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Maxime Lamontagne, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Ma'en Obeidat, Michael H Cho, Brian D Hobbs, Phuwanat Sakornsakolpat, Kim de Jong, H Marike Boezen, David Nickle, Ke Hao, Wim Timens, Maarten van den Berge, Philippe Joubert, Michel Laviolette, Don D Sin, Peter D Paré, Yohan Bossé
Causal genes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain elusive. The current study aims at integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and lung expression quantitative loci (eQTL) data to map COPD candidate causal genes and gain biological insights into the recently discovered COPD susceptibility loci. Two complementary genomic datasets on COPD were studied. First, the lung eQTL dataset which included whole-genome gene expression and genotyping data from 1,038 individuals. Second, the largest COPD GWAS to date from the International COPD Genetics Consortium (ICGC) with 13,710 cases and 38,062 controls...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Brandi R Newsome, Karen McDonnell, Jennifer Hucks, Robin Dawson Estrada
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common smoking-related illness. COPD often is underemphasized as a comorbidity except when considering issues surrounding surgical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to provide nurses with an overview of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment implications of COPD. METHODS: Definitions, differentials, and treatment considerations are provided, and clinical implications and resources are described...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Toby Hunt, Marie T Williams, Timothy S Olds, Dorothea Dumuid
Descriptions of time use patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are scarce and the relationship between use-of-time and COPD severity remains unclear. This study aimed to describe a typical day for people with COPD and to explore the differences in time-use patterns across the Body Mass-Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea and Exercise Capacity (BODE) index using compositional analyses. Using a cross-sectional design, 141 adults with clinically stable COPD had their demographics, objective measures of function (pulmonary, exercise capacity and physical activity), and self-reported COPD-related impairment recorded...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Yves Lacasse, Ai-Yui M Tan, François Maltais, Jerry A Krishnan
Two landmark trials conducted more than 35 years ago provided scientific evidence that, under very specific circumstances, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may prolong life. These two trials enrolled 290 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe daytime hypoxemia documented by direct arterial blood gas measurement. From this moment, LTOT became a standard of care and the indications for oxygen therapy have expanded to include nocturnal oxygen therapy for isolated nocturnal oxygen desaturation, ambulatory oxygen to correct exercise-induced desaturation, and short-burst oxygen to relieve dyspnea...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Martin A Bewley, Richard C Budd, Eilise Ryan, Joby Cole, Paul Collini, Jennifer Marshall, Umme Kolsum, Gussie Beech, Richard D Emes, Irina Tcherniaeva, Guy A M Berbers, Sarah R Walmsley, Gavin Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Iain Kilty, William Rumsey, Yolanda Sanchez, Christopher E Brightling, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Previous studies have identified defects in bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the mechanisms and clinical consequences remain incompletely defined. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of COPD on AM phagocytic responses and identify the mechanisms, clinical consequences and potential for therapeutic manipulation of these defects. METHODS: We isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from a cohort of COPD patients and controls within the MRC COPD-MAP consortium and measured phagocytosis of bacteria in relation to opsonic conditions and clinical features...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Augustine Tee, Wai Leng Chow, Colin Burke, Guruprasad Basavarajaiah
INTRODUCTION: In light of the growing evidence base for better clinical results with the use of the dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) over inhaled corticosteroid-containing salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC), this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of IND/GLY over SFC in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are at low risk of exacerbations in the Singapore healthcare setting. METHODS: A previously published patient-level simulation model was adapted for use in Singapore by applying local unit costs...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Akira Kubo, Masahiro Ishizaka, Yoshiki Takeuchi, Keita Shimura
[Purpose] To understand the effect of increased functional residual capacity (FRC) on the active range of thoracic axial rotation (AROTAR) in healthy young men. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine right-handed healthy male volunteers (age=20.1 ± 1.6 years) participated in this study. A standard plastic goniometer was used to measure the AROTAR in the supine position with both glenohumeral joints fully flexed. AROTAR was recorded at the resting expiration level (REL) and for 4 different FRC levels: 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ml air inhaled at REL...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Chuan-Xing Li, Craig E Wheelock, C Magnus Sköld, Åsa M Wheelock
