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Anna Mularski, Jonathan Wilksch, Eric Hanssen, Jian Li, Takehiro Tomita, Sacha James Pidot, Tim Stinear, Frances Separovic, Dick Strugnell
Atomic force microscopy measurements of capsule thickness revealed that that the wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae AJ218 capsular polysaccharides were rearranged by exposure to colistin. The increase in capsule thickness measured near minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) is consistent with the idea that colistin displaces the divalent cations that cross-bridge adjacent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules through the capsule network. Cryo-electron microscopy demonstrated that the measured capsule thickness at near MIC/MBC of 1...
October 17, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Gen Wang, Zheng Xing, Xiangkang Zeng, Chuanping Feng, David T McCarthy, Ana Deletic, Xiwang Zhang
An ultrathin photocatalytic film of titanium oxide was fabricated using two dimensional (2D) titanium oxide nanosheets (TONs) as building blocks. The as-prepared film was found be able to store photoelectrons upon UV irradiation due to the reduction/oxidation of T(4+)/Ti(3+) on the 2D TONs. Post-illumination discharging of the stored electrons produced antibacterial radicals, and as a result, the as-prepared film showed memory bactericidal activity toward E. faecalis and E. coli in the dark.
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Shu Xu, Yabing Duan, Zhou Mingguo
Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Xoo. In this study, we found that PCA significantly up-regulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA-sensitivity was reduced when Xoo and Xoc were cultured with exogenous catalase...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Kunal Zaveri, Kiranmayi Patnala
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one most challenging task for treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To screen the potential MurE inhibitor...
October 10, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Helen S Marshall, Peter C Richmond, Johannes Beeslaar, Qin Jiang, Kathrin U Jansen, Maria Garcés-Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Leszek Szenborn, Jacek Wysocki, Joseph Eiden, Shannon L Harris, Thomas R Jones, Su-San Lee, John L Perez
BACKGROUND: Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. METHODS: We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sanefumi Tsuha, Tomohiro Taniguchi, Soichi Shiiki, Masashi Narita, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease known to have wide-ranging clinical manifestations. Despite a number of published case series, culture-confirmed series are few and there is a paucity of data on Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) associated with treatment of leptospirosis. Our objective was to describe the clinical and epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in an endemic area of Japan, with a focus on the occurrence of JHR, an often unrecognized and likely underestimated phenomenon...
October 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Denes Kaic Alves do Rosário, Yhan da Silva Mutz, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis Peixoto, Syllas Borburema Silva Oliveira, Raquel Vieira de Carvalho, Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro, Jackline Freitas Brilhante de São José, Patrícia Campos Bernardes
New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Takuya Kaji, Motoki Murai, Hiroaki Itoh, Jyunichiro Yasukawa, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Masayuki Inoue
Lysocin E (1) is a structurally complex 37-membered depsipeptide comprising 12 amino-acid residues with an N-methylated amide and an ester linkage. Compound 1 binds to menaquinone (MK) in the bacterial membrane to exert its potent bactericidal activity. To decipher the biologically important functionalities within this unique antibiotic, we performed a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study by systematically changing the side-chain structures of l-Thr-1, d-Arg-2, N-Me-d-Phe-5, d-Arg-7, l-Glu-8, and d-Trp-10...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bingbing Zong, Wugang Liu, Yanyan Zhang, Xiangru Wang, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
In recent years, extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) has been found to pose a great threat to human and animal health, but its pathogenic mechanism is not fully understood yet. Capsular polysaccharide, an essential virulence factor in these bacteria, can damage the host immune system, and kpsM is a member of the gene cluster responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis. In this study, whole sequence alignment of the virulent strain PCN033 and the attenuated strain PCN061 revealed that kpsM exists in PCN033 but not in PCN061...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Kristin Ciezki, Kristen Murfin, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, S Patricia Stock, Steven Forst
R-type bacteriocins are contractile phage-tail-like structures that are bactericidal towards related bacterial species. The C-terminal region of the phage tail fiber protein determines target-binding specificity. The mutualistic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii produce R-type bacteriocins (xenorhabdicins) that are selectively active against different Xenorhabdus species. We analyzed the P2-type remnant prophage clusters in draft sequences of nine strains of X. bovienii The C-terminal tail fiber region in each of the respective strains was unique and consisted of mosaics of modular units...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Lin Li, Xiaotian Qi, Weili Sun, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Siyue Lou, Hong Zhu, Nemani V Prasadarao, Alice Zhou, Hiroyuki Shimada, Koichi Shudo, Yong-Mi Kim, Sajad Khazal, Qiaojun He, David Warburton, Lingtao Wu
Neutrophils generated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) are functionally immature and, consequently, cannot effectively reduce infection and infection-related mortality in cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CCIN). Am80, a retinoic acid (RA) agonist that enhances granulocytic differentiation by selectively activating transcription factor RA receptor alpha (RARα), alternatively promotes RA-target gene expression. We found that in normal and malignant primary human hematopoietic specimens, Am80-GCSF combination coordinated proliferation with differentiation to develop complement receptor-3 (CR3)-dependent neutrophil innate immunity, through altering transcription of RA-target genes RARβ2, C/EBPε, CD66, CD11b, and CD18 This led to generation of functional neutrophils capable of fighting infection, whereas neutralizing neutrophil innate immunity with anti-CD18 antibody abolished neutrophil bactericidal activities induced by Am80-GCSF Further, Am80-GCSF synergy was evaluated using six different dose-schedule-infection mouse CCIN models...
