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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934426/enhanced-macrophage-m1-polarization-and-resistance-to-apoptosis-enable-resistance-to-plague
#1
Emilia Pachulec, Rym Ben Abdelwahed Bagga, Lucie Chevallier, Hope O'Donnell, Chloé Guillas, Jean Jaubert, Xavier Montagutelli, Elisabeth Carniel, Christian E Demeure
Background: Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. Methods: The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934372/antibacterial-effects-of-the-artificial-surface-of-nanoimprinted-moth-eye-film
#2
Kiyoshi Minoura, Miho Yamada, Takashi Mizoguchi, Toshihiro Kaneko, Kyoko Nishiyama, Mari Ozminskyj, Tetsuo Koshizuka, Ikuo Wada, Tatsuo Suzutani
The antibacterial effect of a nanostructured film, known as "moth-eye film," was investigated. The moth-eye film has artificially formed nano-pillars, consisting of hydrophilic resin with urethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, all over its surface that replicates a moth's eye. Experiments were performed to compare the moth-eye film with a flat-surfaced film produced from the same materials. The JIS Z2801 film-covering method revealed that the two films produced a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coli titers of over 5 and 3 logs, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934314/mode-of-action-of-plectasin-derived-peptides-against-gas-gangrene-associated-clostridium-perfringens-type-a
#3
Xueling Zheng, Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Na Yang, Lifen Zong, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 and MP1102 are novel plectasin-derived peptides with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial characteristics and mechanism of NZ2114 and MP1102 against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens were studied for the first time. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NZ2114 and MP1102 against resistant C. perfringens type A strain CVCC 46 were 0.91 μM. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) result, an additive or synergic effect was observed between NZ2114 (FICI = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934165/salmonella-o48-serum-resistance-is-connected-with-the-elongation-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-containing-sialic-acid
#4
Aleksandra Pawlak, Jacek Rybka, Bartłomiej Dudek, Eva Krzyżewska, Wojciech Rybka, Anna Kędziora, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934133/understanding-the-mechanism-of-translocation-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-across-biological-membranes
#5
REVIEW
Helena Ostolaza, César Martín, David González-Bullón, Kepa B Uribe, Asier Etxaniz
Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is one of the principal virulence factors secreted by the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, and it has a critical role in colonization of the respiratory tract and establishment of the disease. ACT targets phagocytes via binding to the CD11b/CD18 integrin and delivers its N-terminal adenylate cyclase (AC) domain directly to the cell cytosol, where it catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP upon activation by binding to cellular calmodulin...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933816/reborn-from-the-ashes-turning-organic-molecules-to-antimicrobial-carbon-quantum-dots
#6
Scott G Harroun, Jui-Yang Lai, Chih-Ching Huang, Shou-Kuan Tsai, Han-Jia Lin
Using polyamines as the initial organic raw material and by applying simple pyrolysis methods, super cationic carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can easily be made. Since polyamines are natural products and the synthesis procedure is green, these polyamine-derived CQDs display low toxicity and high biocompatibility but possess high antibacterial activity. In addition, polyamine-derived CQDs display other unique properties, such as facilitation of wound healing and passage through the tight junction, which make them a very promising bactericide in future clinical applications...
September 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931191/surgicel-use-in-control-of-primary-postadenoidectomy-bleeding
#7
Mohammad Waheed El-Anwar, Ahmad Abdel Nofal, Ashraf Elmalt
Although postadenoidectomy bleeding is a rare complication, it is serious and potentially fatal. Postnasal packing and cautery of the adenoid bed are the most popular methods of controlling postadenoidectomy bleeding. Many hazards and complications may arise from traditional nasopharyngeal packing and nasopharyngeal cautery. In this case series, oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel Nu-Knit; Ethicon; Somerville, N.J) was inserted and used as postnasal packing to control primary postadenoidectomy bleeding in 9 cases after conventional curettage adenoidectomy...
September 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930254/synthesis-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-chalcogen-containing-nitrone-derivatives-from-r-citronellal
#8
Mariana C Ferraz, Renata A Mano, Daniela H Oliveira, Darla S V Maia, Wladimir P Silva, Lucielli Savegnago, Eder J Lenardão, Raquel G Jacob
Background: The main constituents of Cymbopogonnardus (L) Rendle and C. citratus (DC) Stapfessential oils are (R)-citronellal and citral, respectively. Organochalcogen compounds can boost the biological activities of natural products. Methods: Several chalcogen-containing nitrones derived from (R)-citronellal and citral were prepared and evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion test and the antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assays...
June 10, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930240/anti-bacterial-activity-of-phenolic-compounds-against-streptococcus-pyogenes
#9
Sabrina Macé, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. METHODS: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the nine most effective phenolic compounds were determined...
May 1, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930155/identification-of-agents-active-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-from-a-clinical-compound-library
#10
Hongxia Niu, Rebecca Yee, Peng Cui, Lili Tian, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, David Sullivan, Bingdong Zhu, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a significant threat for effective treatment of several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. To identify potential new treatment options for MRSA infections, we screened a clinical compound library consisting of 1524 compounds using a growth inhibition assay in 96-well plates. We identified 34 agents which are either bacteriostatic or bactericidal against log-phase clinical MRSA strain USA300. Among them, 9 candidates (thonzonium, cetylpyridinium, trilocarban, benzododecinium, bithionol, brilliant green, chlorquinaldol, methylbenzethonium and green violet) are known antiseptics, 11 candidates are known antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of MRSA...
