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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793213/end-stage-renal-disease-models-in-the-americas-optimizing-resources-to-achieve-better-health-outcomes
#1
Ramiro E Gilardino, Eduardo González-Pier, Claudia Brabata
End-stage renal disease, the last and most severe stage of chronic kidney disease, represents a major and rising concern for countries in Latin America, driven in large part by aging populations and the near-epidemic rises in diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. This places a great clinical, economic, and social burden on the region's health systems. During the ISPOR 6th Latin America Conference held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in September 2017, an educational forum debated on value-based decision making in the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Latin America...
May 21, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793198/assessment-of-cu-sub-lethal-toxicity-lc-50-in-the-cold-water-gorgonian-dentomuricea-meteor-under-a-deep-sea-mining-activity-scenario
#2
Inês Martins, António Godinho, Joana Goulart, Marina Carreiro-Silva
Previous aquaria-based experiments have shown dissolution and leaching of metals, especially copper (Cu), from the simulated sediment plumes generated during mining activities resulting in a pronounced increase of Cu contamination in the surrounding seawater. Metals are bioavailable to corals with food, through ingestion (particulate phase) and through tissue-facilitated transport (passive diffusion). With corals being particularly vulnerable to metal contamination, resuspension of metal-bearing sediments during mining activities represents an important ecological threat...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793196/seasonal-cycles-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-tracers-in-rural-guangzhou-southern-china-the-importance-of-atmospheric-oxidants
#3
Qi Yuan, Senchao Lai, Junwei Song, Xiang Ding, Lishan Zheng, Xinming Wang, Yan Zhao, Junyu Zheng, Dingli Yue, Liuju Zhong, Xiaojun Niu, Yingyi Zhang
Thirteen secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers of isoprene (SOAI ), monoterpenes (SOAM ), sesquiterpenes (SOAS ) and aromatics (SOAA ) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at a Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional site for one year. The characteristics including their seasonal cycles and the factors influencing their formation in this region were studied. The seasonal patterns of SOAI , SOAM and SOAS tracers were characterized over three enhancement periods in summer (I), autumn (II) and winter (III), while the elevations of SOAA tracer (i...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793183/environmental-radionuclides-as-contaminants-of-hpge-gamma-ray-spectrometers-monte-carlo-simulations-for-modane-underground-laboratory
#4
R Breier, V B Brudanin, P Loaiza, F Piquemal, P P Povinec, E Rukhadze, N Rukhadze, I Štekl
The main limitation in the high-sensitive HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry has been the detector background, even for detectors placed deep underground. Environmental radionuclides such as 40 K and decay products in the 238 U and 232 Th chains have been identified as the most important radioactive contaminants of construction parts of HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that the massive inner and outer lead shields have been the main contributors to the HPGe-detector background, followed by aluminum cryostat, copper cold finger, detector holder and the lead ring with FET...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793173/ag-nanoparticles-loading-of-polypyrrole-coated-superwetting-mesh-for-on-demand-separation-of-oil-water-mixtures-and-catalytic-reduction-of-aromatic-dyes
#5
Sun Yihan, Liu Mingming, Zhiguang Guo
Herein, a catalytic mesh with unique wettability, high oil-water separation efficiency and excellent catalytic performance towards aromatic dyes was fabricated. Polypyrrole (PPy) was firstly pre-coated on pristine stainless-steel mesh (SSM) surface via cyclic voltammetry approach. Subsequently, a simple electrodeposition process was performed to prepare and anchor Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto the PPy-coated SSM surface. The PPy-coated mesh with anchored AgNPs was denoted as PPy/AgNPs-coated SSM. The obtained PPy/AgNPs-coated SSM exhibited dual superlyophobic properties and were able to achieve on-demand separation to deal with various of light oil (ρoil  < ρwater ) and heavy oil (ρoil  > ρwater )-water mixtures...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793164/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-alcohol-problems-variation-across-etiological-pathways-in-genetic-risk
#6
Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793160/water-footprint-characteristic-of-less-developed-water-rich-regions-case-of-yunnan-china
#7
Yiying Qian, Huijuan Dong, Yong Geng, Shaozhuo Zhong, Xu Tian, Yanhong Yu, Yihui Chen, Dana Avery Moss
Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#8
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793155/lessons-from-mosquitoes-painless-piercing
#9
Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793154/juvenile-treatment-with-mglur2-3-agonist-prevents-schizophrenia-like-phenotypes-in-adult-by-acting-through-gsk3%C3%AE
#10
Bo Xing, Genie Han, Min-Juan Wang, Melissa A Snyder, Wen-Jun Gao
Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model...
May 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#11
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793144/structural-confirmation-and-spectroscopic-study-of-a-biomolecule-norepinephrine
#12
T Yadav, V Mukherjee
The present work deals with the conformational and vibrational spectroscopic study of an important bio-molecule named norepinephrine in gas phase. The FTIR and FTRaman spectrum of norepinephrine in amorphous form were recorded in wavenumber range 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. We have investigated twenty-seven stable conformational structures of norepinephrine molecule. All the calculations have been done using Density Functional Theory with exchange functional B3LYP incorporated with the 6-31++G(d, p) basis set...