Rationale: COPD represents an umbrella diagnosis caused by a multitude of underlying mechanisms, and molecular sub-phenotyping is needed to facilitate the development of molecular diagnostic/prognostic tools and efficacious treatments. Objectives: To investigate whether multi-omics integration improves the accuracy of molecular classification of COPD in small cohorts. Measurements and Results: Nine omics data-blocks (mRNA, miRNA, proteomes, metabolomes) collected from several anatomical locations from 52 female subjects were integrated by similarity network fusion (SNF)...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
Research question : It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence. Methods: Localization of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks daily exposed to whole cigarette smoke...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Yuan Ding, Kent A Nielsen, Bruno P Nielsen, Niels W Bøje, Rainer H Müller, Sung Min Pyo
Nicotine, obtained from tobacco leaves, has been used to promote the cessation of smoking and reduce the risk of COPD and lung cancer. Incorporating the active in lipid nanoparticles is an effective tool to minimize its irritation potential and to use the particles as intermediate to produce final products. However, as a hydrophilic active, it is a challenge to prepare nicotine loaded lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading. In this study, lipid-drug-conjugates (LDC) were formed by nicotine and different fatty acids to enable the production of sufficiently loaded nicotine lipid nanoparticles...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Patrick Darken, Paolo DePetrillo, Colin Reisner, Earl St Rose, Paul Dorinsky
The budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) is an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2 -agonist fixed-dose combination formulated with innovative co-suspension delivery technology that is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized, Phase I, single-dose, six-treatment, four-period, crossover study (NCT01980615) examined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profile of three doses of BGF MDI (320/14...
March 12, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yung-Che Chen, Meng-Chih Lin, Chih-Hung Lee, Shih-Feng Liu, Chin-Chou Wang, Wen-Feng Fang, Tung-Ying Chao, Chao-Chien Wu, Yu-Feng Wei, Huang-Chih Chang, Chia-Cheng Tsen, Hung-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in previous studies on macrophage M1/M2 polarization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a marker of efferocytosis and mediator of M1/M2 polarization, may be involved in the development of COPD. METHODS: We examined FPR 1/2/3 expressions of blood M1/M2a monocyte, neutrophil, natural killer (NK) cell, NK T cell, T helper (Th) cell, and T cytotoxic (Tc) cell by flowcytometry method in 40 patients with cigarette smoking-related COPD and 16 healthy non-smokers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Zhengpeng Zeng, ShengYang He, JunJuan Lu, Chun Liu, Hua Lin, ChaoQun Xu, LiHua Xie, ShengHua Sun
MicroRNAs and autophagy play important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to explore the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) induced autophagy in COPD. Using the C57BL/6, miR-21-/- mice and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell line, we found that in the lung tissues of mice, the level of autophagy in the COPD model group was significantly higher than that in the control group. However, compared to the COPD model, the level of autophagy was significantly lower in the miR-21-/- CSE+CS group...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Heather M Young, Fumin Guo, Rachel L Eddy, Geoffrey Maksym, Grace Parraga
Ventilation heterogeneity is a hallmark finding in obstructive lung disease and may be evaluated using a variety of methods including multiple-breath gas-washout and pulmonary imaging. Such methods provide an opportunity to better understand the relationships between structural and functional abnormalities in the lungs, and their relationships with important clinical outcomes. We measured ventilation heterogeneity and respiratory impedance in 100 subjects (50 asthmatics, 22 ex-smokers and 28 COPD), using oscillometry and hyperpolarized3 He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determined their relationships with quality-of-life scores and disease control/exacerbations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Anan Jarab, Eman Alefishat, Tareq Mukattash, Karem Alzoubi, Sharrel Pinto
Background The quality of life has been shown to be poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, patients' perspective and attitudes toward COPD and its impact on their quality of life have been remarkably ignored. Objective To explore patients' views and perceptions regarding COPD and its impact on their quality of life. Setting COPD clinic at the Royal Medical Services Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Method Focus groups discussions to explore patients' views and perceptions about COPD were conducted using purposive sampling technique till data saturation achieved...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Marta Stolarczyk, Bob J Scholte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) share molecular mechanisms that cause the pathological symptoms they have in common. Here, we review evidence suggesting that hyperactivity of the EGFR/ADAM17 axis plays a role in the development of chronic lung disease in both CF and COPD. The ubiquitous transmembrane protease A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) forms a functional unit with the EGF receptor (EGFR), in a feedback loop interaction labeled the ADAM17/EGFR axis. In airway epithelial cells, ADAM17 sheds multiple soluble signaling proteins by proteolysis, including EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG), and proinflammatory mediators such as the interleukin 6 coreceptor (IL-6R)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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