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Ellen Games, Marina Guerreiro, Fernanda R Santana, Nathalia M Pinheiro, Emerson A de Oliveira, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes, Clarice R Olivo, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Mílton A Martins, João Henrique G Lago, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stefano Coiro, Nicolas Girerd, Patrick Rossignol, João Pedro Ferreira, Aldo Maggioni, Bertram Pitt, Isabella Tritto, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Kenneth Dickstein, Faiez Zannad
AIMS: To determine the influence of baseline beta-blocker use on long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI) survivors complicated with heart failure (HF) or with left ventricular dysfunction and with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the 28 771 patients from the High-Risk MI Database Initiative we identified 1573 patients with a baseline history of COPD. We evaluated the association between beta-blocker use at baseline (822 with beta-blocker and 751 without) on the rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Mahnaz Abbasi, Mohammadali Zohal, Banafsheh Atapour, Zohreh Yazdi
Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Proper diagnosis of osteoporosis as a systemic adverse effect of COPD is of significant importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in men suffering from COPD in Qazvin (2014). Methods. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 90 patients with COPD using random sampling. Anthropometric data and results from physical examination were collected...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
Priya Muralidharan, Don Hayes, Stephen M Black, Heidi M Mansour
This systematic and comprehensive study reports for the first time on the successful rational design of advanced inhalable therapeutic dry powders containing dimethyl fumarate, a first-in-class Nrf2 activator drug to treat pulmonary inflammation, using particle engineering design technology for targeted delivery to the lungs as advanced spray dried (SD) one-component DPIs. In addition, two-component co-spray dried (co-SD) DMF:D-Man DPIs with high drug loading were successfully designed for targeted lung delivery as advanced DPIs using organic solution advanced spray drying in closed mode...
2016: Mol Syst Des Eng
John Nixon, Paul Newbold, Tomas Mustelin, Gary P Anderson, Roland Kolbeck
Eosinophils have been linked with asthma for more than a century, but their role has been unclear. This review discusses the roles of eosinophils in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and describes therapeutic antibodies that affect eosinophilia. The aims of pharmacologic treatments for pulmonary conditions are to reduce symptoms, slow decline or improve lung function, and reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in managing symptoms and exacerbations in asthma and COPD...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Jiangquan Yu, Ruiqiang Zheng, Hua Lin, Qihong Chen, Jun Shao, Daxin Wang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of early goal-directed therapy according to the global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with septic shock. METHODS: A total of 71 COPD patients with septic shock were randomly assigned to 2 groups. In the control group (n = 37), fluid resuscitation was performed based on the central venous pressure. In the study group (n = 34), fluid resuscitation was performed until GEDI reached 800 mL/m(2)...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Maria Paula Henao, Timothy J Craig
Alpha-1-antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas Covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert Commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Helena Logotheti, Chryssa Pourzitaki, Georgia Tsaousi, Zoi Aidoni, Artemis Vekrakou, Amaniti Ekaterini, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been associated with major perioperative morbidities or mortalities, especially in surgical patients receiving general anesthesia. The severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity can determine the perioperative anesthetic risk; therefore they have to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation in order to give the rationale on which to decide for optimum anesthetic management. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to assess the predictive applicability of exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in smoking surgical population with COPD, on the basis of morbidity and mortality...
October 19, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Laszlo Kunos, Zsofia Lazar, Fruzsina Martinovszky, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Daniel Kovacs, Bianka Forgo, Peter Horvath, Gyorgy Losonczy, Andras Bikov
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder, characterised by collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on pulmonary function indices is however currently not well described. The aim of the study was to evaluate diurnal change in lung function indices in a cohort of patients with OSA and relate pulmonary function changes to disease severity. METHODS: 42 patients with OSA and 73 healthy control subjects participated in the study...
October 21, 2016: Lung
Lan-Eng Tan, Razak A M, Chor-Shen Lim
Patients with lung cancer often have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of COPD on postresection survival of patients with lung cancer is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of COPD on survival of patients with lung cancer following pulmonary resection. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase until March 2016. Study outcomes were overall survival and pulmonary complication rate (pneumonia, bronchial fistula, and prolonged mechanical ventilation). 6 studies with a total of 3761 patients were included...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Greg Hodge, Eugene Roscioli, Hubertus Jersmann, Hai B Tran, Mark Holmes, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a high-affinity steroid binding conformation, and traffic to the nucleus. We hypothesized a loss of Hsp70/90 from these lymphocytes may further contribute to steroid resistance in COPD...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fernando J Martinez, Jørgen Vestbo, Julie A Anderson, Robert D Brook, Bartolome R Celli, Nicholas J Cowans, Courtney Crim, Mark Dransfield, Sally Kilbride, Julie Yates, David E Newby, Dennis Niewoehner, Peter Ma Calverley
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids have been shown to decrease exacerbations in COPD patients with moderate to severe COPD. Their effect in patients with milder airflow obstruction remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This was an analysis of exacerbations in the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy (SUMMIT) study. DESIGN: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, once daily inhaled placebo, fluticasone furoate (FF, 100 μg), vilanterol (VI, 25 μg) or the combination (FF/VI) was administered...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
J R Baker, C Vuppusetty, T Colley, Andriana I Papaioannou, P Fenwick, Louise Donnelly, K Ito, P J Barnes
Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and SIRT6, NAD(+)-dependent Class III protein deacetylases, are putative anti-aging enzymes, down-regulated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by the accelerated ageing of the lung and associated with increased oxidative stress. Here, we show that oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) selectively elevates microRNA-34a (miR-34a) but not the related miR-34b/c, with concomitant reduction of SIRT1/-6 in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B), which was also observed in peripheral lung samples from patients with COPD...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoonki Hong, You-Sun Kim, Seok-Ho Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice...
October 21, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan Harper, Neil Derek Eves
COPD is associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and large increases in negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP). The individual and interactive effect of these stressors on left ventricular (LV) filling, emptying and geometry, and the role of direct ventricular interaction (DVI) in mediating these interactions have not been fully elucidated. Twenty healthy subjects were exposed to the following stressors alone and in combination: 1) inspiratory resistive loading of -20 cmH2O (nITP), 2) expiratory resistive loading to cause dynamic hyperinflation (DH), and 3) normobaric-hypoxia to increase PVR (hPVR)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Josefin Sundh, Scott Montgomery, Mikael Hasselgren, Mary Kämpe, Christer Janson, Björn Ställberg, Karin Lisspers
Health status is a prognostic factor included in the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to examine the associations of clinical factors with change in health status over a 7-year follow-up period. In 2005, 970 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis completed questionnaires including the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ); and in 2012, 413 completed the CCQ questionnaire again. Linear regression used difference in mean total CCQ score between 2005 and 2012 as the dependent variable...
October 20, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
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