May 21, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793140/effectiveness-of-a-voluntary-family-befriending-service-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-using-the-donabedian-model
#13
S V Gentry, E F J Powers, N Azim, M Maidrag
OBJECTIVES: Voluntary befriending schemes operate in many countries, promoting public health by supporting vulnerable individuals and families. Use of third sector and voluntary services to complement health and social care provision is increasingly important globally in the context of economic and demographic challenges, but the evidence base around such collaborations is limited. This article reports the results of operational evaluation research seeking to use robust routine work to generate transferable findings for use by those commissioning and providing services...
May 21, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793130/anxiety-memories-and-coping-in-patients-undergoing-intracranial-tumor-surgery
#14
Tom J van Ark, Markus Klimek, Peter de Smalen, Arnaud J P E Vincent, Robert Jan Stolker
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis and the surgical removal of a brain tumor can have serious impact on the quality of life of a patient. The question rises, whether having more or just less memories of the procedure is better for coping with such an event. Furthermore, for preoperative information of future patients it is important to know how patients process their emotions and memories. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the link between preoperative anxiety, the perioperative experience and the quantity and quality of postoperative memories in patients who underwent intracranial tumor surgery...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793121/head-coaches-attitudes-towards-injury-prevention-and-use-of-related-methods-in-professional-basketball-a-survey
#15
J Wilke, D Niederer, L Vogt, W Banzer
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the practices and attitudes of professional basketball head coaches towards injury prevention. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Elite-level basketball. PARTICIPANTS: Head coaches of all 366 German professional teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of injury risk screening methods, rated importance of different musculoskeletal injuries and rated effectiveness of preventive interventions...
April 17, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793113/assessment-of-the-risk-of-antiangiogenic-agents-before-and-after-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Christina E Bailey, Alexander A Parikh
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of numerous solid tumor types, and thus, antiangiogenic agents have been studied for many years as potential therapeutic agents. Many different antiangiogenic agents, including monoclonal antibodies and multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have been approved for various oncology indications, and promising clinical activity has been demonstrated. However, some of these agents have also been associated with serious safety concerns...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793108/manganese-contamination-affects-the-motor-performance-of-wild-northern-quolls-dasyurus-hallucatus
#17
Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Skye F Cameron, Amanda C Niehaus, Christofer J Clemente, Frank A von Hippel, Robbie S Wilson
Neuromotor deficits are an important sign of manganese (Mn) toxicity in humans and laboratory animals. However, the impacts of Mn exposure on the motor function of wild animals remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the impact of chronic exposure to Mn from active mining operations on Groote Eylandt, Australia on the motor function of the semi-arboreal northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), an endangered species. The three motor tests conducted-maximum sprint speed on a straight run, manoeuvrability around a corner, and motor control on a balance beam-showed that elevated Mn body burden did not diminish performance of these traits...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793101/-survey-of-wellbeing-of-young-children-swyc-how-does-it-fit-for-screening-developmental-delay-in-brazilian-children-aged-4-to-58-months
#18
R S Moreira, L C Magalhães, C M Siqueira, C R L Alves
OBJECTIVE: To replicate the original normative study of the SWYC's Milestones Questionnaires for children in Brazil. Our goals were to compare the performance of Brazilian and North American children using this screening tool and to verify the reliability and validity of the Brazilian version. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with children aged 1-65 months and their guardians, recruited in southern Brazil. Parents were interviewed using the Developmental Milestones questionnaire, which contains 10 questions about cognitive, motor, social, and language abilities...
May 21, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793095/sex-hormones-affect-acute-and-chronic-stress-responses-in-sexually-dimorphic-patterns-consequences-for-depression-models
#19
Lei Guo, Yi-Xi Chen, Yu-Ting Hu, Xue-Yan Wu, Yang He, Juan-Li Wu, Man-Li Huang, Matthew Mason, Ai-Min Bao
BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules...
May 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793094/effects-of-chronic-antipsychotic-drug-exposure-on-the-expression-of-translocator-protein-and-inflammatory-markers-in-rat-adipose-tissue
#20
Anita Calevro, Marie-Caroline Cotel, Sridhar Natesan, Michel Modo, Anthony C Vernon, Valeria Mondelli
The precise effect of antipsychotic drugs on either central or peripheral inflammation remains unclear. An important issue in this debate is to what extent the known peripheral metabolic effects of antipsychotics, including increased adiposity, may contribute to increased inflammation. Adipose tissue is known to contribute to the development of systemic inflammation, which can eventually lead to insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. As a first step to address this question, we evaluated whether chronic exposure to clinically comparable doses of haloperidol or olanzapine resulted in the immune activation of rat adipose tissue...
May 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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