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Dale I Godfrey, Jérôme Le Nours, Daniel M Andrews, Adam P Uldrich, Jamie Rossjohn
Most studies on the immunotherapeutic potential of T cells have focused on CD8 and CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigens (Ag) presented by polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules, respectively. However, unconventional T cells, which interact with MHC class Ib and MHC-I like molecules, are also implicated in tumor immunity, although their role therein is unclear. These include unconventional T cells targeting MHC class Ib molecules such as HLA-E and its murine ortholog Qa-1b, natural killer T (NKT) cells, mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Sabri Soussi, Marina Taccori, Christian De Tymowski, François Depret, Maïté Chaussard, Alexandre Fratani, Marion Jully, Alexandru Cupaciu, Axelle Ferry, Mourad Benyamina, Kevin Serror, David Boccara, Marc Chaouat, Maurice Mimoun, Pierre Cattan, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, James Anstey, Alexandre Mebazaa, Matthieu Legrand
OBJECTIVES: Burn-induced shock can lead to tissue hypoperfusion, including the gut. We performed this study to describe burn patients at risk of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) with the aim to identify potential modifiable risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study including adult severely burned patients between August 2012 and March 2017. Patients who developed AMI were matched to severely burned patients without AMI at a ratio of 1:3 (same year of admission, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII))...
March 20, 2018: Shock
Metesh Nalin Acharya, Pouya Youssefi, Gopal Soppa, Oswaldo Valencia, Justin Nowell, Robin Kanagasabay, Mark Edsell, Robert Morgan, Maite Tome, Marjan Jahangiri
OBJECTIVES: Significant proportions of aortic dissections occur at aortic diameters <5.5 cm. By indexing aortic area to height and correlating with absolute aortic diameter, we sought to identify those aneurysm patients with aortic diameters <5.5 cm who do not meet current size thresholds for surgery, yet with corresponding abnormal indexed aortic areas (IAAs) >10 cm2/m, are at increased risk of aortic complications. METHODS: IAAs were calculated at 3 aortic locations in 187 aneurysm and 66 dissection patients operated on between 2010 and 2016 at our tertiary aortic centre...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Maïté Van Cauter, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos, Ludovic Kaminski
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) is a rare but devastating complications with high morbitity and mortality. The identification of the causal microorganism remains crucial and determines therapeutic strategies and success. Microbiology cultures remain the common method to diagnose PJI. Unfortunately, 14% of intra-articular punctures remain negative after culture. The microorganisms are best detected by inoculation of microbiology samples in blood culture bottles (Bactec), or after sonication of the implant and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo Marques, Anna Ribera-Guardia, Jorge Santos, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A M Reis, Maite Pijuan, Adrian Oehmen
Denitrifying enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems can be an efficient means of removing phosphate (P) and nitrate (NO3 - ) with low carbon source and oxygen requirements. Tetrasphaera is one of the most abundant polyphosphate accumulating organisms present in EBPR systems, but their capacity to achieve denitrifying EBPR has not previously been determined. An enriched Tetrasphaera culture, comprising over 80% of the bacterial biovolume was obtained in this work. Despite the denitrification capacity of Tetrasphaera, this culture achieved only low levels of anoxic P-uptake...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Antonin Dréan, Shai Rosenberg, François-Xavier Lejeune, Larissa Goli, Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Jérémy Guehennec, Charlotte Schmitt, Maïté Verreault, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Marc Sanson, Alexandre Carpentier, Jean-Yves Delattre, Ahmed Idbaih
The names of authors Marc Sanson and Jean-Yves Delattre were incorrectly presented in the initial online publication. The original article has been corrected.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Laura Wallard, Sophie Boulet, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Emile Dubuc, Philippe Mahaudens, Didier Postlethwaite, Maïté Van Cauter, Christine Detrembleur
BACKGROUND: The gait mechanism requires an efficient intersegmental coordination in order to ensure the displacement of the body while simultaneously maintaining the postural stability. However, intersegmental coordination may be disrupted by neurological or orthopaedic involvement, this increasing the metabolic cost associated with excessive or prolonged muscle co-contraction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our aim was to evaluate and to understand how hip OA affects lower limbs coordination during gait by using the kinematic segmental covariation law method and predict the energy expenditure...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Marta Izura Gómez, Maite Misis Del Campo, Paloma Puyalto de Pablo, Carlos Castaño Duque
We report the use of mechanical venous thrombectomy in 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in which the usual first-choice treatment with systemic anticoagulants was contraindicated. Our aim is to present this treatment as an alternative to consider when anticoagulants therapy is too risky or is contraindicated in critically ill patients.
