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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214911/-risk-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-treated-with-inhaled-corticosteroids-evidence-and-uncertainties
#1
Cristoforo Incorvaia, Bruna Gritti, Irene Martignago, Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza, Erminia Ridolo
A large number of studies, evaluated by several meta-analyses, indicate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated with inhaled corticosteroids have a significantly increased risk of pneumonia which, however, is not associated with a corresponding increase in mortality. The increased risk seems to be exclusive of COPD, since meta-analyses involving patients with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids did not show a risk of pneumonia higher than that of the general population...
November 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214877/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Jo-Maree Courtney, Patricia L Spafford
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits that understanding EMT may bring to the field of chronic respiratory disease...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214275/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-by-nested-pcr-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#3
Cristina Rodrigues Santos, Ângela M de Assis, Edson A Luz, Luzia Lyra, Ivan F Toro, José Claudio C Seabra, Dira H Daldin, Tathiane U Marcalto, Marcos T Galasso, Ronaldo F Macedo, Angélica Z Schreiber, Francisco H Aoki
BACKGROUND: Nested PCR can be used to determine the status of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in other lung diseases. AIMS: This study sought to detect a target DNA fragment (mitochondrial large subunit rRNA or mtL SUrRNA) of P. jirovecii in patients with lung disease who underwent bronchoscopy with collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: The results from toluidine blue staining were compared with those obtained using molecular methods that included an "in house" DNA extraction procedure, PCR and nested PCR...
February 14, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214201/up-regulation-of-pim-3-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients-and-its-potential-therapeutic-role-in-copd-rat-modeling
#4
Cheng Yang, Li Li, Junhua Guo, Weiqiang Zhang, Wenbiao Zhu, Xinhui Rao, Wenjie Huang
BACKGROUND: Pim-3 belongs to the PIM kinase family and plays an important role in promoting inflammation, which is essential in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were performed to assess the expression of Pim-3 in both COPD and healthy lung tissue samples. SMA (Smooth Muscle Actin) and Cyclin D1 expression were detected by IHC. We also constructed animal models for the control, COPD, and Pim-3 inhibition groups, in order to analyze the effects of Pim-3 inhibition on COPD, and the role of Pim-3 in the p38 pathway...
January 29, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213785/passive-smoking-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mortality-findings-from-the-japan-collaborative-cohort-study
#5
Shigekazu Ukawa, Akiko Tamakoshi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Masahiko Ando, Hiroyasu Iso
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the association between passive smoking at home and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality via a large-scale nationwide cohort study in Japan. METHODS: Never smokers (n = 34,604) aged 40-79 years at baseline (1988-1990; 4884 men, 29,720 women) were included in the analysis. Passive smoking at home was measured based on self-reported frequency of weekly exposure to passive smoking at home. An inverse probability of treatment-weighted competing risk model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for COPD mortality...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#6
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212991/different-histological-subtypes-of-peripheral-lung-cancer-based-on-emphysema-distribution-in-patients-with-both-airflow-limitation-and-ct-determined-emphysema
#7
Beomsu Shin, Sumin Shin, Myung Jin Chung, Hyun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Hojoong Kim, Hye Yun Park
The histological subtypes by peripheral tumor location remain uncharacterized in COPD patients with emphysema. We investigated histologic subtypes of peripheral lung cancers based on the context of heterogeneous emphysema distribution in patients with airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 754 patients with airflow limitation and newly-diagnosed primary lung cancers from February 2013 to February 2015. Of these, 230 patients had emphysema, as determined by computed tomography software designed to quantify emphysema...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212957/a-systematic-review-of-health-economics-simulation-models-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
REVIEW
Zafar Zafari, Stirling Bryan, Don D Sin, Tania Conte, Rahman Khakban, Mohsen Sadatsafavi
BACKGROUND: Many decision-analytic models with varying structures have been developed to inform resource allocation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To review COPD models for their adherence to the best practice modeling recommendations and their assumptions regarding important aspects of the natural history of COPD. METHODS: A systematic search of English articles reporting on the development or application of a decision-analytic model in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and citations within reviewed articles...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212954/evaluation-of-copd-treatments-a-multicriteria-decision-analysis-of-aclidinium-and-tiotropium-in-the-united-states
#9
Kevin Marsh, Erica Zaiser, Panagiotis Orfanos, Suzanne Salverda, Teresa Wilcox, Shawn Sun, Shailja Dixit