September 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929912/in%C3%A2-vivo-induction-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#11
Georgina Filio-Rodríguez, Iris Estrada-García, Patricia Arce-Paredes, María M Moreno-Altamirano, Sergio Islas-Trujillo, M Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
In 2004, a novel mechanism of cellular death, called 'NETosis', was described in neutrophils. This mechanism, different from necrosis and apoptosis, is characterized by the release of chromatin webs admixed with microbicidal granular proteins and peptides (NETs). NETs trap and kill a variety of microorganisms. Diverse microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are NET inducers in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether M. tuberculosis can also induce NETs in vivo and if the NETs are bactericidal to the microorganism...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927227/enteric-microbiome-profiles-during-a-randomized-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-surotomycin-versus-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Kristine Cannon, Brendan Byrne, Jennifer Happe, Kaiyu Wu, Linda Ward, Laurent Chesnel, Thomas Louie
Objectives: The effects of surotomycin (CB-183,315, MK-4261), a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide, and vancomycin, the current standard-of-care for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), on intestinal pathogens and microbiota were evaluated parallel to a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Methods: The single-centre cohort included 26 patients receiving surotomycin [125 or 250 mg twice daily ( n  =   9 each)] or oral vancomycin [125 mg four times daily ( n  =   8)] for 10 days...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926942/the-semi-synthetic-peptide-lin-sb056-1-in-combination-with-edta-exerts-strong-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-conditions-mimicking-cystic-fibrosis-sputum
#13
Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Lucia Grassi, Semih Esin, Ilaria Serra, Mariano A Scorciapino, Andrea C Rinaldi, Giovanna Batoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The ability of the bacterium to form biofilms and the presence of a thick and stagnant mucus in the airways of CF patients largely contribute to antibiotic therapy failure and demand for new antimicrobial agents able to act in the CF environment. The present study investigated the anti-P. aeruginosa activity of lin-SB056-1, a recently described semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide, used alone and in combination with the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925873/silver-nanoparticles-with-high-loading-capacity-of-amphotericin-b-characterization-bactericidal-and-antifungal-effects
#14
Victoria Leonhard, Roxana Valeria Alasino, Adrián Muñoz, Dante Miguel Beltramo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most appropriate conditions to generate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded with a potent antimycotic drug like amphotericin B (AmB), characterize the physicochemical properties, and also evaluate the cytotoxic effect and biological activity of these new nanostructures as a potential nanocarrier for hydrophobic drugs. It was determined that the optimal molar ratio between Ag and AmB is 1/1 given the uniformity of size around 1750 nm of the nanoparticles generated as well as their strongly negative ζ potential of -27 mV, a condition that favors repulsions between AgNPs and inhibiting their aggregation...
September 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925868/design-and-discovery-of-new-antibacterial-agents-advances-perspectives-challenges
#15
Josef Jampilek
Emerging resistance of bacterial pathogens to clinically used drugs, including not only first-choice but also second- and third-choice drugs, is alarming, but since the 1990s only a modest number of new, first in class, drugs for systemic administration have been marketed for the treatment of bacterial infections. This article provides a review of recently reported new antibacterial chemotherapeutics approved for clinical practice, antibacterial chemotherapeutics in clinical trials and antibacterial agents under development...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924925/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-alone-and-combined-with-other-antibiotics-against-clinical-enterococcal-isolates
#16
Mahtab Beitdaghar, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance has led to research on finding new antimicrobial agents or identifying drug combinations with synergistic effects. Enterococcal infections, particularly those associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs), are therapeutic problems. Linezolid (LZD), an oxazolidinone antibiotic, shows good activity against Gram-positive bacteria including enterococci. To avoid the emergence of linezolid-resistant subpopulations and achieve enhanced activity or bactericidal effect, the use of combined therapy has been considered...
September 18, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922807/tedizolid-is-highly-bactericidal-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#17
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Pooi S Lee, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To determine if tedizolid is effective for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and to use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to design optimal doses. Methods: We performed an exposure-response experiment in the hollow-fibre system model of intracellular MAC (HFS-MAC). We mimicked the tedizolid concentration-time profiles achieved in the lungs of patients treated once daily for 28 days. The HFS-MAC was sampled at intervals to determine the tedizolid pharmacokinetics and MAC intracellular burden...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922806/linezolid-as-treatment-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#18
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Sampling to confirm that the intended linezolid pharmacokinetics had been achieved, and for enumeration of MAC colony-forming units, was performed based on repetitive sampling from each system over the 28 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919679/effects-of-intramammary-infusion-of-sage-salvia-officinalis-essential-oil-on-milk-somatic-cell-count-milk-composition-parameters-and-selected-hematology-and-serum-biochemical-parameters-in-awassi-sheep-with-subclinical-mastitis
#19
Myassar O Alekish, Zuhair B Ismail, Mofleh S Awawdeh, Shoroq Shatnawi
AIM: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919333/status-of-the-effectiveness-of-contact-lens-disinfectants-in-malaysia-against-keratitis-causing-pathogens
#20
Farhat Abjani, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Suk Yul Jung, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
The aim of this study was (i) to assess the antimicrobial effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions marketed in Malaysia against common bacterial eye pathogens and as well as eye parasite, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and (ii) to determine whether targeting cyst wall would improve the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants. Using ISO 14729 Stand-Alone Test for disinfecting solutions, bactericidal and amoebicidal assays of six different contact lens solutions including Oxysept(®), AO SEPT PLUS, OPTI-FREE(®) pure moist(®), Renu(®) fresh™, FreshKon(®) CLEAR and COMPLETE RevitaLens™ were performed using Manufacturers Minimum recommended disinfection time (MRDT)...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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