2018: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Andrea Leonardi, Elisabeth M Messmer, Marc Labetoulle, Mourad Amrane, Jean-Sébastien Garrigue, Dahlia Ismail, Maite Sainz-de-la-Maza, Francisco C Figueiredo, Christophe Baudouin
BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess the treatment effect of 0.1%ciclosporin A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) versus vehicle on signs/symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) in various subgroups (moderate-to-severe DED/severe DED/Sjögren's syndrome (SS)/SS with severe DED). METHODS: Pooled data were analysed from two similar phase III studies: SICCANOVE (moderate-to-severe DED) and SANSIKA (severe DED with severe keratitis). In both studies, patients aged ≥18 years received CsA CE 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ornella Sortino, Elizabeth Richards, Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg, Irini Sereti
: Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with lower frequencies and functional impairment of mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. We evaluated IL-7 treatment to restore MAIT cells in peripheral blood of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 led to increased relative and absolute levels of MAIT cells, and this expansion occurred primarily in the CD8 subset. These results suggest that IL-7 may represent a therapeutic intervention for the restoration of MAIT cells in chronic HIV-1 infection...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
Tanmoy Mondal, Prasanna Kumar Juvvuna, Agnete Kirkeby, Sanhita Mitra, Subazini Thankaswamy Kosalai, Larissa Traxler, Falk Hertwig, Sara Wernig-Zorc, Caroline Miranda, Lily Deland, Ruth Volland, Christoph Bartenhagen, Deniz Bartsch, Sashidhar Bandaru, Anne Engesser, Santhilal Subhash, Tommy Martinsson, Helena Carén, Levent M Akyürek, Leo Kurian, Meena Kanduri, Maite Huarte, Per Kogner, Matthias Fischer, Chandrasekhar Kanduri
Trait-associated loci often map to genomic regions encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the role of these lncRNAs in disease etiology is largely unexplored. We show that a pair of sense/antisense lncRNA (6p22lncRNAs) encoded by CASC15 and NBAT1 located at the neuroblastoma (NB) risk-associated 6p22.3 locus are tumor suppressors and show reduced expression in high-risk NBs. Loss of functional synergy between 6p22lncRNAs results in an undifferentiated state that is maintained by a gene-regulatory network, including SOX9 located on 17q, a region frequently gained in NB...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Maite Ramírez, Saritza Santos, Osmarie Martínez, Ricardo Rodríguez, Eric Miranda, Willy D Ramos-Perez, Miguel Otero
Poxviruses are complex dsDNA viruses with over 200 genes, many of them with unknown role in the stimulation of immune responses. Among these, the vaccinia virus (VACV) L3L ORF encodes an essential protein for the transcription of the VACV early genes. To the best of our knowledge, the immune response elicited by L3 has not been characterized. In this regard, our data describes a DNA L3-coding plasmid (pL3L) that stimulates both, humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses in a mouse model. Cell-mediated immune responses were measured by IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISPOT assays...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Antonin Dréan, Shai Rosenberg, François-Xavier Lejeune, Larissa Goli, Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Jérémy Guehennec, Charlotte Schmitt, Maïté Verreault, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Sanson Marc, Alexandre Carpentier, Delattre Jean-Yves, Ahmed Idbaih
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) regulate traffic of multiple compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, through biological membranes. They are expressed by multiple cell types and have been implicated in the drug resistance of some cancer cells. Despite significant research in ABC transporters in the context of many diseases, little is known about their expression and clinical value in glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed expression of 49 ABC transporters in both commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines as well as from 51 human GBM tumor biopsies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Qilin Wang, Kang Song, Xiaodi Hao, Jing Wei, Maite Pijuan, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Huijun Zhao