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of the use of aclidinium bromide and tiotropium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often concentrate on key end points (exacerbations) at the expense of other benefits and risks. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) can help overcome this by using stakeholder preferences to combine multiple end points into an overall value estimate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of aclidinium bromide twice daily via Pressair™ (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE) and of tiotropium once daily via HandiHaler(®) (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#10
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212436/antibody-deficiency-in-patients-with-frequent-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#11
Brian N McCullagh, Alejandro P Comellas, Zuhair K Ballas, John D Newell, M Bridget Zimmerman, Antoine E Azar
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with periodic exacerbations, which account for the largest proportion of health care utilization, and lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and worsening lung function. A subset of patients with COPD have frequent exacerbations, occurring 2 or more times per year. Despite many interventions to reduce COPD exacerbations, there is a significant lack of knowledge in regards to their mechanisms and predisposing factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212273/oxidative-stress-in-copd-sources-markers-and-potential-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Adam John Anthony McGuinness, Elizabeth Sapey
Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212205/spontaneous-breathing-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#13
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Giulia Maria Ruggeri, Elena Spinelli, Daniela Tubiolo, Alfredo Lissoni, Alessandro Protti, Luciano Gattinoni
BACKGROUND: We evaluate the clinical feasibility of spontaneous breathing on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the interactions between artificial and native lungs in patients bridged to lung transplant or with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: The clinical course of a total of 48 patients was analyzed. Twenty-three of 48 patients were enrolled in the prospective study (nine bridged to lung transplant, six COPD, and eight acute respiratory distress syndrome)...
February 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211555/personality-traits-level-of-anxiety-and-styles-of-coping-with-stressin-people-with-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-comparative-analysis
#14
Klaudia Tabała, Magdalena Wrzesińska, Patryk Stecz, Józef Kocur
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are a challenge to public health, with the sufferers experiencing a range of psychological factors affecting their health and behavior. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of anxiety, personality traits and stress-coping ability of patients with obstructive lung disease and comparison with a group of healthy controls. METHODS: The research was conducted on a group of 150 people with obstructive lung diseases (asthma and COPD) and healthy controls (mean age = 56...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210321/telemedicine-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Nicolino Ambrosino, Guido Vagheggini, Stefano Mazzoleni, Michele Vitacca
: Telemedicine is a medical application of advanced technology to disease management. This modality may provide benefits also to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Different devices and systems are used. The legal problems associated with telemedicine are still controversial. Economic advantages for healthcare systems, though potentially high, are still poorly investigated. A European Respiratory Society Task Force has defined indications, follow-up, equipment, facilities, legal and economic issues of tele-monitoring of COPD patients including those undergoing home mechanical ventilation...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209999/activating-primary-care-copd-patients-with-multi-morbidity-apcom-pilot-project-study-protocol
#16
Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Zwar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209421/-reducing-smoking-by-half-in-copd-patients-does-it-reduce-fev1-decline
#17
EDITORIAL
G Peiffer, J Perriot, M Underner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209040/-establishment-and-application-effect-appraisement-of-community-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-integrated-management-system
#18
D X Zhao, S Y Chen, Y M Zhou, X C Li, W F Zou, X M Chen, P X Ran
Objective: To establish the COPD community integrated management system suitable for our national situation and assess its effects in the prevention and treatment for COPD. Methods: The COPD community integrated management system based on the electronic management system was established, including the functional modules of preliminary screening for COPD, electronic health record, grading management and dual referral system, ect. Two townships were randomly selected from the rural areas in north Guangdong as Observational Community and Control Community, respectively...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209039/-the-value-of-fractionated-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-the-diagnosis-of-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-syndrome
#19
D D Deng, A Y Zhou, Q C Shuang, P Chen
Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). Methods: Eighty-one patients with ACOS, 76 patients with asthma, 82 patients with COPD and 39 healthy non-smoking subjects were recruited in the study. Naku Lun breath analyzer was used to measure the level of FeNO in the 4 groups. Pulmonary function was also measured. The ROC curve was used to differentiate ACOS from patients with COPD...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209038/-a-comparison-of-leak-compensation-in-six-acute-care-ventilators-during-non-invasive-ventilation
#20
X S Hu, Y Wang, Z T Wang, P Yan, X G Zhang, S F Zhao, F Xie, H J Gu, L X Xie
Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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