October 13, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Wanida Phetsang, Ruby Pelingon, Mark S Butler, Sanjaya Kc, Miranda E Pitt, Geraldine Kaeslin, Matthew A Cooper, Mark A T Blaskovich
Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Hajera Amatullah, Yuexin Shan, Brittany L Beauchamp, Patricia L Gali, Sahil Gupta, Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez, Edwin R Speck, Alison E Fox-Robichaud, Jennifer L Y Tsang, Shirley H J Mei, Tak W Mak, Patricia Rm Rocco, John W Semple, Haibo Zhang, Pingzhao Hu, John C Marshall, Duncan J Stewart, Mary-Ellen Harper, Patricia C Liaw, W Conrad Liles, Claudia C Dos Santos
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Effective and rapid bacterial clearance is a fundamental determinant of outcome(s) in sepsis. DJ-1 is a well-established reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. As cellular ROS status is pivotal to inflammation and bacterial killing, we determined the role of DJ-1 in bacterial sepsis. METHODS: We used cell and murine models with gain and loss of function experiments, plasma and cells from septic patients. MEASUREMENTS & RESULTS: Stimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) with endotoxin resulted in increased DJ-1 mRNA and protein expression...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Wei Chen, Bei Li, Shuai Li, Yi-Wen Ou, Qin Ou
<strong>Objective</strong> To explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on activity and biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp).<strong>Methods</strong> The broth and agar dilution Methods were carried out to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis for TW518. VITEK-32 system was used to assay TW518 susceptibility to antibiotics. Kp biofilms were formed in vitro and stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain. The class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression was analyzed with RT-PCR...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Tien-Sheng Tseng, Shih-Han Wang, Ting-Wei Chang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Keng-Chang Tsai, You-Di Liao, Chinpan Chen
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains has become a public health issue and there is an urgent need to develop new anti-infective molecules. Although natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can exert bactericidal activities, they have not shown clinical efficacy. The limitations of native peptides may be overcome with rational design and synthesis. Here, we provide evidence that the bactericidal activity of a synthetic peptide, GW-Q6, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated through outer membrane protein OprI...
2016: PloS One
Vinayak Singh, Stefano Donini, Angela Pacitto, Claudia Sala, Ruben C Hartkoorn, Neeraj Dhar, Gyorgy Keri, David B Ascher, Guillaume Mondésert, Anthony Vocat, Andréanne Lupien, Raphael Sommer, Hélène Vermet, Sophie Lagrange, Joe Buechler, Digby F Warner, John D McKinney, Janos Pato, Stewart T Cole, Tom L Blundell, Menico Rizzi, Valerie Mizrahi
VCC234718, a molecule with growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), was identified by phenotypic screening of a 15344-compound library. Sequencing of a VCC234718-resistant mutant identified a Y487C substitution in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, which was subsequently validated to be the primary molecular target of VCC234718 in Mtb. VCC234718 inhibits Mtb GuaB2 with a Ki of 100 nM and is uncompetitive with respect to IMP and NAD(+). This compound binds at the NAD(+) site, after IMP has bound, and makes direct interactions with IMP; therefore, the inhibitor is by definition uncompetitive...
September 8, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Nitu Bhaskar, Nagarajan Padmavathy, Shubham Jain, Suryasarathi Bose, Bikramjit Basu
Herein, we report the development of a unique architecture by chemically crosslinking the salicylic acid (SA) based poly (anhydride-ester) onto a biodegradable amine functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL), using lactic acid as a spacer. The ester and amide linkages in the SA-PCL polymer, synthesized through melt condensation, were confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic hydrolytic degradation profile exhibited linear degradation kinetics over extended time period (>5 weeks)...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David M Harris, Lou Reinisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Selective killing of pathogens by laser is possible due to the difference in absorption of photon energy by pathogens and host tissues. The optical properties of pathogenic microorganisms are used along with the known optical properties of soft tissues in calculations of the laser-induced thermal response of pathogen colonies embedded in a tissue model. The objective is to define the laser parameters that optimize pathogen destruction and depth of the bactericidal effect...
October 10, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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