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Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Junjian Chen, Meng Gao, Lin Wang, Shiwu Li, Jingcai He, Anjun Qin, Li Ren, Yingjun Wang, Ben Zhong Tang
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection has become one of the most serious threats to human health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as potential alternatives to antibiotics owing to their excellent bactericidal activity. However, the complicated bactericidal mechanism of AMPs is still poorly understood. Fluorescence imaging has many advantages in terms of dynamic monitoring, easy operation, and high sensitivity. In this study, we developed an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active probe AMP-2HBT by decorating of the antimicrobial peptide HHC36 (KRWWKWWRR) with an AIEgen of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT)...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Irene Galani, Konstantina Nafplioti, Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Maria Souli
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of double-carbapenem combinations against OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. METHODOLOGY: Double combinations of ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem were evaluated for synergy and bactericidal activity using the time-kill methodology. All antibiotics were tested at 10 mg l-1 and at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.5× minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for isolates with a carbapenem MIC≤8 mg l-1 ...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jinxiao Guo, Huaijuan Zhou, Jiaxing Wang, Wei Liu, Mengqi Cheng, Xiaochun Peng, Hui Qin, Jianfeng Wei, Ping Jin, Jinhua Li, Xianlong Zhang
Vanadium is a trace element in the human body, and vanadium compounds have a promising future in biological and medical applications due to their various biological activities and low toxicity. Herein, a novel pure vanadium dioxide (VO2 ) nanofilm was deposited on a substrate of biomedical titanium by magnetron sputtering. The antibacterial effect of VO2 against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was validated in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the biocompatibility of VO2 and its osteogenic effects were systematically illustrated...
March 21, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yaping Xiang, Jianyun Lu, Feifeng Li, Jian Huang, Caifeng Yang, Zhibing Fu, Lihua Gao
To explore a new method for detecting the bactericidal effect of oiling agent in vitro, and to determine the disinfectant effecacy of ozonated camellia oil on Staphylococcus aureus.
 Methods: Suspension of Staphylococcus aureus was prepared and innoculated on the LB plate by plate scribing method. After culture overnight, 21 bacterial monoclones with the same diameter were selected and divided into 3 groups: A negative control group, a baseoil (camellia oil) group and an ozonated camellia oil group. We used a ring to isolate the single clone and added oil inside the ring, cultured the whole plate over night, picked out each single clone (with gel) to 5 mL LB medium and cultured it for 12 h...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Cornelia Wiegand, Andrea Völpel, Andrea Ewald, Markko Remesch, Jan Kuever, Janine Bauer, Stefanie Griesheim, Carolin Hauser, Julian Thielmann, Silke Tonndorf-Martini, Bernd W Sigusch, Jürgen Weisser, Ralf Wyrwa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Martin Roth, Carolin Dewald, Claudia Lüdecke-Beyer, Jörg Bossert
Bactericidal materials gained interest in the health care sector as they are capable of preventing material surfaces from microbial colonization and subsequent spread of infections. However, commercialization of antimicrobial materials requires proof of their efficacy, which is usually done using in vitro methods. The ISO 22196 standard (Japanese test method JIS Z 2801) is a method for measuring the antibacterial activity of daily goods. As it was found reliable for testing the biocidal activity of antimicrobially active materials and surface coatings most of the laboratories participating in this study used this protocol...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline M Zaengle-Barone, Abigail C Jackson, David M Besse, Bradford Becken, Mehreen Arshad, Patrick C Seed, Katherine J Franz
The unabated rise in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, coupled with collateral damage to normal flora incurred by overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, necessitates the development of new antimicrobials targeted against pathogenic organisms. Here, we explore the antibacterial outcomes and mode of action of a prochelator that exploits the production of β-lactamase enzymes by drug-resistant bacteria to convert a non-toxic compound into a metal-binding antimicrobial agent directly within the microenvironment of pathogenic organisms...
March 20, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Yang Si, Zheng Zhang, Wanrong Wu, Qiuxia Fu, Kang Huang, Nitin Nitin, Bin Ding, Gang Sun
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Most present personal protective equipment used to prevent EID transmission and infections is typically devoid of antimicrobial activity. We report on green bioprotective nanofibrous membranes (RNMs) with rechargeable antibacterial and antiviral activities that can effectively produce biocidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) solely driven by the daylight. The premise of the design is that the photoactive RNMs can store the biocidal activity under light irradiation and readily release ROS under dim light or dark conditions, making the biocidal function "always online...