The decreased activity (i.e. decay) of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria during starvation can be attributed to death (i.e. decrease in the amount of viable bacteria) and activity decay (i.e. decrease in the specific activity of viable bacteria). Although they are crucial for the operation of the Anammox process, they have never been comprehensively investigated. This study for the first time experimentally assessed death and activity decay of the Anammox bacteria during 84 days' starvation stress based on ammonium removal rate, Live/Dead staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Nicholas A Gherardin, Liyen Loh, Lorenztino Admojo, Alexander J Davenport, Kelden Richardson, Amy Rogers, Phillip K Darcy, Misty R Jenkins, H Miles Prince, Simon J Harrison, Hang Quach, David P Fairlie, Katherine Kedzierska, James McCluskey, Adam P Uldrich, Paul J Neeson, David S Ritchie, Dale I Godfrey
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are T cells that recognise vitamin-B derivative Ag presented by the MHC-related-protein 1 (MR1) antigen-presenting molecule. While MAIT cells are highly abundant in humans, their role in tumour immunity remains unknown. Here we have analysed the frequency and function of MAIT cells in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We show that MAIT cell frequency in blood is reduced compared to healthy adult donors, but comparable to elderly healthy control donors. Furthermore, there was no evidence that MAIT cells accumulated at the disease site (bone marrow) of these patients...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liliana Stolarczyk, Sebastian Trinkl, Maite Romero-Exposito, Natalia Mojżeszek, Iva Ambrozova, Carles Domingo, Marie Davidkova, Jad Farah, Magdalena Kłodowska, Željka Knežević, Małgorzata Liszka, Marija Majer, Saveta Miljanic, Ondrej Ploc, Marco Schwarz, Roger Michael Harrison, Pawel Olko
Systematic 3-D mapping of out-of-field doses induced by a therapeutic proton pencil scanning beam (PBS) in a 300 × 300 × 600 mm3 water phantom was performed using a set of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD): MTS-7 (&lt;sup&gt;7&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), MTS-6 (&lt;sup&gt;6&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), MTS-N (&lt;sup&gt;nat&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti) and TLD-700 (&lt;sup&gt;7&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), radiophotoluminescent detectors (RPL) GD-352M and GD-302M and polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC)-based (C&lt;sub&gt;12&lt;/sub&gt;H&lt;sub&gt;18&lt;/sub&gt;O&lt;sub&gt;7&lt;/sub&gt;) track-etched detectors...
March 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Maite Cevallos Mijan, Soraya Coelho Leal, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Jo E Frencken
PURPOSE: To determine whether the frequency of microleakage at the margin of the tooth-restoration interface in primary molars restored with high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) differs from that of primary molars restored with amalgam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HVGIC restorations were performed according to the ART method. A total of 19 naturally exfoliated primary molars (10 amalgam and 9 ART/HVGIC) with clinically assessed intact restorations fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Eric Jesteadt, Irma Zhang, Huifeng Yu, Anda Meierovics, Wei-Jen Chua Yankelevich, Siobhan Cowley
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate T cell subset that expresses a semi-invariant Vα chain paired with limited Vβ chains. MAIT cells are activated by riboflavin metabolite derivatives presented by MR1. The precise mechanisms required to activate MAIT cells are an area of intense interest. Here we used two closely related intracellular pathogens with distinct inflammasome activation phenotypes to probe the role of innate cytokines in MAIT cell activation. Using an in vitro assay containing transgenic murine MAIT cells, we show that macrophages infected with Francisella novicida , a strong inflammasome activator, released high levels of IL-18 and stimulated high levels of MAIT cell IFN-γ through a partially MR1-independent pathway...
March 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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