical audit. Headache diaries were used to collect clinical information. Those who obtained at least 30% reduction in headache days/episodes after three months of treatment were considered responders and were offered treatment continuation...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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