March 2018: Science Advances
Salvatore Risitano, Luigi Sabatini, Francesco Atzori, Alessandro Massè, Pier Francesco Indelli
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and represents one of the most common causes of revision. The challenge for surgeons treating an infected TKA is to quickly obtain an infection-free joint in order to re-implant, when possible, a new TKA. Recent literature confirms the role of local antibiotic-loaded beads as a strong bactericidal, allowing higher antibiotic elution when compared with antibiotic loaded spacers only. Unfortunately, classical Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads might allow bacteria adhesion, secondary development of antibiotic resistance and eventually surgical removal once antibiotics have eluted...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Kelly M Storek, Marcy R Auerbach, Handuo Shi, Natalie K Garcia, Dawei Sun, Nicholas N Nickerson, Rajesh Vij, Zhonghua Lin, Nancy Chiang, Kellen Schneider, Aaron T Wecksler, Elizabeth Skippington, Gerald Nakamura, Dhaya Seshasayee, James T Koerber, Jian Payandeh, Peter A Smith, Steven T Rutherford
The folding and insertion of integral β-barrel membrane proteins into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is required for viability and bacterial pathogenesis. Unfortunately, the lack of selective and potent modulators to dissect β-barrel folding in vivo has hampered our understanding of this fundamental biological process. Here, we characterize a monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits an essential component of the Escherichia coli β-barrel assembly machine, BamA. In the absence of complement or other immune factors, the unmodified antibody MAB1 demonstrates bactericidal activity against an E...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Artemis Gogos, Juan Cristobal Jimenez, Jennifer C Chang, Reid V Wilkening, Michael J Federle
The Rgg2/3 quorum sensing (QS) system is conserved among all sequenced isolates of Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes ). The molecular architecture of the system consists of a transcriptional activator (Rgg2) and a transcriptional repressor (Rgg3) under the control of autoinducing peptide pheromones (SHP2 and SHP3). Activation of the Rgg2/3 pathway leads to increases in biofilm formation and resistance to the bactericidal effects of the host factor, lysozyme. In this work, we show that deletion of a small gene, Spy49_0414c , abolished both phenotypes in response to pheromone signaling...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Kieu-Nhi Tran, Michael J Rybak
Background: Increasing utilization of vancomycin due to the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). In vitro data suggest the potential for potent synergy between several beta-lactams and vancomycin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the synergy between beta-lactams and vancomycin against MRSA that is vancomycin susceptible, vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA), hVISA, and VISA...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jun Wang, JinXin Lu, XiaoWei Xie, Jia Xiong, Ningning Huang, Hongkui Wei, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. The blend of organic acids (OAs) and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) has been shown to have synergistic bactericidal effect. In this study, we demonstrated that two blends of OAs and MCFAs (OM1 and OM2) could prevent the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier dysfunction in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice. Treatments of OM1 and OM2 significantly reduced the body weight loss and production of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by EHEC...
March 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Shadpour Mallakpour, Soheila Mansourzadeh
The aim of this paper was to blend the polymers, poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to produce a novel composite materials possessing the benefits of both. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were used as a suitable filler to fabricate the blend nanocomposites (NCs) with desired properties. First, the surface of NPs, was modified with vitamin B1 (VB1 ) as a bio-safe coupling agent. Then, the blend NCs with various ratios of modified CuO (3, 5, and 7 wt%) were fabricated under ultrasonic irradiations followed by casting/solvent evaporation method...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sandra C Vega, Diana A Martínez, María Del S Chalá, Hernán A Vargas, Jaiver E Rosas
Multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a public health crisis that requires the urgent design of new antibacterial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Seeking to obtain new, lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-based synthetic peptides as viable early-stage candidates for future development as AMPs against clinically relevant bacteria, we designed, synthesized and screened three new cationic peptides derived from bovine LfcinB. These peptides contain at least one RRWQWR motif and differ by the copy number (monomeric, dimeric or tetrameric) and structure (linear or branched) of this motif...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mona Jasmine R Ahonen, Dakota J Suchyta, Huanyu Zhu, Mark H Schoenfisch
Low and high molecular weight alginate biopolymers were chemically modified to store and release potentially therapeutic levels of nitric oxide (NO). Carbodiimide chemistry was first used to modify carboxylic acid functional groups with a series of small molecule alkyl amines. The resulting secondary amines were subsequently converted to N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors via reaction with NO gas under basic conditions. NO donor-modified alginates stored between 0.4-0.6 µmol NO•mg-1. In aqueous solution, the NO-release kinetics was diverse (0...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Weibing Dong, Ziang Liu, Liying Sun, Cui Wang, Yue Guan, Xiaoman Mao, Dejing Shang
The threshold hydrophobicity and amphipathic structure of the peptidic chain are important for the biological function of antimicrobial peptides. Chensinin-1b exhibits broad-spectrum bactericidal activity with no hemolytic activity but has almost no anticancer ability against the selected cancer cell lines. In this study, the conjugation of aliphatic acid was designed with different lengths of N-terminal of chensinin-1b, the antimicrobial activity of the resulting lipo-chensinin-1b was examined, in which OA-C1b showed much stronger activity than those of cheninin-1b and the other two lipopeptides...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Menglong Liu, Danfeng He, Tao Yang, Wei Liu, Li Mao, Yang Zhu, Jun Wu, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Deng
BACKGROUND: Silver and photothermal therapy (PTT) have been widely used for eradicating the drug-resistant bacteria. However, the risks of excess of silver for humans and the low efficiency of PTT still limit their in vivo therapeutic application. Integration of two distinctive bactericides into one entity is a promising platform to improve the efficiency of antimicrobial agents. RESULTS: In this study, a chemo-photothermal therapeutic platform based on polydopamine (PDA)-coated gold nanorods (GNRs) was developed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Farnaz Foolad, Brandie D Taylor, Samuel A Shelburne, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken
VRE are associated with ∼1300 deaths per year in the USA. Recent literature suggests that daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, is the preferred treatment option for VRE bacteraemia, yet the optimal dosing strategy for this indication has not been established. In vitro evidence suggests that higher-than-labelled doses of daptomycin are required to optimally treat VRE bacteraemia and to inhibit the development of resistance. However, concern of dose-dependent toxicities, notably increases in creatine phosphokinase and the development of rhabdomyolysis, are a barrier to initiating high-dose schemes in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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